United Arab Emirates: Domestic violence and honour-based killings, including legislation; support services available, including mental health services; state protection (2020–November 2022) [ARE200565.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Legislation

According to the Fighting Domestic Violence tool [1], a comparative law tool developed by Baker McKenzie, an international law firm that provides business law services (Baker McKenzie n.d.), the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; however, Baker McKenzie is "not aware of any specific actions" that the country has taken to implement the recommendations into law (Baker McKenzie [2021], 5). Similarly, a UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) report on the UAE indicates that "limited" steps were taken by the state "to incorporate the provisions of the Convention into national legislation" and it "still takes no precedence over national laws" (UN 2022-07-12, para. 12). Additionally, the same source notes that there is "a lack of comprehensive legislation enshrining the principle of equality of women and men" in the UAE (UN 2022-07-12, para. 14).

According to a November 2021 press release from the Cabinet of the UAE, the country amended "[o]ver 40 laws," including the introduction of a "new and updated Federal Crime and Punishment Law" [Federal Decree Law No. 21 of 2021] which was effective as of January 2022 and aims to provide "enhanced protections for women and domestic" workers (UAE 2021-11-27). According to Fotis International Law Firm (Fotis), a UAE-based law firm whose areas of practice include criminal law and family and divorce law, the Federal Crime and Punishment Act "replace[s] the previous" 1987 penal code (Fotis 2022-07-25).

Reuters indicates that the UAE also reformed legal provisions on "honour killings" in November 2020 and extramarital sexual relations in January 2022 [see sub-sections 1.2 and 1.3.3 of this Response] (2021-11-27).

1.1 Domestic Violence

Baker McKenzie reports that the "principal law" related to domestic violence in the UAE is the Federal Decree Law No. 10 of 2019 on the Protection Against Family Violence ([2021], 2). The same source notes that the penalty and sentencing for "first-time domestic violence offenses" is at the "discretion" of the court and can be punished by imprisonment of a maximum of three months and/or a fine of 1,000 to 10,000 Emirati Dirham (AED) [C$367–C$3,670] (Baker McKenzie [2021], 18).

According to Freedom House, a "measure adopted in 2019" includes new protection and penalty provisions as well as "wording" that "appeared to allow some forms of control or punishment by male guardians" (2022-02-24, Sec. G3). Similarly, the CEDAW report finds that the Federal Decree Law No. 10 of 2019 "provides for wide judicial discretion regarding the permissibility of acts of gender-based violence that do not exceed the perpetrator's rights in guardianship" (UN 2022-07-12, para. 32).

The Federal Decree-Law No. 10 of 2019 provides the following definition of domestic violence:


Article 3- The Concept of Family Violence

For the purpose of the application of this Decree-Law, family violence means any act, word, abuse, harm or threat committed by a family member against another family member, overstepping the scope of the respective guardianship, custodianship, support, authority or responsibility, and which causes physical, mental, sexual or economic harm or damage. (UAE 2019, bold in original)

The same decree law also provides the following:


Article 5- Types of Family Violence

Subject to the applicable legislation in the State, and in accordance with the provisions of this Decree-Law, the following acts shall be considered as family violence:

  1. Physical abuse: any assault by any means on the victim's body, even if there are no marks on the body.
  2. Mental abuse: any act or word that is likely to cause mental harm to the victim.
  3. Sexual abuse: any act which constitutes sexual assault or harassment of the victim or exploitation by any way.
  4. Economic abuse: any act that causes the victim to be deprived of their right or freedom to dispose of his property with the intention of inflicting damage on them. (UAE 2019, bold in original)

Additionally, article 8 provides the following:


Article 8- Punishment

Anyone who violates the restraining order issued in accordance with the provisions of this Decree-Law shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three (3) months and to a fine of not less than one thousand (1,000) dirhams, and not exceeding ten thousand (10,000) dirhams or either one of these two penalties.

The punishment shall be doubled if the violation of the restraining order is committed by the use of violence against any person included in the provisions of this Decree-Law. (UAE 2019, bold in original)

The CEDAW report notes the following regarding the 2019 law:

[A]rticle 10 of the Law, which encourages mediation prior to prosecution, may give rise to impunity for acts of domestic violence and assumes that both parties have equal bargaining power. … [T]he Law does not regulate the working methods for shelters for women survivors of gender-based violence. …[There is a] rise in cases of domestic violence during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and associated difficulties in access to shelters, both from a protection and public health perspective. (UN 2022-07-12, para. 32)

Article 10 of the 2019 law includes the following provision:


Article 10- Reconciliation

Before proceeding with the lawsuit related to family violence offences, the public prosecution shall offer reconciliation to the victim in accordance with the requirements and procedures set out in the aforementioned Federal Law No. 35 of 1992. (UAE 2019, bold in original)

1.2 Honour-Based Killings

An official copy of the Federal Crime and Punishment Act could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources indicate that legal provisions allowing for reduced penalties, that were granted to perpetrators of honour crimes, were repealed in 2020 (Freedom House 2022-02-24, Sec. G3; Reuters 202l-05-20; UN 2022-07-12, para. 4(c)). Human Rights Watch (HRW) notes that a November 2020 amendment to the penal code repealed an article that gave "lighter sentences" to men who kill a female family member who is having extramarital sex (2022-01-13). However, according to sources, the penal code still allows for reduced sentences, including in cases of honour killings, should the family of the victim accept compensatory payment instead (HRW 2022-01-13; UN 2022-07-12, para. 34) or choose to pardon the perpetrator (HRW 2022-01-13). HRW further notes that in cases where the perpetrator of the honour killing is a family member of the female victim, that family "is likely to allow men to receive lighter sentences" (2022-01-13).

1.3 Other Related Legislation
1.3.1 Divorce

Fotis reports that divorce is regulated under the Personal Status Law No. 28 of 2005, "developed from traditional Sharia," and that "Sharia Law holds dominance over all codified legislations in the UAE in regards to all family matters" (2022-11-15). An English translation of Personal Status Law No. 28 of 2005 is available on the website of the UAE's Ministry of Justice (UAE 2005). According to sources, women may only request a divorce in certain circumstances, while men may "unilaterally" divorce their wives for any reason (Fotis 2022-11-15; UN 2022-07-12, para. 54).

In order to obtain a divorce with a financial compensation, sources indicate that women are required to "prove" that their husband either physically or mentally harmed them, "abandoned" them for a minimum of three months, or failed to financially provide for them or their children (Fotis 2022-11-15; US 2022-04-12, 30–31). The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2021 notes that a woman claiming "[p]hysical abuse" in a divorce case must provide "medical reports and two male witnesses" as proof (US 2022-04-12, 31).

Fotis states that the divorced woman would become her children's "custodian," caring for their daily needs, while the father would remain the "guardianship of all legal decisions" (2022-11-15). Sources report that divorced women face the prospect of losing custody of their children to the father once daughters turn 13 and sons turn 11 (Fotis 2022-11-15; UN 2022-07-12, para. 54; US 2022-04-12, 31). According to Fotis, mothers may file a legal case to maintain custody of their children beyond the stated age limits; however, women who cannot "handle the stress of litigation," have "fears of domestic violence," or cannot financially afford "to defend their cases in court," may consequently "be forced to lose custody" and "the child may remain in the care of the abusive father" (2022-11-15). However, according to US Country Reports 2021, the courts apply the "'best interests of the child'" standard in child custody cases, rather than a "strict interpretation" of Sharia law (US 2022-04-12, 31).

1.3.2 Sexual Harassment, Violence, and Assault

According to US Country Reports 2021, "the government has prosecuted sexual harassment," defined as "repetitive harassment through action, words, or signs" with sentences of "at least" one prison year and/or a US$27,250 fine, or a sentence of 1 to 15 years of imprisonment for the "'disgracing or dishonoring' [of] a person in public" in cases where the victim is under 14 (US 2022-04-12, 29). The same source further states that the law that criminalizes "dishonoring a woman by word or deed on a public roadway" is "generally enforced" by the state (US 2022-04-12, 29). An English translation of article 412 of the Federal Decree Law No. 31 of 2021 Promulgating Penal Code (Laws of Crimes and Penalties), provided by the UAE Public Prosecution and published by the [state news agency (WAM n.d.)] Emirates News Agency (WAM), includes the following:

Shall be sentenced to detention for a term not exceeding (1) one year and/or a fine not exceeding AED 10,000 (UAE Dirhams Ten Thousand), any male who:

  1. Molests a female in an indecent way by words or acts in a public road or in a frequented place.

… (WAM 2022-03-05, bold in original)

Sources report that marital rape is not prohibited by UAE law (Freedom House 2022-02-24, Sec. G3; US 2022-04-12, 27). According to US Country Reports 2021, the penal code criminalizes rape and defines it as "coerced sexual intercourse with a woman or sodomy with a man" (US 2022-04-12, 27). Since the introduction of the November 2021 penal code amendments [Federal Decree Law No. 21 of 2021 (Fotis 2022-07-25)], sources report that rape is now punishable by life imprisonment or death, depending on the case (Fotis 2022-07-25; US 2022-04-12, 27). Fotis specifies that rape is punishable by death provided

  1. the victim was less than 18 years of age; or
  2. was not conscious; or
  3. the victim is crippled or in a state unable to resist; or
  4. the offender/attacker is a family member or caretaker of the victim, or an employer with an authority over a woman or domestic helper. (2022-07-25)

The November 2021 press release by the Cabinet of the UAE similarly indicates that the new Federal Crime and Punishment Law "stipulates life imprisonment for the crime of rape or non-consensual intercourse and if the victim is under the age of 18, disabled or otherwise rendered in a condition unable to offer resistance can be extended to capital punishment" (UAE 2021-11-27). US Country Reports 2021 indicates that in Sharia courts, which hear civil cases "primarily," the conviction rate for rape is "low" and the "extremely high burden of proof" contributes to the low conviction rate (US 2022-04-12, 27). The same source notes that cases of rape or sexual assault of foreign domestic workers by their employers have been reported, but these cases were "rarely prosecuted" by the government and resulted in "few convictions" (US 2022-04-12, 27).

According to the Cabinet press release, the Federal Crime and Punishment Law also has provisions on "indecent assault," with penalties ranging from "a fine of no less than ten thousand dirhams" to a prison sentence; if the assault involves the use of "force or threat," the penalty shall be "for a period of no less than (5) five years and not exceeding (25) twenty-five years" (UAE 2021-11-27). The same source indicates that the penalty for indecent assault rises to a "prison term of no less than (10) ten years and not exceeding (25) twenty-five years if the victim is aged under 18, disabled or otherwise rendered in a condition unable to offer resistance"; "the more severe penalty applies if the crime takes place in a place of work, study, shelter or care" (UAE 2021-11-27).

1.3.3 Consensual Extramarital Sexual Relations

According to HRW, "the criminalization of consensual extramarital sex, which had been dropped from the older law as part of the 2020 amendments," were "reintroduce[d]" in the 2021 Federal Crime and Punishment Law, and "provides for only a minimum sentence allowing judges' discretion to provide harsher sentences" (2022-06-05). The Cabinet press release states the following regarding consensual extramarital relations in the 2021 Federal Crime and Punishment Law:

The law also punishes with imprisonment for a period of no less than six months, consensual extra-marital intercourse with a person aged over 18 years, noting that a criminal case for this crime is only instituted on the basis of a complaint from the husband or guardian. In all cases, the husband or guardian has the right to waive the complaint, and the waiver entails the expiration of the criminal case or the suspension of the execution of the penalty, as the case may be. (UAE 2021-11-27)

In its annual report, Amnesty International states that "no documented prosecutions of consensual sexual acts" had occurred in 2021, unlike in 2020 (2022-03-29, 386).

2. Treatment
2.1 By Authorities

Information on the treatment by UAE authorities of individuals who experienced domestic and honour-based violence was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Freedom House states that due to the criminalization of "[s]ome categories of extramarital sex," survivors of rape are deterred from reporting it (2022-02-24, Sec. G3). Similarly, Reuters indicates that human rights groups have "criticized" the old penal code that penalizes sex outside of marriage for "discouraging rape reporting" (2021-05-20). Sources indicate that in order for women patients to receive certain sexual and reproductive health services in hospitals, they are required to present a marriage certificate (HRW 2022-01-13; UN 2022-07-12, para. 48). Additionally, US Country Reports 2021 notes that "[e]mergency contraception" is available, but requires a doctor's prescription, "and in some cases required spousal consent" (US 2022-04-12, 30). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to US Country Reports 2021, a Dubai criminal court sentenced a man to life imprisonment for the murder of his wife in June 2021 (US 2022-04-12, 28).

2.2 By Family and Society

Information on the treatment by family members and society of individuals who experienced domestic and honour-based violence could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3. Support Services

Information on support services was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The information in the following two paragraphs is provided in US Country Reports 2021:

Regarding "honour crimes," the government provides "judicial supervision for individuals considered at risk from relatives threatening to commit honor crimes against or otherwise harming them," including providing housing, family mediation and reconciliation.

The Dubai Foundation for Women and Children, a "quasi-governmental organization" that operates a shelter, has been working to "increase awareness" of domestic violence through various media platforms, the holding of workshops, and sponsoring a hotline; since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the foundation has also been building "a medical screening and quarantine facility for domestic abuse survivors." In Ras al-Khaimah, the Aman Shelter for Women and Children operates a hotline for domestic violence survivors (US 2022-04-12, 28–29, 45).

3.1 Mental Health Services

US Country Reports 2021 indicates that survivors of domestic violence may consult with the "usually female" social workers and counselors located in major public hospitals and police stations, or access "domestic abuse centers" located in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah, and Sharjah (US 2022-04-12, 28).

4. State Protection
4.1 Judiciary and Police Force

Baker McKenzie reports that "[i]n general," domestic violence cases are handled by the public prosecution in UAE courts ([2021], 2). Without providing further detail, a report authored and submitted by the UAE to the CEDAW indicates that some "institutions" provide free legal counselling services and financial assistance with legal fees for individuals in need (UAE 2020-12-11, para. 22).

However, the CEDAW report indicates that Bedouin women and women living in remote regions face "intersecting forms of discrimination" when trying to access justice and other services (UN 2022-07-12, para. 52). US Country Reports 2021 states that women also face legal discrimination as it relates to the judge's discretion in considering whether women's testimony is equivalent to that of a "full" witness or a "half" witness in divorce cases (US 2022-04-12, 30, 31).

Regarding the reporting of domestic violence incidents, US Country Reports 2021 states that survivors of domestic violence may submit complaints with police units located in major public hospitals (US 2022-04-12, 28). Sources indicate that survivors of domestic violence may be granted protection orders (Baker McKenzie [2021], 4; Freedom House 2022-02-24, Sec. G3; US 2022-04-12, 27–28) that are issued by public prosecutors (Baker McKenzie [2021], 4; US 2022-04-12, 27–28), "of [their] own accord" or at the request of the survivor (Baker McKenzie [2021], 4).

The 2019 Federal Decree-Law No. 10 of 2019 provides the following:


Article 6- Restraining Order

The public prosecution may, either on its own initiative or at the request of the victim, issue a restraining order which orders the assailant:

  1. To stay away from the victim.
  2. Not to get near the places specified for the protection of the victim or any other place mentioned in the restraining order.
  3. Not to damage the personal property of the victim or any of their family members.
  4. To enable the victim or their representative to retrieve their essential personal belongings.
  5. Any other measures that the public prosecution may deem necessary to include in the restraining order, and which may ensure the protection of the victim or any other person who may be exposed to harm due to their relationship. (UAE 2019)

4.2 Government Policies and Institutions for Women


According to the UAE's submission to the CEDAW, the National Strategy for the Empowerment of Emirati Women 2015–2021 is the country's framework initiative to "increase women's participation and representation in all fields, locally, regionally and internationally" (UAE 2020-12-11, para. 10). The CEDAW report notes that there is a "lack of information on the impact analysis of the national strategy," ranging from the participation of civil society in its development, the role of the national authority for the advancement of women, namely the General Women's Union, and the renewal of the strategy beyond 2022 (UN 2022-07-12, para. 20).

The CEDAW report notes that the UAE established a national human rights institution; however, the source further suggests that the institution can be strengthened by aligning with the Paris Principles [2] and opening a "specific and independent" complaint channel dedicated to receiving and addressing complaints from women who experience human rights violations (UN 2022-07-12, para. 18). Without providing further details, the Abu Dhabi emirate's Judicial Department website indicates that its Human Rights Office (HRO) receives complaints from individuals who have open cases within its courts, through an online complaint/petition form that the HRO examines and investigates (UAE n.d.).

4.2.1 2019 Family Protection Policy

The UAE's submission to the CEDAW states that its Cabinet adopted a family protection policy in 2019 that seeks to "protec[t] and maintai[n] the integrity of the family," including protecting women from "violence and abuse in all their forms" (UAE 2020-12-11, para. 13). A UAE government webpage on the Family Protection Policy indicates that the six types of domestic violence identified by the policy are as follows:

  1. physical abuse
  2. verbal abuse
  3. psychological/mental abuse
  4. sexual abuse
  5. economic/financial abuse
  6. negligence. (UAE 2022-11-24)

The same source notes that the initiatives included in the policy are as follows:

  • a unified database linking national-level institutions concerned with family protection
  • introducing university disciplines in the field of family protection
  • establishing a standardised system for reporting and receiving complaints at the national level
  • building and implementing standards for primary prevention
  • issuance of a law and a strategy for family protection. (UAE 2022-11-24)

US Country Reports 2021 indicates that while the UAE has yet to "fully" implement the Family Protection Policy, it has been coordinating efforts with "social organizations to increase awareness of domestic violence," including through seminars, symposiums, conferences, and educational programs (US 2022-04-12, 28).

According to the webpage on the Family Protection Policy, those who witness or experience domestic violence are advised to report it to official channels (UAE 2022-11-24). The Ministry of Community Development lists the following official family violence complaints authorities:

Authority Emirate Person Responsible or Complaint Mechanism
Ministry of Community Development Federal [Person] on duty
Social Support Center Abu Dhabi / Federal Hotline
Social Support Center Abu Dhabi / Local Hotline
Social Support Center Al Ain Hotline
Dubai Foundation for Women and Children Dubai Hotline; SMS
Directorate General of Human Rights Dubai [Person] on duty
Alameen Service Federal [Person] on duty
Social Support Center Sharjah Colonel
Social Support Center Ajman [Person] on duty; hotline
Social Support Center Umm Al Quawain Land line [or a representative]
Social Support Center Fujairah General command line; [person] on duty [or a representative]
Social Support Center Ras Al-Khaimah Hotline
Aman Call Center Federal Hotline

(UAE 2021-11-18)

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


[1] The Fighting Domestic Violence law tool was developed with the financial support of Global Rights for Women and Every Women Treaty and provides rapid analysis of various countries' national legislation on domestic violence (Baker McKenzie 2021-12-01).

[2] According to the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI), an organization co-funded by the EU and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) that contributes to the establishment of accredited national human rights institutions (NHRI) (GANHRI n.d.a), the Paris Principles "set out the minimum standards that [National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs)] must meet in order to be considered credible and to operate effectively" (GANHRI n.d.b).


Amnesty International. 2022-03-29. "United Arab Emirates." Amnesty International Report 2021/22: The State of the World's Human Rights. [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Baker McKenzie. 2021-12-01. "Baker McKenzie Launches Fighting Domestic Violence Comparative Law Tool." [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Baker McKenzie. [2021]. "United Arab Emirates." Fighting Domestic Violence: Pro Bono Initiative. Middle East and North Africa. [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Baker McKenzie. N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 2022-11-09]

Emirates News Agency (WAM). 2022-03-05. Tariq Alfaham. "Public Prosecution Explains Penalties for Molesting Women on a Public Road." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

Emirates News Agency (WAM). N.d. "About WAM – the Emirates News Agency." [Accessed 2023-01-09]

Fotis International Law Firm (Fotis). 2022-11-15. "The Rights of Women in Marriage, Divorce and Child Custody Based on Shariah Regulations in the UAE." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

Fotis International Law Firm (Fotis). 2022-07-25. "An Extensive Overview of the Amendments to the Penal Code of UAE." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

Freedom House. 2022. "United Arab Emirates." Freedom in the World 2022. [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI). N.d.a. "Strategy." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI). N.d.b. "Paris Principles." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2022-06-05. "UAE: Sweeping Legal 'Reforms' Deepen Repression." [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2022-01-13. "United Arab Emirates." World Report 2022: Events of 2021. [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Reuters. 2021-11-27. Lisa Barrington. "New UAE Criminal Code Among 40 Legal Changes in Reform Push." [Accessed 2022-11-10]

Reuters. 2021-05-20. Lisa Barrington. "Status of Pregnancies Outside Marriage Still Unclear in UAE After Law Change." [Accessed 2022-11-08]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2022-11-24. The United Arab Emirates' Government Portal. "Family Protection Policy." [Accessed 2022-12-12]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2021-11-27. The Cabinet. "UAE Adopts Largest Legislative Reform in Its History." [Accessed 2022-11-10]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2021-11-18. Ministry of Community Development. "Family Violence Complaints." [Accessed 2022-11-14]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2020-12-11. Fourth Periodic Report Submitted by the United Arab Emirates Under Article 18 of the Convention, Due in 2019. (CEDAW/C/ARE/4) [Accessed 2022-11-10]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2019. Federal Decree Law No. 10 of 2019 on Protection Against Family Violence. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 2022-11-09]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). 2005 (amended 2020). Federal Law No. 28 on Personal Status. [Accessed 2023-01-11]

United Arab Emirates (UAE). N.d. Abu Dhabi Judicial Department. "Human Rights Office (HRO)." [Accessed 2022-11-21]

United Nations (UN). 2022-07-12. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Concluding Observations on the Fourth Periodic Report of the United Arab Emirates. (CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/4) [Accessed 2022-11-08]

United States (US). 2022-04-12. Department of State. "United Arab Emirates." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2021. [Accessed 2022-11-08]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Assistant professor at an American university whose research focuses on state feminism and national identity in the United Arab Emirates; associate professor at an American university whose research focuses on women's rights in the Middle East, notably in the United Arab Emirates; Dubai Foundation for Women and Children.

Internet sites, including: Abu Dhabi - Public Prosecution; Agence France-Presse; Al-Bayan; Al Jazeera; Al Rowaad Advocates & Legal Consultancy; Amal Khamis Advocates & Legal Consultations; Associated Press; Austrian Red Cross; BBC; Brookings Institution; Chambers and Partners; Clyde & Co. LLP; Dar-Al-Haqooq Legal Consultancy LLC; Denmark – Danish Immigration Service; Electronic Immigration Network; Emarat Al-Youm; EU – European External Action Service; France – Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides; The Guardian; Khaleej Times; Law Business Research; The Law Reporters; MENA Rights Group; Middle East Alliance Legal Consultancy LLC; Middle East Institute; Middle East Monitor; Mio Law Firm by Abu Baker Salem Advocates & Legal Consultants; The National; Palatinate; The Times of India; United Arab Emirates – Ministry of Justice; UN – Committee Against Torture, Refworld, UN Women; World Economic Forum.


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