IRB – Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (Autor)
The Propiska or Residence Permit
The propiska system was first introduced to
Russia during Czarist times; Stalin modified the system in the
1930s in an attempt to prevent thousands of starving peasants from
swamping the country's relatively prosperous cities (The Boston
Globe 26 Oct. 1997). The propiska was a stamp found in a
Soviet citizen's internal passport that indicated the city or town
of official residence of the bearer (ibid.; The Moscow
Times 10 July 1997). According to The Washington
Post, the propiska "was the purview of the Communist Party to
tell people where to work and reside. Dissident writers were
banished to the provinces as punishment; permits to live in
Moscow—always the most desirable—were strictly
controlled" (13 Mar. 1998). All Soviet citizens were required to
carry internal passports (The Boston Globe 26 Oct. 1997).
This remains the case in Russia today, although in October 1997 the
old Soviet passports began to be replaced with new Russian ones
(please see section below on internal passports) (ibid.).
In 1993 Russia's new constitution abolished
the system of residence restrictions (ibid.). Article 27(1) of the
Constitution states that "everyone who is lawfully staying on the
territory of the Russian Federation shall have the right to freedom
of movement and to choose the place to stay and residence [sic]"
(Blaustein May 1994, 7; see also Country Reports 1997
1998, 1259; The Washington Post 13 Mar. 1998). A federal
law on freedom of movement passed in 1993 codified this
constitutional principle (ibid.; Arutyunov 11 May 1998; see also
The Moscow Times 10 July 1997).
However, despite the constitution and the
federal law, a propiska-like system of residential registration
notification has continued to exist in major Russian cities and
regions (The Washington Post 13 Mar. 1998; The Moscow
Times 10 July 1997; Country Reports 1997 1998, 1259).
Moscow-based human rights organizations claim that at least 30 or
40 regional and city governments still retain various restrictive
regulations and "illegal barriers to registration" and settlement
(The Moscow Times 10 July 1997; UNHCR 14 May 1998; Ossipov
9 May 1998). Alexander Ossipov, a programme officer with the
Moscow-based Memorial Human Rights Centre, states that the
following regions or cities are among those that have implemented
varying types of restrictive registration polices: Krasnodar Krai,
Voronezh, Rostov and Belgorod oblasts, the Republic of North
Ossetia-Alania, Moscow, Stavropol Krai, Kabardino-Balkarian
Republic, Adygean Republic, Orenburg, Novosibirsk and the Republics
of Karachai-Cherkessian and Dagestan (ibid.). Other regions,
including Stavropol Krai, the Chuvash Republic, Orel and Kaluga
oblasts, "pursue restrictive policies on a non-normative, informal
basis" (ibid.). The most severe restrictions are found in Moscow,
Moscow oblast, Krasnodar Krai, Voronezh oblast and the regions of
the North Caucasus (ibid.; Arutyunov 11 May 1998; see also
Country Reports 1997 1998, 1259; Pravda 8 Apr.
1998; Inostranets 9 July 1997). St. Petersburg is also
reported to have restrictive registration procedures (Arutyunov 11
May 1998; Country Reports 1997 1998, 1259). Please see the
electronically attached table from the magazine Migration
for a detailed listing of Russian regions and cities that have
restrictions or infringements on freedom of movement, residence and
choice of place to stay.
In an article published in the Russian
Migration magazine, Vladimir Mukomel, the Deputy Director
of the Centre for Ethnic, Political and Regional Studies, states
The constitutions of the republics [of Russia] and their statutes frequently run counter to the Russian Constitution, intruding into the areas which are within the exclusive competence of Russian Federal authorities. Of all the constitutions of the republics only two do not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.... There are violations of federal legislation at the level of regional laws and subordinate legislative acts. The restrictions of the right to freedom of movement and choice of place of residence are most widespread and typical. Practically everywhere, the temporary and permanent residence registration procedure, which should require only reporting to the respective authority by applicants, in Russian regions is substituted with the requirement to get residence permits (Migration July-September 1997).
Vladimir Mukomel's article, entitled
"Regulation of Migration in Russia," is an in-depth examination of
the various (legal and illegal) restrictions and regulations in
Russia's regions and republics that govern the registration and
migration of Russian citizens, former Soviet citizens, refugees and
According to Country Reports 1997,
"although the [registration] rules ... [since 1996] were touted as
a notification device rather than a control system, their
application has produced many of the same results as the propiska
system" (1998, 1259). The residency permits currently being issued
are placed inside an individual's internal passport, as was the
case in the past (Ossipov 9 May 1998; Mukomel 22 May 1998; UNHCR 14
May 1998; Arutyunov 11 May 1998).
The Ministry of Interior passport office in
each city district is responsible for administering registration
procedures (UNHCR 14 May 1998; Ossipov 16 May 1998). In Moscow, the
dwelling space the applicant intends to live in must be of a
certain minimum size (ibid.; UNHCR 14 May 1998; The Moscow
Times 10 July 1997). Close family members of Moscow residents
may not have to abide by the minimum living space requirement
(UNHCR 14 May 1998). The city of Moscow interprets close family
members as including elderly parents, minor children, spouses and
disabled siblings (ibid.). The following (non-exhaustive)
categories of people may also be permitted to register their
residence in Moscow, although certain additional conditions may
apply to these individuals: active and retired servicepersons,
owners of Moscow dwellings and some employees of Moscow businesses
(Ossipov 16 May 1998; see also HRW Dec. 1997, 272). According to
Ossipov, the following documents are among those that individuals
may be required to present to city officials in order to register
their residence in Moscow: [internal] passport, personal
registration application, documents certifying blood ties,
documents certifying the status of the proposed dwelling (private,
municipal, state owned, etc.) and written consent by the individual
letting the dwelling to the proposed new resident (16 May 1998;
Arutyunov 11 May 1998). City of Moscow legislation stipulates that
the registration procedure must not take longer than six days
(Ossipov 16 May 1998); if all documents are in order it should
normally take two or three days (UNHCR 14 May 1998).
The formal requirements for residency
registration in Moscow are governed by Joint Resolution of the
Government of Moscow and the Government of Moscow Province No.
1030-43 of 26 December 19952 and Joint Resolution No.
979-42 of 17 December 1996 (Ossipov 16 May 1998). In April 1996 the
Russian Constitutional Court overturned a Moscow law which gave
local officials the power to collect high fees for registration
(Country Reports 1997 1998, 1259; HRW Dec. 1997, 272;
UNHCR 14 May 1998). According to Kommersant-Daily, the
ruling stipulated that the "amount of the fee for a residence
permit in Moscow, Stavropol Territory or Voronezh Province and the
charging of that fee before a citizen is allowed to register [is]
illegal" (3 July 1997). In 1996 new arrivals to Moscow had to pay
300-500 times the minimum wage, or approximately US$4,200-7,500 to
register their residence in the city (The Moscow Times 10
July 1997; Kommersant-Daily 3 July 1997; Country
Reports 1997 1998, 1259).
On 2 July 1997 the Constitutional Court
"struck down a Moscow oblast registration law on the grounds that
the fees collected constituted a tax that is not in the power of a
regional government to levy. However, since such decisions do not
have universality of application, the ruling does not affect
registration requirements in other oblasts and cities" (Country
Reports 1997 1998, 1259; see also HRW Dec. 1997, 272;
Inostranets 9 July 1997; The Moscow Times 10 July
1997). The Court's ruling also stated that the fees violate the
1993 Constitutional principal of freedom of movement (The
Moscow Times 10 July 1997). According to a human rights
activist quoted by The Moscow Times, however, "although
fees are now clearly illegal and all Russians have a right to be
registered wherever they like, the bureaucracy has failed to get
the message. 'The problem is that they change the law and don't
tell people working at the passport desk'" (ibid.).
In December 1996 and 1997, in response to
Constitutional Court decisions, the charging of high registration
fees in Moscow was gradually abandoned (Ossipov 16 May 1998; UNHCR
14 May 1998; HRW Dec. 1997, 272; The Moscow Times 10 July
1997). Following this, individuals seeking to register their
residence officially must pay only a federally imposed duty
equivalent to one per cent of the minimum wage (Ossipov 16 May
On 15 January 1998 the Constitutional Court
ruled that citizens can no longer be required to produce a
residence permit in order to receive a passport valid for
international travel (The Moscow Times 17 Jan. 1998;
RFE/RL 20 Jan. 1998; Rabochaya Tribuna 3 Feb. 1998). "The
court ruling means that homeless people, forced migrants, and
others who lack a permit ('propiska') for their city of residence
may receive passports valid for foreign travel" (RFE/RL 20 Jan.
According to another Constitutional Court
ruling issued on 2 February 1998, "a city may only 'certify the act
of the free expression of will of a citizen' to live there. The
city cannot be 'granting permission' or limit where people choose
to live, nor can it dictate how long a person could live in a
particular place" (The Washington Post 13 Mar. 1998;
Arutyunov 11 May 1998; Financial Times 3 Feb. 1998;
The Moscow Times 4 Feb. 1998). In March 1998 Moscow mayor
Luzhkov refused to comply with the Court's ruling (The
Washington Post 13 Mar. 1998). Citing the Moscow director for
Human Rights Watch/Helsinki (HRW/H), The Washington Post
reports that "'Luzhkov doesn't seem to consider himself bound by
the rulings of the highest court in the country'" (13 Mar. 1998).
As recently as March 1998 Mayor Luzhkov reportedly vowed "to
preserve the capital's system of limiting the number of residence
permits for people not born in the city" (The Moscow Times
11 Mar. 1998). According to Ossipov, while some regions, such as
Stavropol, Rostov and St. Petersburg, have acknowledged the
Constitutional Court's decisions, most have not (9 May 1998).
The Moscow Times reports that the
February 1998 ruling will have little affect on the operation of
the "propiska" system in everyday life (4 Feb. 1998). According to
this article, real changes to the residency permit system will only
occur when "all the rules and regulations, issued by local
authorities on the basis of the federal government's 1995
regulation on residency registration, have been 'duly abolished,'
in line with the court's ruling. So far no deadline has been set
for the abolition of these regulations" (ibid.). Mikhail Arutyunov,
President of the Moscow-based International Organization for Human
Rights Protection, stated during an 11 May 1998 telephone interview
that despite the recent Constitutional Court rulings in reality the
propiska system remains "very much in place throughout Russia."
Individuals who move to a new city and
cannot register face a number of obstacles (The Moscow
Times 4 Feb. 1998; ibid., 10 July 1997). An individual not in
possession of a valid residency permit cannot be legally employed
and has no access to social benefits. They can be arrested, fined
and expelled back to the town where they are registered, school
access for children is often denied, telephone lines cannot be
hooked up, they cannot obtain a driver's license and may not be
permitted to marry in the new city (ibid.; ibid., 4 Feb. 1998;
Country Reports 1997 1998, 1259; The Washington
Post 20 Jan. 1997; The Christian Science Monitor 2
Proponents of the propiska system,
including Moscow mayor Luzhkov, claim that the system is necessary
in order to control crime, generate revenue and control the
burgeoning population of large Russian cities (Country Reports
1997 1998, 1259; The Christian Science Monitor 2 Apr.
1998; NTV 13 Mar. 1998; The Moscow Times 11 Mar. 1998).
Others claim, however, that the system is in place to restrict
migration, evict the homeless and prevent non-Russians from taking
up residence (The Moscow Times 11 Mar. 1998; ibid.; 20
Dec. 1997; HRW/H 5 Sept. 1997). The homeless, people from Central
Asia and the Caucasus or those with dark skin appear to be a
favourite target of investigation by Moscow police forces (The
Moscow Times 20 Dec. 1997; The Washington Post 25
Oct. 1997; HRW/H 5 Sept. 1997; The Economist 12 July
1997). According to a September 1997 Human Rights Watch/Helsinki
Moscow police hound 'second-class'
visitors, refugees and visitors from the CIS and from Russia's
regions in the name of enforcing its civilian registration, or
propiska system.... Under this system police routinely check
passports on the basis of skin colour, invade the privacy of homes,
illegally detain and fine refugees, and beat detainees with
impunity.... On any given day in Russia's capital, an undeclared
state of emergency is enforced against non-Muscovites, which peaks
at times of public emergencies and holidays (5 Sept. 1997).
According to the executive director of
Human Rights Watch/Helsinki,
we do not question the need to monitor a civilian registration system .... we deplore, however, the predatory way the Moscow police go about it. For them, the registration system means open season on non-Muscovites and refugees, open season for violence and bribes.... The current version of the registration system is an open invitation for police abuse.... Police set the fines arbitrarily, and more often than not seem to pocket what they collect (ibid.).
Human Rights Watch/Helsinki also declares discriminatory the practice of charging visitors to Moscow from the CIS, who do not require visas to travel to Russia, US$43 for registering their visit (ibid.). All visitors to Moscow must register within 24 hours of their arrival in the city and they cannot remain in town for longer than six months (ibid.).
On 1 October 1997 Russia began to issue new
internal passports or identification documents; the first passports
were distributed in Moscow by President Yeltsin to youths and
orphans (Kommersant-Daily 1 Oct. 1997; IPS 9 Dec. 1997;
The Washington Post 25 Oct. 1997; see also AFP 22 July
1997; ITAR-TASS 13 Mar. 1997). The new passports, officially
referred to as Russian Federation (RF) Citizen's Passports, will
replace old Soviet internal passports; Soviet passports will
continue to be valid, however, until they are replaced with the
newer version (ITAR-TASS 13 Mar. 1997; Rossiyskaya Gazeta
16 July 1997; Kommersant-Daily 1 Oct. 1997). The issuance
of new passports is not expected to be complete until 31 December
2005 (Kommersant-Daily 1 Oct. 1997; Rossiyskaya
Gazeta 16 July 1997). Approximately 10 million new internal
passports are to be distributed in 1998; in 1999 and subsequent
years 20 million passports should be distributed annually (Mukomel
22 May 1998). All Russian citizens 14 years of age and older
residing in Russia must be in possession of an internal passport
(Rossiyskaya Gazeta 16 July 1996; UNHCR 14 May 1998). Upon
reaching the ages of 20 and 45 citizens must apply for replacement
passports (Rossiyskaya Gazeta 16 July 1996).
Like the old Soviet internal passports, the
new internal passports record the "citizen's registration at his or
her place of residence and his or her removal from the registration
rolls—by the appropriate registration-rolls agencies"
(Rossiyskaya Gazeta 16 July 1996; The Boston
Globe 26 Oct. 1997). The Boston Globe states that the
fact that residence is recorded in the internal passports gives an
"unexpected boost" to the propiska system (ibid.).
The new passports do not, however, include
the notorious "fifth line" or "fifth point" that the Soviet era
document contains (IPS 9 Dec. 1997; The Ottawa Citizen 4
Sept. 1997; The Baltimore Sun 31 Oct. 1997). The fifth
line of Soviet internal passports identifies the nationality or
ethnic identity of the bearer (ibid.; The Ottawa Citizen 4
Sept. 1997). According to an analysis of the new passports
published by IPS, "the notorious 'fifth point' on the form ...
entered Soviet folklore as a symbol of ethnic discrimination,
particularly with regard to Jews" (IPS 9 Dec. 1997). According to
IPS, the exclusion of a mandatory declaration of nationality is in
line with Russia's 1993 constitution (9 Dec. 1997). Article 26(1)
of the constitution states that "everyone shall have the right to
determine and state his national identity. No one can be forced to
determine and state his national identity" (Blaustein May 1994,
Human rights groups and Jewish activists
claim that the omission of a declaration of ethnicity marks a
"victory for common sense" (The Ottawa Citizen 4 Sept.
1997; The Washington Post 25 Oct. 1997;
Kommersant-Daily 16 Oct. 1997; The Moscow Times
28 Oct. 1997). Several minority groups in Russia, however, have
vehemently protested the exclusion of a statement of national
identity in internal passports (IPS 9 Dec. 1997; The Baltimore
Sun 31 Oct. 1997; The Moscow Times 28 Oct. 1997;
Mukomel 22 May 1998; The Washington Post 25 Oct. 1997).
The Russian republics of Tatarstan, Adygeya, Ingushetia and
Bashkiria, for example, have suspended distribution of the new
passports because they do not allow their citizens to record their
nationality (ibid.; Mukomel 22 May 1998; Ekho Moskvy Radio 14 Nov.
1997; ITAR-TASS 2 Dec. 1997; Kommersant-Daily 2 Dec. 1997;
IPS 9 Dec. 1997). Minority groups claim that the inability to
record one's ethnicity is a violation of their constitutional
rights (The Baltimore Sun 31 Oct. 1997). The move is also
viewed by many members of minority groups as an attempt to Russify
non-Russian citizens of the Federation (IPS 9 Dec. 1997; Interfax 5
Authorities in the protesting republics are
asking that extra pages be added to the internal passports; these
pages should be in the language of the respective region and may,
if a citizen so desires, indicate the nationality of the bearer
(Kommersant-Daily 2 Dec. 1997; ITAR-TASS 13 Nov. 1997).
According to a 2 December 1997 report by ITAR-TASS, the Russian
government is considering introducing "special supplementary sheets
with the nationality indication in ethnic regions." The Russian
Federation decree on new internal passports states that republics
within the federation may issue special additional pages in the
language of the republic (Ossipov 9 May 1998; Mukomel 22 May 1998;
Rossiyskaya Gazeta 16 July 1997). Ossipov notes that "the
decree does not [indicate what can] be mentioned in those
additional pages and does not put any restrictions" (9 May
Mikhail Arutyunov and a legal officer with
the UNHCR's Moscow office report that while there have been
discussions about adding new pages to the internal passports, this
has not yet been done and there remains no agreement in the
republics on the format of the new internal passports (Arutyunov 11
May 1998; UNHCR 14 May 1998). According to Arutyunov, as of mid-May
both the new Russian and old Soviet internal passports are being
distributed and some republics have threatened to issue their own
internal passports (11 May 1998; IPS 9 Dec. 1997). Citing a 8 May
1998 article in Izvestia, Vladimir Mukomel reports that
Tatarstan has begun issuing its own internal passports (22 May
Please see the Rossiyskaya Gazeta
article electronically attached to this Response to Information
Request for a complete transcription of the Russian Federation
government decree and statute on the issuance of the new internal
passports. The attachment also includes a detailed visual and
substantive description of the new internal passports.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.
1. An English version of this
article was electronically forwarded to the Research Directorate by
the author. It is available in its entirety at the IRB's Resource
Centre in Ottawa; when the published version of the article becomes
available it will be forwarded to all Regional Documentation
2. The Research Directorate
has a Russian-language copy of this law.
Agence France Presse (AFP). 22 July
1997. "Russie—divers: Le 'passeport intérieur'
remplacé à compter du 1er octobre." (Internet mailing
Arutyunov, Mikhail. 11 May 1998.
Telephone interview with the President of the Moscow-based
International Organization for Human Rights Protection.
The Baltimore Sun. 31 October
1997. Final Edition. "Documents That Control; Russia: Effort to
Drop 'Nationality' Line from Internal Passports Creates a
Blaustein, Albert P. May 1994. Vol. 16.
"The Russian Federation," Constitutions of the Countries of the
World. Edited by Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz.
Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications.
The Boston Globe. 26 October
1997. City Edition. David Filipov. "In Moscow, They're Alien in Own
The Christian Science Monitor
[Boston]. 2 April 1998. Judith Matloff. "Uprooted Flee to Moscow,
But Welcome Mat is Thin." (NEXIS)
Country Reports on Human Rights
Practices for 1997. 1998. United States Department of State.
Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
The Economist [London]. 12 July
1997. U.S. Edition. "The Makings of a Molotov Cocktail."
Ekho Moskvy Radio [Moscow, in Russian].
14 November 1997. "North Caucasus Republic Refuses to Issue New
Russian Passports." (BBC Summary 17 Nov. 1997/NEXIS)
Financial Times [London]. 3
February 1998. Chrystia Freeland. "Russian Court Deals Blow to Curb
on Right to Move." (NEXIS)
Human Rights Watch (HRW). December 1997.
Human Rights Watch Report 1998: Events of 1997. New York:
Human Rights Watch/Helsinki (HRW/H). 5
September 1997. "Moscow—Police Hound 'Second-Class'
Visitors." (Internet mailing list: email@example.com)
Inostranets [in Russian]. 9
July 1997. "Changes in Registration Policy." (International Refugee
Documentation Network (IRDN) Newsletter No. 65, July-December
Interfax News Agency [Moscow, in
English]. 5 November 1997. "Federation Council Urges Yeltsin to
Make New Passports Bilingual." (BBC Summary 7 Nov. 1997/NEXIS)
Inter Press Service (IPS). 9 December
1997. Valery Tishkov. "Population: New Russian Passports Must
Silence Ethnic Rancour." (NEXIS)
ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 2
December 1997. Igor Zhukov. "Russia: New Russian Passports May Have
Sheets for Nationality." (FBIS-SOV-97-336 4 Dec. 1997/WNC)
____. 13 November 1997. "Tatarstan
Suspends Issuing New Russian Passports." (BBC Summary 15 Nov.
_____. 13 March 1997. "Russia to
Introduce New Passports." (NEXIS)
ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in Russian].
Kommersant-Daily [Moscow]. 2
December 1997. Aleksandra Poryvayeva. "Bashkiria Insists on its
Right to its Own Language." (Current Digest of the Post-Soviet
Press 31 Dec. 1997/NEXIS)
_____. 18 October 1997. Galina
Pechilina. "Tataria Turns Down Russian Passports." (Russian Press
Digest 18 Oct. 1997/NEXIS)
_____. 1 October 1997. Yuri Senatorov.
"Orphans Get First Russian Passports." (Russian Press Digest 1 Oct.
_____. 3 July 1997. Maksim Zhukov.
"Constitutional Court Abolishes Charge for Residence Permit. For
Good." (Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 6 Aug.
July-September 1997. No. 3(4). Vladimir Mukomel. "Regulation of
Migration in Russia." The author sent the Research Directorate an
electronic version of this article in English.
The Moscow Times. 11 March
1998. "Residence Permits Stay, Mayor Says." (NEXIS)
_____. 4 February 1998. Andrei Zolotov
Jr. "Court Takes Step Toward Dismantling Propiskas." (NEXIS)
_____. 17 January 1998. Chloe Arnold.
"Court Abolishes Propiska Travel Rule." (NEXIS)
_____. 20 December 1997. Carlotta Gall.
"A Little Dignity in a Bright Red Cover." (NEXIS)
_____. 28 October 1997. Julia
Shargorodska. "Russia Considers Optional Ethnicity Listing."
_____. 10 July 1997. Bronwyn McLaren.
"Court Deals a Blow to Hated 'Propiska'." (NEXIS)
Mukomel, Vladimir. 22 May 1998. Letter
to the Research Directorate from the Deputy Director of the Centre
for Ethnic, Political and Regional Studies. This centre operates
under the office of the President of the Russian Federation.
NTV [Moscow, in Russian]. 13 March 1998.
"Russia: Russia's Luzhkov Comments on Moscow Registration
Procedures." (FBIS-SOV-98-072 19 Mar. 1998/WNC)
Ossipov, Alexander. 16 May 1998. Letter
to the Research Directorate from a Programme Officer with the
Moscow-based Memorial Human Rights Centre.
_____. 9 May 1998. Letter to the
Research Directorate from a Programme Officer with the Moscow-based
Memorial Human Rights Centre.
The Ottawa Citizen. 4 September
1997. Susan Sachs. "Russia Abandons Passports' 'Fifth Line':
Controversial Ethnic Designation to be Dropped." (NEXIS)
Pravda [Moscow, in Russian]. 8
April 1998. Yuliy Semenenko. "Russia: Mass Migration Threat to
Krasnodar Kray." (FBIS-SOV-98-106 17 Apr. 1998/WNC)
Rabochaya Tribuna [Moscow, in
Russian]. 3 February 1998. "Russia: Court Rules Against Restriction
on Obtaining Passport." (FBIS-SOV-98-036 6 Feb. 1998/WNC)
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL)
Research Institute. 20 January 1998. RFE/RL Newsline. Vol.
2, No. 12, Part 1. "...And Residence Permit Not Required for
Foreign Passport." (Internet list serve:
Rossiyskaya Gazeta [Moscow, in
Russian]. 16 July 1997. "Russia: Decree, Statute on RF Citizen's
Passport." (FBIS-SOV-97-157-S 16 July 1997/WNC)
United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR), Moscow. 14 May 1998. Letter to the Research
Directorate from a Legal Officer with the Moscow-office of the
The Washington Post. 13 March
1998. Final Edition. David Hoffman. "Moscow Mayor Defies Court on
Residence Rights." (NEXIS)
_____. 25 October 1997. Final Edition.
David Hoffman. "Russia's New Internal Passport Drops Nationality,
Drawing Praise and Protests." (NEXIS)
_____. 20 January 1997. Final Edition.
David Hoffman. "Moscow Remains a Perk for Permit Holders."
July-September 1997. No. 3(4). Vladimir Mukomel. "Regulation of
Migration in Russia." Excerpt. The author sent the Research
Directorate an electronic version of this article in English.
Rossiyskaya Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 16 July 1997. "Russia: Decree, Statute on RF Citizen's Passport." (FBIS-SOV-97-157-S 16 July 1997/WNC)
The propiska (registration) system and internal passports [RUS29376.EX] (Anfragebeantwortung, Französisch)