Romania: Situation and treatment of Roma, including ability to access housing, employment, education, and healthcare; state protection; impact of COVID-19 (2019–July 2021) [ROU200706.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Roma Population

Romania's [most recent (bne IntelliNews 23 Feb. 2021)] population and housing census, conducted in 2011, reports that 621,600 respondents or 3.3 percent of the population indicated that they are Roma (Romania 4 July 2013). However, a 2015 report by the Council of Europe's Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Roma Issues (CAHROM) estimates that Romania's Roma population is 1.8 million or "close to" 9 percent of the population (Council of Europe 2015, 19). An April 2020 Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) article indicates that there are an estimated 600,000 to 1 million Roma in Romania (RFE/RL 16 Apr. 2020). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a researcher, who is also an editor, and the Inspector for Public Relations at the Romanian Institute for Human Rights [1] (Institutul Român pentru Drepturile Omului, IRDO), speaking on their own behalf, stated that according to findings of Project INTERSECT [2], there are "almost" 2 million Roma in Romania (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

2. Legislation

Romania's criminal code provides the following regarding crimes motivated by race or ethnicity:

Art. 77

Aggravating circumstances

The following constitute aggravating circumstances:

h) the offense was committed for reasons related to race, nationality[,] ethnicity, language[,] gender, sexual orientation, political opinion or allegiance, wealth, social origin, age, disability, chronic non-contagious disease or HIV/SIDA infection, or for other reasons of the same type, considered by the offender to cause the inferiority of an individual from other individuals.

Art. 78

Effects of aggravating circumstances

In case aggravating circumstances exist, sentencing can go up to the special maximum. If the special maximum is insufficient, in the case of a prison sentence an additional up to 2 years can be added that cannot exceed one-third of the maximum, and in the case of a fine one-third of the special maximum can be added at most.

Art. 369

Instigation to hatred or discrimination

Instigation of the public, using any means, to hatred or discrimination against a category of individuals shall be punishable by no less than 6 months and no more than 3 years of imprisonment or by a fine. (Romania 2009, bold text in original)

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, an official from the Embassy of Romania in Ottawa sent a response prepared by the Romanian government with information provided by the National Agency for Roma, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection, the Ministry of Education and the Department for Interethnic Relations, indicated that in January 2015 Romania's government adopted the Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Social Inclusion of the Romanian Citizens Belonging to the Roma Minority 2015-2020, which "covered the following topics: legal framework and policies, education, employment, health, housing and small infrastructure, culture, social services and anti-discrimination" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The same source noted that the Department for Interethnic Relations (DIR) carried out activities and projects in 2020 to "promote the ethnic, linguistic and cultural identity of citizens belonging to the Roma minority, as well as other activities that contribute to the implementation of the Strategy" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The source indicated that the Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Social Inclusion of the Romanian Citizens Belonging to the Roma Minority 2021-2027 is "in its final stages of adoption" and the new strategy "includes measures to accelerate Roma integration, prevent and eliminate segregation, taking into account the gender dimension and situation of young Roma" and will also create ways to monitor Roma integration measures (Romania 28 Apr. 2021).

A December 2020 article by Balkan Insight, a news website covering Southern and Eastern Europe operated by the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) [3] (BIRN n.d.a), reports that on 15 December 2020 Romania's parliament adopted "a law that will punish anti-Roma 'verbal or physical' actions" with prison sentences ranging from three months to ten years (BIRN 16 Dec. 2020). A January 2021 article by JURIST, a legal news website based at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law that publishes articles written by law students, law professors, and practicing lawyers (JURIST n.d.), reports that in January 2021 Romania's president approved legislation which is intended to "'prevent and combat' hate crimes against the Roma community" and introduces offences, including article 6 "which states that those found guilty of 'initiating or constituting' an anti-Roma organization will face up to 10 years' imprisonment" (JURIST 8 Jan. 2021). The response sent by the embassy official indicated that the law on measures to prevent and combat anti-Roma treatment came into force on 8 January 2021 (Romania 28 Apr. 2021).

The law on measures to prevent and combat anti-Roma treatment provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 3. - Actions by a person consisting in promoting, in public, in any way, antigypsy ideas, conceptions or doctrines represent an offence and shall be punished by imprisonment from 3 months to 3 years and by prohibition of certain rights.

Art. 4. - Distribution of antigypsy materials or putting the same at the disposal of the public, through any news and information media, represents an offence and shall be punished by imprisonment from one year to 5 years.

Art. 5. - (1) Production, sale, spread, as well as possession with an intention to spread, of antigypsy symbols represent an offence and shall be punished by imprisonment from 3 months to 3 years and by prohibition of certain rights.

Art. 6. - (1) The inception or the establishment of an organization that is antigypsy by its character, as well as the membership in or any form of support to such a group, represent an offence punishable by imprisonment from 3 to 10 years and by prohibition of certain rights. (2) If the actions described in paragraph (1) were accompanied by committing an offence, the rules of competition of offences shall apply. (3) The persons having committed the actions described in paragraph (1) shall not be punished, if they denounce to the authorities the existence of the organization before it was uncovered and before any of the offences constituting the purpose of the group began to be committed.3 (4) If the person who has committed one of the actions described in the paragraphs (1) and (2) enables, in the course of the criminal prosecution, the discovery of the truth and the bringing to criminal responsibility of one or several members of an organized criminal group, the special limits of the punishment shall be reduced by a half. (Romania 2020)

Information on the implementation of Romanian legislation was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The response sent by the embassy official noted that the National Agency for Roma (NAR) monitors mass media and notifies the National Council on Combating Discrimination of cases of hate speech (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The same source indicated that cases of discrimination are "promptly dealt with in court or by the Ombudsperson," who has one deputy specializing in the rights of national minorities (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations indicated that national authorities have demonstrated an "interest in countering extreme forms of discrimination" and have taken steps to develop a strategy for the prevention of anti-Semitism, xenophobia, radicalization, and hate speech (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). However, they noted that there are "deficiencies" in the implementation of the government's strategies and legislation and added that "due to negative perceptions and social stereotypes applied in relation to the Roma minority, hate crimes persist" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). They explained that issues with implementation "are generally caused by bureaucracy, stereotypes, and the conservative nationalistic mentalities of some of the public servants" and noted that "[s]ometimes there is a lack of information" in Roma communities and "few" Roma are aware of support organizations, equality bodies, legislation, and campaigns focusing on discrimination (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

3. Access to Employment, Education, Health Care, and Housing

Information on access to employment, education, health care and housing was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The 2021 Freedom House annual report indicates that Roma "face discrimination in education, employment, medical service provision, and other areas" (Freedom House 3 Mar. 2021, Sec. F4). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations indicated that NGOs "reported that Roma were not allowed in or served in certain public spaces," "have reduced access to government services," and that the "lack of identity documents prevented many Roma from participating in elections, receiving social assistance, accessing health insurance, obtaining property documents and entering the labour market" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). They also noted that according to Roma rights activists, "most" of the people in Romania who do not have identity documents are "Roma who cannot obtain legal identity documents because they have lived in settlements and informal housing" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

3.1 Access to Employment

The response sent by the embassy official noted that a major barrier for employment is the low educational level of Roma (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The same source noted that cases of "prejudice" in the labour market against Roma "have been reported occasionally" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations noted that Roma have "few employment opportunities" and that the "unemployment rate among Roma has been high" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

3.2 Access to Education

The response sent by the embassy official indicated that "around 3,500 seats are reserved yearly for Roma students in the upper-secondary and higher education system" and the study of the Romani language "is accessible" at the school and university level (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The same source noted that in 2019, the National Committee for Desegregation and Educational Inclusion (NCDEI) was created under the Ministry of Education and it is responsible for the implementation of the action plan for the desegregation of schools (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations indicated that "[d]espite an order from the Ministry of Education banning the segregation of Roma students, several NGOs continued to report that segregation on ethnic grounds continued to exist in schools" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

3.3 Access to Health Care

According to the response sent by the embassy official, "[g]iven that the national public health system is open to all, the persons belonging to the Roma minority have unrestricted access to it" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). A 2020 report by the Roma Initiatives Office of the Open Society Foundations [4] on Roma and COVID-19 notes that 54 percent of Roma in Romania have health insurance (Open Society Foundations Apr. 2020, 4). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations stated that Roma have "inadequate access to medical services" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

3.4 Access to Housing

The information in the following paragraph was provided in the response sent by the embassy official:

There is "large" variation in the "housing conditions" of Roma. According to a 2019 study by the Romanian Institute for Evaluation and Strategy, 58 percent of Roma "have private properties with documents," compared to 87 percent of all Romanians. 32 percent of Roma live in "unhealthy households (with a leaky roof, damp walls or rot in the window frames or on the floor)," 16.5 percent inhabit "buildings considered unsafe to live in," and 30.3 percent inhabit "buildings that are in a state of visible deterioration" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The government response noted that "[t]he issue of informal settlements is one of deep concern for the Romanian central and local authorities" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021).

4. Treatment of Roma
4.1 Treatment by Society

A 2019 country report by the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), the Council of Europe's independent human rights monitoring body (Council of Europe n.d.), states that "the negative public perception of Roma is commonplace in Romania" (Council of Europe 5 June 2019, para. 66). The IRDO Researcher and the Inspector for Public Relations stated that "[d]iscrimination against Roma continues to be a serious problem" and also noted that the "level of social rejection of the Roma minority is among the highest of all groups vulnerable to discrimination" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). The 2021 Fundamental Rights Report by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) indicates that according to a survey conducted by the Romanian Institute for Evaluation and Strategies, seven out of ten people in Romania do not trust Roma, and two out of three Romanians "believe that Roma are dangerous" (EU 10 June 2021, 126, 141).

According to sources, "Roma continue to experience systemic discrimination" (Amnesty International 7 Apr. 2021, 301) or "face social exclusion and discrimination" (Bertelsmann Stiftung 2020, 7).

4.2 Treatment by Authorities

The Amnesty International 2020/2021 annual report indicates that "some" Roma "faced excessive use of force and ill-treatment by police" (Amnesty International 7 Apr. 2021, 301). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations stated that "Roma groups complained that there has been brutality and harassment by the police, including beatings" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

An April 2020 Balkan Insight article reports that video footage was recorded of Romanian police officers in the town of Bolintin Vale, in Giurgiu province in Southern Romania, "shouting at a group of rounded-up Roma men lying on the ground while an officer repeatedly beats one of them" (BIRN 24 Apr. 2020). Similarly, a June 2020 Amnesty International report on the enforcement of COVID-19 measures in Europe indicates that on 18 April 2020, media reported that in a Roma settlement in Bolintin Vale "the police physically abused eight Roma men as they lay handcuffed on the ground" (Amnesty International 24 June 2020, 25). The same source reports that in reaction to public pressure from media attention on the incident, the Prosecutor opened a criminal investigation into the case and the Minister of the Interior terminated the head of the Bolintin Vale police, who had commanded the operation (Amnesty International 24 June 2020, 25). The report also states that on 30 April 2020 human rights activists and media reported that in Ferentari, a Roma neighbourhood in Bucharest, police officers chased "several young Roma who were at the entrance of a block of flats and sprayed tear gas in the hallways and in some homes" (Amnesty International 24 June 2020, 25).

4.3 COVID-19 and Treatment of Roma

A September 2020 report by the FRA on the impact of COVID-19 on Roma during the period from 1 March to 30 June 2020 indicates that "[c]ertain" politicians "used media reports of mass returns of Roma migrant workers from countries with a high prevalence of COVID-19 to fan fears about its spread" and that "[t]his has reinforced negative attitudes and stereotypes" (EU 29 Sept. 2020, 27). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations noted that in March and April 2020, "some local government officials publicly stated that Roma in particular were spreading COVID-19, encouraging [negative] attitudes against the Roma ethnic group" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). The Amnesty International 2020/2021 report notes that "[h]uman rights groups and NGOs raised concerns about Roma being scapegoated during the pandemic" and that human rights groups and NGOs "denounced 'the rise of hate speech and racism' targeting Roma in mass media and social media, especially by opinion leaders and public figures" (Amnesty International 7 Apr. 2021, 301). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations indicated that "[t]he media regularly claimed that ethnic Roma had not complied with home quarantine measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). The Open Society Foundations report indicates that there was "fake news" spread on social media that blamed Roma for the COVID-19 pandemic (Open Society Foundations Apr. 2020, 7).

The June 2020 Amnesty International report indicates that during Romania's state of emergency, which was in place from 19 March to 14 May 2020, NGOs and the media reported "allegations of ill-treatment of Roma by the police" (Amnesty International 24 June 2020, 25). A September 2020 report by the European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) [5] on Roma rights during the COVID-19 pandemic indicates that the ERRC "recorded a number of violent attacks on Romani communities, which included disproportionate use of force, tear gassing women and children, inhumane and degrading treatment of detained persons, and police attempts to prevent NGOs delivering humanitarian aid" (ERRC Sept. 2020, 35).

The FRA report indicates that there were mass-media reports on 18 March 2020 of an incident in Bujoreni, Valcea County, where Roma individuals returning to Romania "were attacked for allegedly violating self-isolation measures" (EU 29 Sept. 2020, 27).

The September 2020 ERRC report indicates that COVID-19 emergency measures "disproportionate[ly]" impacted Roma communities (ERRC Sept. 2020, 39). The same source notes that restrictions on freedom of movement impacted Roma day labourers who depend on the "casual economy" and were unable to travel and earn income (ERRC Sept. 2020, 39). The report indicates that the move to online and telephone medical services made it difficult for Roma to access health care, particularly those who do not have digital skills or online connectivity (ERRC Sept. 2020, 39).

The Amnesty International 2020/2021 report states that a study by the NGO Caritas Romania Confederation [6], on difficulties faced by children from vulnerable groups while gaining access to remote learning during the lockdown from March to June 2020, indicates that Roma children were "among the worst affected" (Amnesty International 7 Apr. 2021, 302). Similarly, the September 2020 ERRC report notes that the move to online learning was "problematic for Romanic children from marginalized communities" because lack of connectivity, devices, and digital skills "left many of the most vulnerable effectively without access to education" (ERRC Sept. 2020, 40).

The response sent by the embassy official noted that during the COVID-19 pandemic NAR "has taken concrete measures aimed at providing access to health services for the members of the Roma community who are particularly vulnerable due to their socio-economic situation" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). The same source noted that NAR has increased its "monitoring activities" and that an information campaign about COVID-19, including in the Romani language, "has been undertaken in Roma communities throughout Romania" (Romania 28 Apr. 2021). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

5. State Protection

Information on state protection was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations stated that "[i]n general" complaints by Roma "are taken seriously but there is a low rate of complaints" and "[m]any Roma manifest distrust in authorities due to forced evictions and abuse" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021). A 31 March 2021 article published on BIRN's Reporting Democracy [7] website states that according to activists, "the Romanian justice system tended to rule in favour [of] the police, particularly in cases brought by the Roma" (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The same source reports that this has "deterred the country's Roma citizens from filing complaints" (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The BIRN article also notes that according to a Bucharest-based lawyer and human rights monitor for the ERRC, "[o]fficers enjoy 'historic protections' when they take action against the Roma" and "[t]he police know that in the past, when they abused the Roma, nothing happened'" (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The same source cites the Bucharest-based lawyer as indicating that a "lack of faith in the courts" is one of "many" factors impeding access to justice for Roma (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The BIRN article also notes that according to the Bucharest-based lawyer, Roma are "[t]ypically poor and under-educated" and "may also lack the means and the basic awareness to pursue litigation" and "[a]s a result, activists have played a pivotal role in pursuing justice on behalf of Roma citizens" (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The same source reports that according to an activist for the Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies (Romani CRISS), a Romanian Roma rights organization (RomArchive n.d.), it is "very difficult" to win cases against the police "given the system's bias towards the police" (BIRN 31 Mar. 2021). The IRDO Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations noted that Romani CRISS stated that 44 cases of police brutality against Roma that occurred in the last 13 years did not lead to national convictions, "often because prosecutors did not file cases in court" (Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations 26 July 2021).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Notes

[1] The Romanian Institute for Human Rights (Institutul Român pentru Drepturile Omului, IRDO) is an independent human rights body and is "the first national human rights institution created in Romania after 1989" (IRDO n.d.).

[2] Project INTERSECT is a project that aims to combat discrimination against Roma by raising awareness, empowering Roma at the local level, monitoring policies that impact Roma, and supporting Roma and pro-Roma civil society organizations at the local level (CLR n.d.a). Project INTERSECT is coordinated by the Centre for Legal Resources (CLR), an NGO created by the Open Society Foundations which "advocates for the establishment and operation of a legal and institutional framework that safeguards the observance of human rights and equal opportunities, free access to fair justice" (CLR n.d.b). Project INTERSECT is implemented by the Equality and Human Rights Action Centre (ACTEDO), MozaiQ LGBT Association, and the Association Civic Union of Young Roma from Romania (UCTRR) (CLR n.d.a).

[3] The Balkan Investigative Network (BIRN) is a network of NGOs "promoting freedom of speech, human rights and democratic values in Southern and Eastern Europe" (BIRN n.d.a).

[4] The Open Society Foundations is a "private funder of independent groups working for justice, democratic governance, and human rights" founded by George Soros (Open Society Foundations n.d.a). The Roma Initiatives Office "works to achieve equal opportunities for Roma in housing, employment, and education" (Open Society Foundations n.d.b).

[5] The European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) is a "Roma-led international public interest law organisation working to combat anti-Romani racism and human rights abuse of Roma through strategic litigation, research and policy development, advocacy and human rights education" (ERRC n.d.).

[6] Caritas Romania Confederation (Confederația Caritas România) is a coalition of organizations in Romania that work with local authorities to "provide social assistance to disadvantaged children at risk, people with special needs, the elderly and low-income families" (Caritas n.d.). Caritas Romania is part of the Caritas Internationalis and Caritas Europa networks (Caritas n.d.).

[7] Reporting Democracy is a "cross-border journalism platform" run by BIRN that is "dedicated to exploring where democracy is headed across large parts of Europe" (BIRN n.d.b).

References

Amnesty International. 7 April 2021. "Romania." Amnesty International Report 2020/2021: The State of the World's Human Rights. [Accessed 12 July 2021]

Amnesty International. 24 June 2020. Policing the Pandemic: Human Rights Violations in the Enforcement of COVID-19 Measures in Europe. (EUR 01/2511/2020) [Accessed 12 July 2021]

Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN). 31 March 2021. Andre Petre. "Racism, Police Brutality and Online Hate: Why Romania's Roma Are No Nearer Their Black Lives Matter Moment." Reporting Democracy. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN). 16 December 2020. Marcel Gascón Barberá. "Romania to Punish Anti-Roma Acts with up to 10 Years in Jail." Balkan Insight. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN). 24 April 2020. Marcel Gascón Barberá. "Video of Romanian Police Beating Roma Causes Outrage." Balkan Insight. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN). N.d.a. "About BIRN." Balkan Insight. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN). N.d.b. "About the Project." Reporting Democracy. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2020. "Romania Country Report." Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index (BTI) 2020. [Accessed 23 July 2021]

bne IntelliNews. 23 February 2021. Alexandru M. Tanase. "Romania: Demography, Labour Force and Pandemic." [Accessed 5 Aug. 2021]

Caritas. N.d. "Romania." [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Centre for Legal Resources (CLR). N.d.a. "INTERSECT – Changing the Narrative of Discrimination." [Accessed 28 July 2021]

Centre for Legal Resources (CLR). N.d.b. "About CLR." [Accessed 28 July 2021]

Council of Europe. 5 June 2019. European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). ECRI Report on Romania (Fifth Monitoring Cycle). [Accessed 23 July 2021]

Council of Europe. 2015. Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Roma Issues (CAHROM). Child/Early and Forced Marriages Within Roma Communities in the Context of the Promotion of Gender Equality. [Accessed 23 July 2021]

Council of Europe. N.d. "Other Independent Human Rights Monitoring Bodies." [Accessed 26 July 2021]

European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC). September 2020. Bernard Rorke and Jonathan Lee. Roma Rights in the Time of COVID. [Accessed 13 July 2021]

European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC). N.d. "Overview." [Accessed 27 July 2021]

European Union (EU). 10 June 2021. EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Fundamental Rights Report 2021. [Accessed 26 July 2021]

European Union (EU). 29 September 2020. EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Coronavirus Pandemic in the EU – Impact on Roma and Travellers. Bulletin #5. [Accessed 26 July 2021]

Freedom House. 3 March 2021. "Romania." Freedom in the World 2021. [Accessed 26 July 2021]

Institutul Român pentru Drepturile Omului (IRDO). N.d. "History." [Accessed 28 July 2021]

JURIST. 8 January 2021. Eleanor Bennett. "Romania President Approves Law Penalizing Anti-Roma Behavior." [Accessed 27 July 2021]

JURIST. N.d. "FAQ." [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Open Society Foundations. April 2020. Neda Korunovska and Zeljko Jovanovic. Roma in the COVID-19 Crisis: An Early Warning from Six EU Member States. [Accessed 23 July 2021]

Open Society Foundations. N.d.a. "Who We Are." [Accessed 26 July 2021]

Open Society Foundations. N.d.b. "Roma Initiatives Office." [Accessed 26 July 2021]

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 16 April 2020. Alison Mutler. "Depiction of Roma as Crows Exposes Deeper Racism Within Romania." [Accessed 23 July 2021]

Researcher and Inspector for Public Relations, Institutul Român pentru Drepturile Omului (IRDO). 26 July 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Romania. 28 April 2021. Embassy of Romania to Canada. Correspondence from an official to the Research Directorate.

Romania. 2020. Privind unele măsuri pentru prevenirea şi combaterea antiţigănismului. Excerpt translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 28 July 2021]

Romania. 4 July 2013. National Institute of Statistics. Press Release Nr.159 July 4th, 2013 on the Final Results of Population and Housing Census– 2011 (Demographic Characteristics of Population). [Accessed 26 July 2021]

Romania. 2009 (amended 2012). Law #286 of 17 July 2009. Unofficial translation by Council of Europe. [Accessed 27 July 2021]

RomArchive. N.d. "Romani CRISS." [Accessed 27 July 2021]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Amare Rromentza; Association for the Defence of Human Rights in Romania – The Helsinki Committee; Equality and Human Rights Action Centre; E-Romnja; European Center for Not-for-Profit Law; European Roma Rights Centre; Human Rights Watch; Open Society Foundations – Roma Initiatives Office; Policy Center for Roma and Minorities; Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies; Romania – General Secretariat of the Government of Romania; Romanian Group for the Human Rights Defence – GRADO Association; Roma Women's Association.

Internet sites, including: AGERPRES; Al Jazeera; Association for the Defence of Human Rights in Romania – The Helsinki Committee; BBC; Central European University – Romani Studies Program; Columbia University – The Roma People's Project; Confederația Caritas România; Deutsche Welle; ecoi.net; E-Romnja; EU – European Asylum Support Office; European Center for Not-for-Profit Law; European Network of Equality Bodies; Factiva; The Guardian; Harvard University – The Roma Program; Human Rights Watch; Minority Rights Group International; Nine O'Clock; Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; Policy Center for Roma and Minorities; Reuters; Roma Education Fund; Romania-Insider.com; Romania Journal; Romanian Group for the Human Rights Defence – GRADO Association; Romanian Institute for Human Rights; UN – Refworld; US – Department of State; The Washington Post; World Bank.