Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a senior research fellow at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, who conducts research on ethnic groups and religious groups, drew the following distinction between ritual killings and human sacrifice:
Ritual killings are the act of killing human beings extra-judicially for the purpose of attaining temporal goals in life such as raw money-making, [or achieving] extra growth in business, banks, churches, political power as well as personal spiritual strength. On the other hand, human sacrifice is the offering of human beings to transcendental forces, such as deities for the purpose of either atonement for sins or seeking protection or related favour. In other words, while the latter is rooted in African tradition and legally practised within the time and space of pre-colonial African society, the former appears to be a contemporary phenomenon rooted in the modern quest for inordinate wealth and influence. (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021)
According to the source, "[i]n practice, there have been no reported cases of human sacrifice since the advent of modern age," although there had been rumours without tangible evidence of "the use of human beings for the burial of some prominent kings in Nigeria," whereas ritual killings "have remained recurrent decimal in Nigerian society" and the phenomenon "has even extended in recent times to the harvesting of vital human organs" (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021).
Sources report that ritual killings are performed in Nigeria to harvest human body parts, at the request of voodoo practitioners, for potions, charms and other fetish needs (Peterside 10 May 2021) or "for the practice of ritual sacrifice with the belief that the sacrifices provide or generate money for the perpetrators" (Ezemenaka 30 Dec. 2018, 234). At a meeting organized by the EU's European Asylum Support Office (EASO) in June 2017, David Pratten, an associate professor of social anthropology of Africa and fellow of St Antony's College, University of Oxford, described ritual murder as a practice performed to "procure body parts for ritual practices that can enhance a person's power, virility, wealth or protection. [The body parts] might be for the production of 'medicines'" and "there are very contemporary motivations for these forms of murder. Getting rich quick is probably the primary one" (Pratten Aug. 2017, 75).
In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, an associate professor specializing in African history at Canada's Brock University stated that sometimes bodies are found with certain parts missing, including the head, the eyes, the hands and wrists, and private parts, as well as women's breasts (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). According to the source, "people believe those body parts provide some form of magic which allows them to make their wishes come true in money ritual," for example allowing a poor person to become rich, a pastor to expand his church by gaining many worshippers and offerings, a merchant to succeed in business or a politician to win an election (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). According to the US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2020, kidnappings and ritual killings [in Nigeria] are due to the fact that ritualists "believ[e] certain body parts confer mystical powers" (US 30 Mar. 2021, 40).
An article published in 2016 in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies by Samuel Oyewole, an assistant lecturer in political science at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (FUOYE n.d.), lists the reasons behind ritual kidnapping and killing, establishing that the two main reasons for these rituals are faith and materialism: faith being justified by religion, tradition and superstition, and materialism being justified by the quest for fame, favour, protection, power, success and wealth (Oyewole Nov. 2016, 40). Kingsley Ezemenaka, a doctoral fellow at the University of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic), notes in an article published in an academic journal that materialism in ritual kidnappings also applies to "men of God" who engage in human sacrifice to generate a lot of money and proceeds through the offerings and tithes from the members who are drawn through these rituals, as well as youths who engage in ritual killings and kidnappings to improve their chances in terms of employment opportunities (Ezemenaka 30 Dec. 2018, 240). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a researcher at the University of Toronto who holds a PhD and works in social justice education, and who has previously conducted field research in Edo State on rites and rituals, among other things, mentioned that ritual killings are essentially based on religious motivations (Researcher 4 Oct. 2021).
1.1 Extent Based on Geographic and Social Variations
In terms of the geographic distribution of ritual killings, sources reported that they are more prevalent in the country's southern regions than in the north (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021; Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021; Researcher 4 Oct. 2021), notably because of the dominance of Islam in the north that more harshly punishes these practices, according to the Associate Professor (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). The same sources state that most cases of ritual killings occur in big cities (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021; Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021; Researcher 4 Oct. 2021), and according to the Senior Research Fellow, when they do happen in rural areas, the victims are generally brought in from urban or semi-urban areas (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021). EASO cites David Pratten again, noting that [EU English version] "'[r]eporting from across Nigeria suggests that there is no real ethnic or local distribution to be aware of though there are probably fewer incidents in the northern states of the country'" (EU Nov. 2018, 121).
As for the ethnic groups involved, the oral sources also explained that this varies and that in the south, perpetrators are mostly Yoruba or Igbo [given that they are the local populations (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021)] (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021; Canadian Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021), followed by the Edo, according to the Associate Professor (4 Oct. 2021), and the "Efik/Ibibio," as stated by the Senior Research Fellow(Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021). However, the researcher stated that ritual killings occur throughout Nigeria and that there is no difference between ethnic groups (Researcher 4 Oct. 2021).
As for the social classes involved, the Associate Professor stated that wealthier individuals are more involved in ritual killings because they can afford to use intermediaries and corrupt the police and judiciary to avoid the death penalty (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). The researcher stated that the level of wealth is "the only factor that explains all the variations of ritual killings in Nigeria" and explained that the phenomenon is "hidden in the northern regions because all perpetrators are almost [always] rich people while victims are always poor people both in the northern and southern regions" (Researcher 4 Oct. 2021). The Senior Research Fellow stated that "this phenomenon of ritual killings has no economic class distinction especially when it is related to money-making," although he also noted that "by far the class of people most connected with cases of ritual killings is the 'nouveau riche'" (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021).
With respect to the difference between the sexes, the researcher stated that there was no difference on the basis of sex (Researcher 4 Oct. 2021). However, the Associate Professor explained that more women are killed because they are less able to defend themselves than men (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). Vanguard, a Nigerian daily newspaper, reports that "female parts are more in demand than their male counterparts" because of "the potency of some parts like the breasts and lower private parts in money rituals and other purposes by herbalists and occult groups" (Vanguard 2 Sept. 2017).
Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) reports that there are socalled "baby factories" across the country that have been reported by international observers, without providing further details on these observers and their sources, and that these factories are often disguised as orphanages that sell the children for "sacrificial rituals" (Australia 3 Dec. 2020, 41). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
2. Prevalence of Ritual Killings and Human Sacrifice
In 2017, EASO noted that "[i]t is difficult to say how widespread the phenomenon of ritual killing is in present-day Nigeria" (EU June 2017, 59). However, the same source stated in 2019 that "[b]elief in witchcraft (or juju) is widespread in Nigeria" and that ritual killing appears to be "an increasing phenomenon" (EU Feb. 2019, 55, 56). According to an article by columnist Dakuku Peterside published in May 2021 by Premium Times, a national online newspaper founded in 2011 and published by Premium Times Limited, a Nigerian organization based in Abuja with a vision "to help strengthen Nigeria's democracy, advance the socio-economic wellbeing and rights of the people" (Premium Times n.d.), "[i]ncidents of ritual killings have presently assumed an alarming rate in Nigeria" (Peterside 10 May 2021). TheCable, an online Nigerian newspaper, notes that "[i]n recent times, reported cases of ritual killings have surged in many parts of the country" (TheCable 26 May 2021). The same source reports that a greater surge has been seen in the south-west region of the country (TheCable 26 May 2021).
According to EASO, it is reported that "in the first five months of 2018, there have been 72 deaths related to ritual killings" and that "deaths due to witchcraft and ritual killings account for 1% of all violent deaths between 2006 and 2014" (EU Feb. 2019, 56). Quoting David Pratten, the same source notes that [EU English version] "'overall, the number of such attacks is low'" and that "'ritual murder is NOT a "systematic practice"'" (EU Nov. 2018, 121, emphasis in original).
EASO further notes that researchers differ on the reality and the extent of ritual killings (EU June 2017, 59). However, some sources have stated that the phenomenon of ritual killings is "rising" (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021; Researcher 4 Oct. 2021).
3. Specific Incidents of Known Cases
3.1 Cases of Convictions for Ritual Murders
With respect to convictions, Vanguard notes that in May 2020, the High Court of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, sentenced two men to death by hanging after they were found guilty of the murder of an 8-year-old girl in August 2017 (Vanguard 13 May 2020). According to the source, one of the ritualists admitted to the crime and maintained that he was asked to "deliver the little girl's sensitive organs to gain financial independence" (Vanguard 13 May 2020).
Vanguard also notes the case of two men, a driver and an herbalist, who were sentenced to death in April 2020 by the Osun State High Court in Ikirun for the ritual murder of a student at Osun State University at the herbalist's request in December 2016, in exchange for 10,000 nairas (NGN) [C$30] (Vanguard 3 Apr. 2020).
3.2 Cases of Arrests for Ritual Killings
Media sources report the following cases:
- A 19-year-old man was arrested in Akinyele, Oyo State and accused of a series of murders in the region; he confessed to having received food and 500 NGN [C$1.50] from an herbalist for each of the six persons he murdered (Vanguard 17 July 2020; TheCable 26 May 2021).
- Three suspected ritualists were apprehended by law enforcement members in the Boluwaji area of Ibadan in connection with the death of a 73-year-old man; one of them confessed to killing the victim and to being a human parts merchant (Vanguard 21 Sept. 2021).
- Following his arrest after being reported by neighbours, a suspected ritualist recounted in June 2021 that he had assisted his friend in killing his friend's girlfriend because "he was promised parts of the body by his friend for [a] money ritual" (Vanguard 11 June 2021).
- Several people were arrested for the murder of a woman on her farm in the Oku Abak community in the Abak Council area in March 2020, one of whom confessed to beheading the victim and being paid 150,000 NGN [C$455] by a prophetess seeking human heads for rituals (Vanguard 8 Mar. 2020).
- Four people, including a female herbalist, who were suspected of kidnapping a female student and killing her for ritual purposes on 23 February 2020, in Otuo, in the Owan East area, were set ablaze by a mob in front of the community police station (Vanguard 24 Feb. 2020).
- A 24-year-old man arrested in Kwara State is suspected of killing his 14-year-old brother on 13 September 2021, after conspiring with another man and an herbalist, with the intention of using his body for money rituals (Vanguard 25 Sept. 2021).
- TheCable lists the following cases:
- A case on 20 August 2018, where a man was arrested by police for killing his mother for money rituals;
- on 27 November 2018, two brothers allegedly beheaded a teenage boy in Sapati town, Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos;
- in June 2019, a man was arrested in the Igboora area for the alleged murder of a 25yearold woman for ritual purposes;
- in December 2020, Osun State police arrested two brothers who had several corpses and mutilated bodies in their possession in Iwo, Osun State; and
- a case in April 2021, where a woman was murdered and her body mutilated in Ile-Ife, Osun State (TheCable 26 May 2021).
3.3 Suspected Cases of Ritual Killings Without an Arrest
US Country Reports 2020 states that in June , five bodies matching the descriptions of five persons killed in Oyo State were found with vital organs missing, "and it was suspected that the organs were harvested for ritualistic use" (US 30 Mar. 2021, 40).
Vanguard relates the story of a 70-year-old grandmother who was murdered by ritualists in February 2020 at her home in Ogbagi Akoko, Ondo State, her sensitive body parts were removed, some of which were left at the scene by the unknown killers (Vanguard 17 Feb. 2020). According to the source, ritualists are increasingly targeting elderly women as victims, many of whom live alone (Vanguard 17 Feb. 2020). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
4. State Protection
The Criminal Code Act of 1990 provides the following:
Ordeal, Witchcraft, Juju and Criminal Charms
207. Unlawful trial by ordeal: prohibited juju
- The trial by the ordeal of sasswood, esere-bean, or the poison, boiling oil, fire, immersion in water or exposure to the attacks of crocodiles or other wild animals, or by any ordeal which is likely to result in the death of or bodily injury to any party to the proceeding, is unlawful.
- The President or, as the case may be, the Governor of a State may by order prohibit the worship or invocation of any juju which may appear to him to involve or tend towards the commission of any crime or breach of peace, or to the spread of any infectious or contagious disease.
208. Directing, etc., unlawful trial by ordeal
Any person who directs or controls or presides at any trial by ordeal which is unlawful, is guilty of a felony and is liable, when the trial which such person directs, controls or presides at results in the death of any party to the proceeding, to the punishment of death and m [sic] every other case, to imprisonment for ten years.
209. Being present at, or making poison for, unlawful trial by ordeal
Any person who-
- is present at or takes part in any trial by ordeal which is unlawful; or
- makes, sells or assists or takes part in making or selling, or has in his possession for sale or use any poison or thing which is intended to be used for the purpose of any trial by ordeal which is unlawful,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for one year.
210. Offences in relation to witchcraft and juju
Any person who-
- by his statements or actions represents himself to be a witch or to have the power of witchcraft; or
- accuses or threatens to accuse any person with being a witch or with having the power of witchcraft; or
- makes or sells or uses, or assists or takes part in making or selling or using or has in his possession or represents himself to be in possession of any juju, drug or charm which is intended to be used or reported to possess the power to prevent or delay any person from doing an act which such person has a legal right to do, or to compel any person to do an act which such person has a legal right to refrain from doing, or which is alleged or reported to possess the power of causing any natural phenomenon or any disease or epidemic; or
- directs or controls or presides at or is present at or takes part in the worship or invocation of any juju which is prohibited by an order of the President or the Governor of a State; or
- is in possession of or has control over any human remains which are used or are intended to be used in connection with the worship or invocation of any juju; or
- makes or uses or assists in making or using, or has in his possession anything whatsoever the making, use or possession of which has been prohibited by an order as being or believed to be associated with human sacrifice or other unlawful practice,
is guilty of misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
319. Punishment of murder …
- Subject to the provisions of this section of this Code, any person who commits the offence of murder shall be sentenced to death. … (Nigeria 1990)
4.2 Government Actions and Measures
According to the Associate Professor, "even if there are still loopholes, police forces and judicial authorities are doing their best to enforce the Penal code in order to punish ritual killings and related practices such as human sacrifices, ordeal, juju and witchcraft" (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). EASO states that [EU English version] "[t]he media reports on ritual killings are based on police arrests and actions by local or state authorities to curb the killings" (EU Nov. 2018, 121).
In his article from 2016, researcher Samuel Oyewole states as follows in this regard:
The government of Nigeria at the federal level and in some states have responded to this threat [of kidnappings for ritual purposes] with legalistic criminalisation and general policing. The police and the civil defence have been at the forefront of the war against ritualists in Nigeria. A series of arrests and trials of suspected ritualists and associated kidnapping syndicates have been recorded. However, the threat of kidnapping for rituals remain undeterred in Nigeria. The police remain weak in capacity for real time situations, which is very crucial to deter or counter the threat. There have been little commitment to investigate incidents, search and rescues victims or adopt a pre-emptive policing, which involves the search and destroy of dens of ritualists and kidnapping syndicates in Nigeria. Alas, there is a series of popular allegations where arrested suspects were released by police, as a result of corrupt inducement or order from above, without trials. Even when suspects are charged in court, the cases are often unnecessarily prolonged with a series of appeal[s]. (Oyewole Nov. 2016, 46)
The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), established by the government of Nigeria, reports that in a move to curb kidnappings and ritual killings, the police inaugurated in January 2018 Squadron 63, which is equipped with dozens of policemen in the Ikorodu area in Igbogbo Baiyeku, Lagos State (NAN 22 Jan. 2018). However, according to the president of a security company quoted in a Vanguard article, citizens were losing faith in the ability of the police to detect and punish ritual killers, which had led to an increase in the lynching of suspects so that citizens deliver justice themselves (Vanguard 2 Sept. 2017). The Associate Professor also stated that although the lynching of suspects does occur due to the population's mistrust of corrupt police and judiciary authorities, it does not happen every day (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021).
The Associate Professor further stated that the authorities created another additional security level [the Western Nigeria Security Network  (Associate Professor 20 Oct. 2021)] that is closer to the population to complement the efforts made by police in zones where several ritual killings have occurred, setting up a neighbourhood watch that works with vigilante groups organized by the local communities (Associate Professor 4 Oct. 2021). The researcher mentioned that local vigilante groups are trying to secure the neighbourhoods without any assistance from the government and that the police usually come to investigate after a murder (Researcher 4 Oct. 2021). In terms of state protection, the Senior Research Fellow also indicated the following:
Unfortunately there are no special protections or legal framework against ritual killings. The act is treated as such criminal case like murder. Oftentimes perpetrators of the crime have more chances of going unprosecuted than [other] murderers because of possible intervention of powerful personalities who might be implicated if due legal processes are employed. (Senior Research Fellow 4 Oct. 2021)
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
 The Western Nigeria Security Network (WNSN), also called "Operation Amotekun," is a regional security outfit established on 9 January 2020 that comprises Nigeria's six southwestern states and complements the work of the "mainstream security agencies in the country" (NAN 9 Jan. 2020).
Associate Professor, Brock University. 20 October 2021. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Associate Professor, Brock University. 4 October 2021. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Australia. 3 December 2020. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). Country Information Report: Nigeria. [Accessed 26 Sept. 2021]
European Union (EU). February 2019. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). Country Guidance: Nigeria. [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
European Union (EU). November 2018. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). Rapport d'information sur les pays d'origine. Nigeria : Individus pris pour cibles. [Accessed 30 Sept. 2021]
European Union (EU). June 2017. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). EASO Country of Origin Information Report. Nigeria: Country Focus. [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Ezemenaka, Kingsley Emeka. 30 December 2018. "Kidnapping: A Security Challenge in Nigeria." Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues. Vol. 8, No. 2. [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Federal University Oye-Ekiti (FUOYE). N.d. Political Science Department. "Department Staff." [Accessed 30 Oct. 2021]
News Agency of Nigeria (NAN). 9 January 2020. "South West Governors Explain Why Operation Amotekun Was Established." [Accessed 14 Oct. 2021]
News Agency of Nigeria (NAN). 22 January 2018. "Badoo Killings: IGP Ibrahim Idris Sets Up Mobile Police Base in Ikorodu." [Accessed 21 Oct. 2021]
Nigeria. 1990. Criminal Code Act. [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Oyewole, Samuel. November 2016. "Kidnapping for Rituals: Article of Faith and Insecurity in Nigeria." Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies. Vol. 9, No. 9. [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Peterside, Dakaku. 10 May 2021. "The Scourge of Ritual Killings in Nigeria, by Dakuku Peterside." [Accessed 26 Sept. 2021]
Pratten, David. August 2017. "Ritual Killings, Cults and Chieftancy." EASO COI Meeting Report. Nigeria: Practical Cooperation Meeting, 12-13 June 2017, Rome. European Union (EU), European Asylum Support Office (EASO). [Accessed 18 Oct. 2021]
Premium Times. N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 20 Oct. 2021]
Researcher, University of Toronto. 4 October 2021. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Senior Research Fellow, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 4 October 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
TheCable. 26 May 2021. Ayodele Oluwafemi. "Timeline: How South-West Is Becoming a Hotbed of Ritual Killings in Nigeria." [Accessed 26 Sept. 2021]
United States (US). 30 March 2021. Department of State. "Nigeria." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2020. [Accessed 26 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 25 September 2021. "Man Arrested for Allegedly Killing His Brother for Rituals in Kwara." [Accessed 26 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 21 September 2021. Adeola Badru. "Oyo Amoteukun Nabs Suspected Ritualists with Corpse in Ibadan." [Accessed 30 Oct. 2021]
Vanguard. 11 June 2021. Shina Abubakar. "How I Helped My Friend Kill, Butcher His Lover for Ritual — Suspect." [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 17 July 2020. Adeola Badru. "Akinyele Killings: 50-yr-old Herbalist Gives Me N500 Anytime I Kill My Victims." [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 13 May 2020. Egufe Yafugborhi and Davies Iheamnachor. "Court Sentences Dike, One Other to Death for Ritual Murder of 8-yr-old Chikamso." [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 3 April 2020. Shina Abubakar. "Two to Die by Hanging for Killing Uniosun Female, as Court Forfeits Shrine to Govt." [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 8 March 2020. Harris Emanuel. "Four Nabbed in Akwa Ibom for Beheading Woman for Ritual Purpose." [Accessed 30 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 24 February 2020. Ozioruva Aliu. "4 Burnt to Death for Kidnapping SS III Student for Rituals in Edo." [Accessed 30 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 17 February 2020. Dayo Johnson. "70yr-old Grandma Killed by Ritualists in Ondo, Sensitive Body Parts Removed." [Accessed 28 Sept. 2021]
Vanguard. 2 September 2017. Evelyn Usman. "Why Killings for Rituals Are on the Increase in Nigeria." [Accessed 30 Sept. 2021]
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: Associate professor at an American university who specializes in African beliefs and religions; associate professor who specializes in gender in African religions and Yoruba religious practices, including rituals; associate professor at an American university who specializes in religious practices, sermon practices and ethnic problems of the Yoruba; associate professor at an American university who specializes in the practices of traditional religions; executive vice-president of a school of public policy at a Nigerian university; head of the Department of African Studies and Anthropology at an American university; Nigeria – Nigeria Police Force, high commission in Ottawa; professor emeritus at an American university who specializes in religions and Yoruba-language regions in Nigeria; professor at an American university who specializes in cultural and historical interpretations in West Africa; professor at a university in the UK who specializes in ethno-regional and religious conflict in Nigeria; professor at an American university who specializes in history and African studies; professor at a Nigerian university who specializes in sociology, criminology and security studies; professor at an American university who specializes in studies on the Yoruba diaspora; researcher and doctoral student in African studies at a Czech university; researcher with a PhD in sociology who conducted a study on sects in Nigeria; senior lecturer at a Nigerian university who specializes in chieftaincy and ritual practices in Yoruba-speaking regions; senior lecturer at a Nigerian university who specializes in cultural practices and traditional communities; senior lecturer at an American university who specializes in Yoruba and African studies; senior researcher at an American university who specializes in African studies; senior researcher at a Nigerian university who specializes in conflict studies, ethnic and religious groups; senior researcher at a Nigerian university who specializes in strategic studies, crisis management, sect and ritual murder studies; Yoruba Traditional & Cultural Renaissance.
Internet sites, including: Al Jazeera; Amnesty International; BBC; Bertelsmann Stiftung; Blueprint; Brookings Institution; BuzzNigeria.com; Child Rights International Network; The Daily Champion; Daily Nigerian; Daily Review Online; Daily Trust; Every Nigeria; Factiva; Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria; Fédération internationale pour les droits humains; France – Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides; Freedom House; The Guardian [Nigeria]; The Herald; Humanists International; Human Rights Watch; International Crisis Group; Institute for War & Peace Reporting; Leadership; Médecins sans frontières; Metro Daily Nigeria; Metro Times Nigeria; Minority Rights Group International; The Mirror Nigeria; Mondo Times; NaijaNews.com; The Nation; Netherlands – Ministry of Foreign Affairs; The New Humanitarian; Nigeria – Federal Ministry of Justice, National Human Rights Commission, Nigeria Police Force; The Nigerian Observer; Nigerian Tribune; Nigeria Watch; People's Daily; The Punch; Reporters sans frontières; Republican Nigeria; Swiss Refugee Council; UK – Home Office; UN – Human Rights Council, Refworld; US – Overseas Security Advisory Council; Voice of America; Voice of Nigeria; Wilson Center.