Anfragebeantwortung zu Syrien: Lage von Kindern allgemein, die Rolle von Kindern im Bürgerkrieg, die Situation von Mädchen, Kinderarbeit, Bildung, Kinder ohne familiären Anschluss, unbegleitetende rückkehrende Kinder, Waisenhäuser [a-11561]

27. April 2021

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen sowie gegebenenfalls auf Expertenauskünften, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Allgemeine Lage von Kindern 

Rolle von Kindern im Bürgerkrieg     

Situation von Mädchen          

Kinderarbeit    

Bildung           

Einreise von unbegleiteten minderjährigen Kindern  

Zuständigkeit für Kinder ohne familiären Anschluss 

Situation von Waisenkindern 

Quellen           

Anhang: Quellenbeschreibungen und Informationen aus ausgewählten Quellen   

Kurzbeschreibungen zu den in dieser Anfragebeantwortung verwendeten Quellen sowie Ausschnitte mit Informationen aus diesen Quellen finden Sie im Anhang.

Allgemeine Lage von Kindern

UNICEF berichtete im März 2021, dass fast 90 Prozent der Kinder in Syrien humanitäre Hilfe benötigen würden (UNICEF, 10. März 2021). Das Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) dokumentierte zwischen März 2011 und März 2021 den Tod von 29.457 Kindern durch die am Konflikt beteiligten Parteien (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 15). Mindestens 180 Kinder seien durch Folter gestorben (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 18). Mindestens 4.924 der durch die Konfliktparteien verhafteten und verschwundenen Kinder seien im März 2021 in Haft (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 16).

Laut UNICEF seien 2019 897 Kinder getötet, 557 Kinder verletzt und 820 Kinder rekrutiert worden. Es habe außerdem 157 Angriffe auf Bildungseinrichtungen und 105 Angriffe auf medizinische Einrichtungen gegeben (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 2).

Die Hälfte aller medizinischen Einrichtungen sei nur teilweise oder gar nicht in Betrieb. Über zwei Drittel von Kindern mit physischen oder psychischen Beeinträchtigungen würden spezialisierte Dienste benötigen, die in ihrer Gegend nicht verfügbar seien (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 7).

UN OCHA berichtet in seinem Humanitarian Response Plan 2020 von Kindern mit psychosozialen Belastungen, Kindern, die chronisch unterernährt seien, Kindern, die beim Spielen von explodierenden Gegenständen verletzt oder getötet wurden sowie über Kinderehen und Zwangsverheiratung von Mädchen und geschlechtsspezifischer Gewalt aufgrund von Armut (UN OCHA, Dezember 2020, S. 9).

Rolle von Kindern im Bürgerkrieg

Laut UNICEF seien zwischen 2011 und 2020 mehr als 5.700 Kinder (sieben Jahre und älter) zum Kampf rekrutiert worden (UNICEF, 10. März 2021).

Das European Asylum Support Office (EASO) schreibt in seinem COI-Bericht zum Militärdienst in Syrien vom April 2021, dass laut Auskünften von Interviewpartnern die syrische Armee (Syrian Arab Army, SAA) zur Zeit der Interviews im Februar 2021 keine minderjährigen Buben rekrutiert habe. Andere Quellen hätten jedoch 2020 angegeben, dass die Streitkräfte der Regierung und affiliierte Milizen Kinder rekrutieren würden. Auch die regierungsnahen Milizen der National Defence Forces (NDF) würden Kinder rekrutieren (EASO, April 2021, S. 19-20).

Laut World Vision International seien 82 Prozent der rekrutierten Kinder in direkten Kampfrollen eingesetzt worden und 25 Prozent der rekrutierten Kinder seien jünger als 15 Jahre alt gewesen (World Vision International, 4. März 2021, S. 8).

Laut SNHR hätten die Streitkräfte des syrischen Regimes routinemäßig zum Militärdienst eingezogen. Kinder seien in verschiedenen Rollen tätig. Sie würden zum Transport von Munition, Reinigung, Befestigung und Bewachung innerhalb der ihnen zugeteilten Gruppen. Bei Schlachten und Angriffen würden sie zusammen mit Erwachsenen an Kämpfen teilnehmen. (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 19)

Auch die mehrheitlich kurdischen Demokratischen Kräfte Syriens würden laut SNHR Kinder gewaltsam einziehen. Vor allem die Organisation Ciwan oreger (‚Revolutionäre Jugend‘) und die Frauenschutzabteilung seien bekannt dafür, Kinder zu rekrutieren, auszubilden und in die Kampfeinheiten aufzunehmen. Seit Anfang 2020 sei eine Zunahme von Kindesentführungen (Buben sowie Mädchen) durch diese Gruppierungen festgestellt worden (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 28-29)

Laut den internationalen Schutzüberlegungen des UNHCR vom März 2021 würden Konfliktakteure Kinder entführen, willkürlich verhaften und inhaftieren, verschwinden lassen, foltern, vergewaltigen und sie anderen Formen sexueller Gewalt aussetzen (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 174).

Laut Menschenrechtsrat der Vereinten Nationen (UN Human Rights Council, HRC) würde das Regime Jungen im Alter von 12 Jahren schweren Schlägen und Folter aussetzen und ihnen den Zugang zu Nahrungsmitteln, Wasser, sanitären Einrichtungen und medizinischer Versorgung verweigern. Es gebe männliche und weibliche Häftlingen im Alter von 11 Jahren, die in den Sicherheitsabteilungen 215, 227, 235 und 248 in Damaskus registriert seien. Kinder seien Zeugen von Folter und anderen Misshandlungen von Familienmitgliedern geworden und gelegentlich gezwungen worden, andere Häftlinge zu foltern. In Haft befindliche Jungen seien außerdem besonders anfällig für sexuelle Gewalt (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 1 und S. 14-15).

Situation von Mädchen

Einschätzungen von World Vision International in Nordwest-Syrien zeigen, dass jedes einzelne Mädchen, mit dem gesprochen wurde, in der Angst lebe, vergewaltigt und sexuell angegriffen zu werden. Kinderehen hätten ein alarmierendes Ausmaß erreicht (World Vision International, 4. März 2021, S. 8)

Laut der Humanitarian Situation Overview der REACH Initiative zu Nordost-Syrien im Februar 2021 würden 24 Prozent von Anwohnern und 25 Prozent von Binnenvertriebenen Kinderehen als negative Bewältigungsmechanismen verwenden, um ihre Grundbedürfnisse finanzieren zu können (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 9). In Nordwest-Syrien seien es 40 Prozent der Anwohner und 50 Prozent der Binnenvertriebenen (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 9).

Laut UNICEF würden fast 70 Prozent der Gemeinschaften innerhalb Syriens Kinderehen als ein Problem ansehen. Meistens seien Mädchen von Kinderehen betroffen (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 5).

Syrians for Truth and Justice (STJ) beobachtet in seinem Bericht vom September 2020 einen eklatanten Anstieg von Kinderehen in der Provinz Idlib, im Norden Aleppos, sowie in der Provinz al-Hasaka. In Idlib und im nördlichen Aleppo würden Kinderehen die Mehrheit aller geschlossenen Ehen ausmachen (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 3).

Viele der frühen Ehen seien nicht registriert. Dies habe zur Folge, dass Mädchen und Frauen keine Rechte bezüglich Erbe oder Geldzahlungen im Falle einer Trennung hätten. Für Kinder aus diesen Ehen gebe es keine Geburtsurkunden und als Folge keine anderen offiziellen Dokumente. Die Kinder hätten somit keinen Anspruch auf Bildung oder Erbschaft, keine Beschäftigungsmöglichkeiten oder Erwerb von Besitz (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 4).

Gründe für die frühen Eheschließungen von Mädchen seien vor allem Armut, aber auch soziale Gründe (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 5, S. 8, S. 10).

UNFPA stellt im April 2020 fest, dass Mädchen aus Angst vor Entführung und anschließender sexueller Gewalt, sexueller Belästigung auf dem Schulweg und am Schulgelände und aus Angst vor körperlicher und sexueller Belästigung durch das Personal nicht zur Schule geschickt würden und ihre Ausbildung nicht abschließen könnten (UNFPA, 2. April 2020, S. 18).

HRC gibt im Jänner 2020 an, dass auch Mädchen in Kriegsrollen verwendet würden. Kinder würden aktiv kämpfen, als Spione oder Informanten tätig sein, sowie an Checkpoints arbeiten (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 10). HRC beschreibt weiters, dass Frauen und Mädchen seit den Anfängen des Syrienkonflikts aufgrund ihres Geschlechts angegriffen würden. Vergewaltigung und sexuelle Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen würde während Razzien in Privathäusern, an Checkpoints sowie in Haft begangen werden. Frauen und Mädchen würden unter anderem in Haftanstalten der Regierung vergewaltigt und sexuell angegriffen werden (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 15).

Kinderarbeit

Das US-Außenministerium (US Department of State, USDOS) beschreibt in seinem Länderbericht zu Menschenrechtspraktiken in Syrien im Jahr 2020, dass das Gesetz den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung am Arbeitsplatz vorsehe und die schlimmstem Formen der Kinderarbeit verbiete, das Regime jedoch keine nennenswerten Anstrengungen unternommen habe, um das Gesetz durchzusetzen. Das Mindestalter für die meisten Arten von nicht-landwirtschaftlichen Arbeitskräften betrage 15 Jahre oder der Abschluss der Grundschule, und das Mindestalter und die Beschäftigung in Branchen mit schwerer Arbeit betrage 17 Jahre. Laut USDOS finde Kinderarbeit im Land sowohl in informellen Sektoren wie Betteln (unter anderem auch durch organisierte Bettelringe), als Hausangestellte und in der Landwirtschaft als auch in konfliktbezogenen Positionen wie als Beobachter, Spion und Informanten statt (USDOS, 30. März 2021, Section 7).

Laut UNICEF, ILO und UNHCR würden Kinder in Syrien in den unterschiedlichsten Sparten arbeiten, bezahlt und unbezahlt, selbst organisiert und angestellt. Kinder würden in der Landwirtschaft, im Straßenverkauf, beim Waschen von Autos, bei Metallarbeiten, in Tischlereien und als Bettler arbeiten. Viele Kinder würden auch von Streitkräften und bewaffneten Gruppierungen rekrutiert und ausgebeutet werden (UNICEF/ILO/UNHCR, 31. Oktober 2019, S. 9).

Das Borgen Project fasst auf seiner Webseite im Oktober 2019 die Situation von Kinderarbeit in Syrien zusammen. Kinder würden sowohl im Freien arbeiten und zum Beispiel an Ständen verkaufen, wie auch in Fabriken, als Reinigungskräfte, Müllsammler, Bauarbeiter, Mechaniker oder Tischler. In Damaskus könne man Kinder im Alter von sieben Jahren arbeiten sehen (The Borgen Project, 22. Oktober 2019).

UNHCR stellt im März 2021 fest, dass Kinder in Syrien schlimmsten Formen von Kinderarbeit ausgesetzt seien, wie z. B. Rekrutierung von Minderjährigen, Menschenhandel, Zwangsarbeit und kommerzielle sexuelle Ausbeutung sowie gefährliche Arbeiten, die ihre Gesundheit, Sicherheit oder Moral beeinträchtigen, wie Betteln, Straßenverkauf, Müllabfuhr, als Hausangestellte und Arbeiten auf Baustellen (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 176).

Laut UNFPA seien Buben besonders anfällig für die schlimmsten Formen von Kinderarbeit und Missbrauch, während Mädchen einem extremen Risiko von Ausbeutung, verbaler und sexueller Belästigung ausgesetzt seien, wenn sie zur Arbeit oder zum Betteln gezwungen werden (UNFPA, 2. April 2020, S. 20).

Laut UNICEF würden 84 Prozent der Gemeinschaften innerhalb Syriens Kinderarbeit als ein Problem ansehen. Die meisten Fälle von Kinderarbeit seien in Ar-Raqaa und Deir-ez-Zor gemeldet worden (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 5).

Laut dem Humanitarian Situation Overview der REACH Initiative zu Nordost-Syrien im Februar 2021 würden 48 Prozent von Anwohnern und 58 Prozent von Binnenvertriebenen ihre Kinder (15 Jahre oder jünger) arbeiten schicken, um ihre Grundbedürfnisse finanzieren zu können (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 9). In Nordwest-Syrien seien es 74 Prozent der Anwohner und 83 Prozent der Binnenvertriebenen (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 9).

12 Prozent der Gemeinden in Nordost-Syrien hätten angegeben, dass auch Kinder unter 12 Jahren von Kinderarbeit betroffen seien (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 9). In Nordwest-Syrien hätten dies 17 Prozent der Gemeinden angegeben (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 9).

Bildung

UNICEF berichtet im Jänner 2021, dass das Bildungssystem in Syrien überlastet, unterfinanziert und fragmentiert sei. Über 2,4 Millionen Kinder würden keine Schule besuchen, fast 40 Prozent seien Mädchen. Eine von drei Schulen in Syrien könne nicht mehr genutzt werden, da sie zerstört, beschädigt oder für militärische Zwecke genutzt werde. Kinder, die zur Schule gehen können, würden häufig in überfüllten Klassenzimmern und in Gebäuden mit unzureichenden Wasser- und Sanitäranlagen, Strom, Heizung oder Lüftung lernen. Im vergangenen Jahr habe die UN 52 Angriffe auf Bildungseinrichtungen und Personal bestätigt (UNICEF, 24. Jänner 2021).

Laut dem Humanitarian Situation Overview der REACH Initiative zu Nordost-Syrien im Februar 2021 hätten in 22 Prozent der Gemeinschaften von Anwohnern und in 59 Prozent der Gemeinschaften von Binnenvertriebenen nur die Hälfte oder weniger als die Hälfte der Kindern in den 30 Tagen vor der Befragung eine Schule besucht (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 6). In Nordwest-Syrien sei die Situation in 39 Prozent der Gemeinschaften von Anwohnern und in 63 Prozent der Gemeinschaften von Binnenvertriebenen der Fall gewesen (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 6).

World Vision International gibt im März 2021 an, dass strategische und weit verbreitete Angriffe auf die Bildung ein Merkmal des Syrienkonflikts seien und sich systematisch gegen die Bildungsinfrastruktur und das Personal richten würden (World Vision International, 4. März 2021, S. 11).

UNHCR beschreibt im März 2021, dass in Gebieten, in denen Schulen systematisch von Luftangriffen oder Bombardierungen durch Konfliktparteien betroffen sind, Kindern regelmäßig das Recht auf Bildung entzogen werde, da Schulen geschlossen, beschädigt oder zerstört würden oder weil Eltern um die Sicherheit ihrer Kinder fürchten würden. In Gebieten, die von extremistischen islamistischen Gruppen kontrolliert werden, werde berichtet, dass Mädchen nicht die Schule besuchen könnten, wenn sie sich nicht an die Kleiderordnung dieser Gruppen halten würden (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 177-178).

SNHR dokumentierte Angriffe auf Schulen. Streitkräfte des syrischen Regimes hätten am 16. Dezember 2019 die Martyr Yaser Da’boul Schule in Hayyan in der Provinz Aleppo angegriffen, und am 1. Jänner 2020 die Martyr Abdo Salameh Basic Schule in Aleppo (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 16). Am 25. Februar 2020 hätte eine Rakete die al Thawra Schule in Idlib getroffen und am 27. Juli 2020 die al Muhdatha Schule in der Provinz Idlib (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 16, S. 8). Auch die russischen Streitkräfte würden laut SNHR bei ihren Angriffen gezielt Schulen und Kindergärten ins Visier nehmen, was zum Tod vieler Kinder führe (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 22).

Laut der Initiative No Lost Generation (NLG) würden 94 Prozent aller Kinder im schulpflichtigen Alter in Gebieten mit schweren, extremen oder katastrophalen Bildungsbedingungen leben. Im Jahr 2020 seien mindestens 42 Kinder getötet und 38 Kinder verletzt worden durch 61 nachgewiesene Angriffe auf Bildungseinrichtungen und 31 nachgewiesene Fälle von militärischer Nutzung von Schulen. 90 Prozent der überprüften Vorfälle hätten sich im Nordwesten Syriens ereigneten. 75 Prozent der für militärische Zwecke genutzten Schulen befänden sich im Nordosten Syriens (NLG, April 2021, S. 2).

Einreise von unbegleiteten minderjährigen Kindern

Es konnten keine Information zur Einreise von unbegleiteten minderjährigen Kindern nach Syrien gefunden werden. Gesucht wurde mittels ecoi.net, Factiva und Google auf Deutsch, Englisch und Arabisch nach einer Kombination aus folgenden Suchbegriffen: Syrien, unbegleitete minderjährige, Kinder, Flüchtlinge, Europe, Abschiebung, Rücksendung, Einreise, Versorgung

Zuständigkeit für Kinder ohne familiären Anschluss

Nach Angaben des syrischen Ministeriums für Arbeit und Soziales ist dieses für die Situation von Waisenkindern und Kindern ohne familiären Anschluss vor Ort zuständig. Auf der Webseite des Ministeriums gibt es zwar eine Anleitung, wie man einen Platz für ein Kind in einem Waisenhaus beantragen könne (Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, ohne Datum). Es konnten jedoch keine Informationen dazu gefunden werden, welche spezifische Abteilung oder Behörde sich auf welche Art und Weise in der Praxis um Kinder ohne familiären Anschluss kümmert.

Gesucht wurde mittels ecoi.net, Factiva und Google auf Deutsch, Englisch und Arabisch nach einer Kombination aus folgenden Suchbegriffen: Syrien, Waisenkinder, getrennt, ohne familiären Anschluss, verantwortlich, Obsorge, Ministerium für Soziales, Waisenhäuser, Pflegefamilien, Betreuung.

Der folgende Abschnitt erwähnt unter andereminternationale Organisationen mit einem Fokus auf Waisenkindern und Kindern ohne familiären Anschluss in Syrien.

Situation von Waisenkindern

UN OCHA berichtet in einem Situationsbericht zu Nordwest-Syrien vom März 2021, dass vorübergehende Familientrennungen gemeldet worden seien, und von einem Mangel an temporären sowie Langzeit-Betreuungsplätzen für unbegleitete und getrennte Kinder berichtet würde (UN OCHA, 26. März 2021, S. 9).

Die arabischsprachige Tageszeitung mit Hauptsitz in London, Asharq al-Awsat, schreibt in einem Artikel vom Dezember 2018, dass es laut dem syrischen Ministerium für Soziales und Arbeit mehr als 30.000 Waisenkinder in Damaskus und Umgebung gebe, von denen jedoch nur 600 in Waisenhäusern leben würden (Asharq Al-Awsat, 17. Dezember 2018).

Laut der Webseite von SOS Children’s Villages gebe es in Damaskus mindestens ein SOS-Kinderdorf (Im Jahr 2017 seien aufgrund der hohen Anzahl von Kindern, die die elterliche Fürsorge verloren hatten, in einem anderen Teil von Damaskus mehr SOS-Familien gegründet worden). Die undatierte Webseite gibt an, dass zum Zeitpunkt des Eintrags 150 Kinder und junge Menschen vom SOS-Kinderdorf Damaskus betreut worden seien. (SOS Children’s Village, ohne Datum)

UNICEF schreibt im März 2017 zur Situation in Aleppo, dass es vor Ort ein von UNICEF unterstütztes Heim gebe, das 74 verwaiste und von ihren Familien getrennten Kindern ein vorübergehendes Zuhause biete, sowie den Zugang zur Schule (UNICEF, 20. März 2017).

Die 2011 von einer Gruppe von Journalisten und Aktivisten aus Daraya, Syrien, gegründete Medienorganisation Enab Baladi schreibt in einem Artikel vom Dezember 2019, dass Kinder in Waisenhäusern im Norden des Landes von Wohltätern gesponsert werden würden. Es gebe in den von der Opposition gehaltenen Gebieten in Nordsyrien 185.000 Waisenkinder. In der Stadt Sarmada sei 2013 ein Waisenhaus eingerichtet worden, das fast 100 Kinder im Alter von fünf bis 13 Jahren betreue. Das Waisenhaus sei auf Spenden von Wohltätern angewiesen, die jedoch den echten Bedarf nicht decken würden (Enab Baladi, 22. Dezember 2019).

Der Syrian Observer veröffentlicht im August 2018 einen Artikel zu Waisenhäusern in Syrien, der ursprünglich von der Webseite Ayyam stamme. Laut dem Syrian Observer stehe die Webseite Ayyam der syrischen Regierung nahe. Der Artikel beschreibt, dass laut der Servicedirektorin im Sozialministerium des Assad-Regimes, Maysa Midani, die Anzahl der Kinder in syrischen Waisenhäusern auf 32.000 gestiegen sei. 22.000 der Kinder würden in Damaskus und Umgebung leben. Der Artikel spricht über Sponsoring von Kindern durch Privatpersonen, um Essen, Kleidung, Bildung und medizinische Versorgung zu garantieren. (Es wird im Artikel nicht beschrieben, ob oder wie sich das Leben von einem gesponserten und einem nicht gesponserten Kind in einem Waisenhaus unterscheidet, Anm. ACCORD.) Kinder, deren Abstammung bekannt sei, müssten in Waisenhäusern leben und könnten nicht in Pflegefamilien untergebracht werden. Solche Kinder könnten nur von Verwandten aufgenommen werden (The Syrian Observer, 27. August 2018).

Laut UNFPA und Voices of Syria hätten unbegleitete und von ihren Eltern getrennte Kinder das Risiko verschiedenen Formen von Gewalt ausgesetzt zu seien. Sie würden verbale und körperliche Gewalt durch andere Kinder in ihren Gastfamilien erfahren und von der Gemeinschaftsstruktur ausgegrenzt werden. Andere Kinder würden unbegleitete oder getrenntlebende Kinder von ihren Spielgruppen ausschließen. Es gebe Ausbeutung durch Betreuer, wie den Zwang zu arbeiten oder zu betteln. Sexuelle Gewalt sein ein weiteres Risiko, sowie potenzielle Marginalisierung, wenn solche Formen der Gewalt überleben (UNFPA, 2. April 2020, S. 19).

UN OCHA berichtet im Oktober 2020 zur Situation im Nordwesten Syriens, dass männliche Jugendliche sexuellem Missbrauch ausgesetzt seien, insbesondere in Waisenhäusern. Es sei ein Anstieg von sexueller Belästigung und dem Missbrauch von Kindern, insbesondere durch andere Kinder, festgestellt worden (UN OCHA, 20. Oktober 2020, S. 4).

UNHCR stellt im März 2021 fest, dass unter anderem Waisen und von ihren Familien getrennte Kinder besonders anfällig seien für verschiedene Formen der Ausbeutung, einschließlich Rekrutierung von Minderjährigen, Kinderarbeit, Zwangs- und/oder Kinderehe, sexuelle Ausbeutung und Menschenhandel (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 177).

Quellen: (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 27. April 2021)

·      Asharq Al-Awsat: Mehr als 30.000 Waisenkinder in Damaskus und Umgebung
[
أكثر من 30 ألف يتيم بدمشق وريفها], 17. Dezember 2018
https://aawsat.com/home/article/1507401/%D8%A3%D9%83%D8%AB%D8%B1-%D9%85%D9%86-30-%D8%A3%D9%84%D9%81-%D9%8A%D8%AA%D9%8A%D9%85-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D9%85%D8%B4%D9%82-%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%87%D8%A7

·      EASO – European Asylum Support Office: Syria: Military Service, April 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2048969/2021_04_EASO_COI_Report_Military_Service.pdf

·      Enab Baladi: Waisenkinder aus Nordsyrien von "Philanthropen" gesponsert
[
أيتام الشمال السوري برعايةفاعلي الخير], 22. Dezember 2019
https://www.enabbaladi.net/archives/350721

·      HRC – UN Human Rights Council: “They have erased the dreams of my children”: children’s rights in the Syrian Arab Republic; Conference Room Paper of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic [A/HRC/43/CRP.6], 13. Jänner 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2023152/A_HRC_43_CRP.6_EN.docx

·      Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, Syrian Arab Republic: Anweisung zum Erhalt eines Platzes in einem Waisenhaus [تعليمات الحصول على خدمة إيداع طفل لدى دار أيتام], ohne Datum
http://213.178.227.241/Ar/SitePage?sysCode=2#

·      NLG - No Lost Generation: Continued Learning for All Syrian Children and Youth, April 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Continued%20learning%20for%20all%20Syrian%20children%20and%20youth%202021.pdf

·      REACH Initiative: Humanitarian situation overview in Syria (HSOS): Northeast Syria, February 2021, Februar 2021a
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/REACH_SYR_Factsheet_HSOS_NES_February-2021.pdf

·      REACH Initiative: Humanitarian Situation Overview in Syria (HSOS): Northwest Syria, February 2021, Februar 2021b
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/REACH_SYR_Factsheet_HSOS_NWS_February-2021.pdf

·      SNHR – Syrian Network for Human Rights: On World Children’s Day: Ninth Annual Report on Violations against Children in Syria, 20. November 2020
https://sn4hr.org/wp-content/pdf/english/On_World_Childrens_Day_Ninth_Annual_Report_on_Violations_against_Children_in_Syria_en.pdf

·      SNHR – Syrian Network for Human Rights: On the 10th Anniversary of the Popular Uprising: 227,413 Syrian Civilians Documented Killed, Including 14,506 by Torture, with 149,361 Detained/Forcibly Disappeared, and 13 Million Others Displaced, 15. März 2021
https://sn4hr.org/wp-content/pdf/english/On_the_10th_Anniversary_of_the_Popular_Uprising_227413_Syrian_Civilians_Documented_Killed_en.pdf

·      SOS Children’s Villages: SOS Children’s Village Damascus, ohne Datum
https://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/where-we-help/asia/syria/damascus

·      STJ - Syrians for Truth and Justice: Early Marriage Hits High Rates in some Areas of Syria, 17. September 2020
https://stj-sy.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Early-Marriage-Hits-High-Rates-in-some-Areas-of-Syria.pdf

·      The Borgen Project: 10 Facts about Child Labor in Syria, 22. Oktober 2019
https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about-child-labor-in-syria/

·      The Syrian Observer: Orphanages in Syria are operating at and over capacity, 27. August 2018
https://syrianobserver.com/features/46137/orphanages_syria_are_operating_and_over_capacity.html#:~:text=There%20are%20two%20orphanages%20that,a%20family%20who%20is%20willing

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Recent Developments in Northwest Syria - Situation Report No. 21 - As of 20 October 2020, 20. Oktober 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2039571/nw_syria_sitrep21_20201020.pdf

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Syrian Arab Republic: 2020 Humanitarian Response Plan (December 2020), Dezember 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2045423/2020_syria_humanitarian_response_plan.pdf

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Recent Developments in Northwest Syria - Situation Report No. 26 - As of 26 March 2021, 26. März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2048096/20210326_sitrep_26_final.pdf

·      UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund: Voices from Syria 2020: Assessment Findings of the Humanitarian Needs Overview (Draft), 2. April 2020
https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/voices_from_syria_2020_final_draft.pdf

·      UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: International Protection Considerations with regard to people fleeing the Syrian Arab Republic - Update VI, März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2049565/606427d97.pdf

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: A place called home - separated and unaccompanied Syrian children, 20. März 2017
https://www.unicef.org/stories/place-called-home-separated-and-unaccompanied-syrian-children

·      UNICEF – United Nations international Children’s Emergency Fund/ILO – International Labour Organization/UNHCR – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Child Labour, within the Syrian Refugee Response: A Regional Strategic Framework for Action, 31. Oktober 2019
https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/5a74728d4.pdf

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: Syria 9, Juni 2020
https://www.unicef.org/mena/sites/unicef.org.mena/files/2020-06/Syria%209%20English%20Pamphlet%20June%20update.pdf

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: After almost ten years of war in Syria, more than half of children continue to be deprived of education, 24. Jänner 2021
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/after-almost-ten-years-war-syria-more-half-children-continue-be-deprived-education

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: Syria conflict 10 years on: 90 per cent of children need support as violence, economic crisis and COVID-19 pandemic push families to the brink, 10. März 2021
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/syria-conflict-10-years-90-cent-children-need-support-violence-economic-crisis-and

·      USDOS – US Department of State: 2020 Country Report on Human Rights Practices: Syria, 30. März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2048105.html

·      World Vision International/Frontier Economics: Too High a Price to Pay: The Cost of Conflict for Syria's children , 4. März 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/FINAL_Syria%2010th%20Anniversary%20Global%20Policy%20Report_small.pdf


 

Anhang: Quellenbeschreibungen und Informationen aus ausgewählten Quellen

Das Europäische Unterstützungsbüro für Asylfragen (European Asylum Support Office, EASO) ist eine Agentur der Europäischen Union, die die praktische Zusammenarbeit der Mitgliedsstaaten im Asylbereich fördern soll und die Mitgliedsstaaten unter anderem durch Recherche von Herkunftsländerinformation und entsprechende Publikationen unterstützt.

·      EASO – European Asylum Support Office: Syria: Military Service, April 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2048969/2021_04_EASO_COI_Report_Military_Service.pdf

„2.3.4 Prevalence of recruitment of males under 18 and over 42 years

Sources interviewed by EASO [European Asylum Support Office] for this report in February 2021 stated that they are not aware of any current cases of recruitment of males under 18 or over 42 years old in the SAA [Syrian Arab Army]. […]

All sources interviewed by DIS [Danish Immigration Service] in January and February 2020 stated that they have not received information that the SAA [Syrian Arab Army] had been recruiting men under the age of 18.112 Other sources, however, reported child recruitment and use in GoS [Government of Syria] forces and affiliated militias during the reporting period. In interviews carried out with DIS [Danish Immigration Service] between January and March 2020, Fabrice Balanche and SNHR [Syrian Network for Human Rights] stated that the NDF [National Defence Forces] recruits and uses men under the age of 18.113 Reporting on the period between April 2019 and March 2020, USDOS [US Department of States] stated that the ‘government and pro-Syrian regime-affiliated militias continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers’, specifically identifying the Lebanese Hezbollah and the NDF as forcibly recruiting children. The UN Commission of Inquiry in the Syrian Arab Republic (CoI) stated in a January 2020 report that it received reports of young boys assessed to be no older than 13 years who were manning GoS [Government of Syria] and affiliated militias checkpoints in Hama governorate.“ (EASO, April 2021, S. 19-20)

Der Menschenrechtsrat der Vereinten Nationen (UN Human Rights Council, HRC) ist ein zwischenstaatliches Gremium innerhalb der Vereinten Nationen, das sich für die Förderung und den Schutz der Menschenrechte weltweit einsetzt.

·      HRC – UN Human Rights Council: “They have erased the dreams of my children”: children’s rights in the Syrian Arab Republic; Conference Room Paper of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic [A/HRC/43/CRP.6], 13. Jänner 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2023152/A_HRC_43_CRP.6_EN.docx

„Government forces have also detained boys as young as 12, subjecting them to severe beatings and torture, and denying them access to food, water, sanitation and medical care. In detention centres, but also much more broadly, rape and sexual violence have been used against men, women, boys and girls as a tool to punish, humiliate and instil fear among affected communities. Such acts resulted in movement restrictions on girls, with many being removed from school, and compelled families to relocate.“ (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 1)

„Children, most frequently boys, but also on occasion girls, have been used in hostilities by parties to the conflict for combat roles, to acts as spies, informants, or to serve at checkpoints.“ (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 10)

„Since 2011, widespread arrests of men and boys as young as 15 were conducted by security forces or militia acting on behalf of the Government, during mass arrests, house searches or in hospitals. Boys and, on occasions, girls have been detained either unaccompanied or together with male relatives based on their perceived support of opposition groups at checkpoints in Aleppo, Damascus and Dar’a. […]

On occasions, children were also deprived of food and vital medical care, whipped and used to coerce confessions from their parents. The presence of male and female detainees as young as 11 was recorded in Security Branches 215, 227, 235 and 248 in Damascus. Torture and rape of minors was reported in Branches 215 and 235. The Commission has documented cases of children as young as seven dying in State custody.

Children witnessed the torture or other inhumane treatment inflicted on family members, and, on occasions, were forced to inflict torture on other detainees“ (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 14)

„Women and girls have been targeted on the basis of their gender since the early days of the Syrian conflict. Rape and sexual violence have been committed against women and girls during house raids often following ground offensives, at checkpoints and, most often, in State custody. Women and girls were raped and sexually assaulted in Government detention facilities, with interviewees consistently reporting that such violations occurred in the investigation branches of the Military Intelligence Directorate and other places of detention administered by the General Security Directorate in Damascus. […]

Boys in detention have been particularly vulnerable to sexual violence. Sexual torture, including the tying of genitals, has been systematically perpetrated against men and boys in detention in Damascus, Homs and Aleppo“ (HRC, 13. Jänner 2020, S. 15)

No Lost Generation (NLG) ist eine Initiative der Vereinten Nationen, internationaler und nichtstaatlicher Organisationen und Regierungen, um die Auswirkungen der syrischen Krise auf eine Generation von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Syrien und den Nachbarländern zu mildern.

·      NLG - No Lost Generation: Continued Learning for All Syrian Children and Youth, April 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Continued%20learning%20for%20all%20Syrian%20children%20and%20youth%202021.pdf

„There is an estimated 6.9M children, teachers and school personnel in need of education assistance, 94 percent of all school age children are living in areas with severe, extreme or catastrophic education conditions, an increase from 86 percent in the previous year.

As per the 2020 Syria HRP, 2.45M children in the country are out of school and 1.6 million students risk dropping out. Hostilities, the use of schools for non-educational purposes and other safety concerns continue to impact the safe use and availability of education services—particularly in the north. In 2020 at least, 42 children were killed, and 38 children were injured by 61 verified attacks on education and 31 verified instances of military use of schools. 75 percent of the verified incidents took place in the first quarter of 2020 and 90 percent of the total verified incidents took place in northwest Syria. 75 percent of schools used for military purposes was in northeast Syria.“ (NLG, April 2021, S. 2)

REACH ist eine Initiative der humanitären NGOs IMPACT und ACTED sowie des operativen UN-Satellitenanwendungsprogramm UNOSAT.

·      REACH Initiative: Humanitarian situation overview in Syria (HSOS): Northeast Syria, February 2021, Februar 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/REACH_SYR_Factsheet_HSOS_NES_February-2021.pdf

„Access to Education Services:

22% of communities in which half or less of the school aged children accessed school in the last 30 days for residents.

59% of communities in which half or less of the school aged children accessed school in the last 30 days for IDPs.“ (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 6)

„% of communities where extreme coping strategies used by residents and IDPs to meet basic needs were reported

Residents                           IDPSs

24% Early marriage                                      25%

4%   Forced marriage                                   4%

2%   High risk work                                       4%

0%   Sending family members to beg       0%

48% Sending children (15 or below) to work         58%

Child labour and early marriage were reported to prevent children from going to school in 54% and 17% of communities.

Children below the age of 12 were reported as a group affected by child labour in 12% of communities.

Hazardous child labour was reported as a protection risk in 11 communities.“ (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021a, S. 9)

·      REACH Initiative: Humanitarian Situation Overview in Syria (HSOS): Northwest Syria, February 2021, Februar 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/REACH_SYR_Factsheet_HSOS_NWS_February-2021.pdf

„Access to Education Services:

39% of communities in which half or less of the school aged children accessed school in the last 30 days for residents.

63% of communities in which half or less of the school aged children accessed school in the last 30 days for IDPs.“ (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 6)

„% of communities where extreme coping strategies used by residents and IDPs to meet basic needs were reported

Residents                           IDPSs

40% Early marriage                                      50%

3%   Forced marriage                                   4%

7%   High risk work                                       10%

1%   Sending family members to beg       3%

74% Sending children (15 or below) to work         83%

Child labour and early marriage were reported to prevent children from going to school in 81% and 45% of communities.

Children below the age of 12 were reported as a group affected by child labour in 17% of communities.

Hazardous child labour was reported as a protection risk in 9% communities.“ (REACH Initiative, Februar 2021b, S. 9)

Das Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) ist eine unabhängige Organisation von Rechercheuren und Aktivist·innen zur Dokumentation von Menschenrechtsverletzungen aller am Krieg in Syrien beteiligten Parteien.

·      SNHR – Syrian Network for Human Rights: On World Children’s Day: Ninth Annual Report on Violations against Children in Syria, 20. November 2020
https://sn4hr.org/wp-content/pdf/english/On_World_Childrens_Day_Ninth_Annual_Report_on_Violations_against_Children_in_Syria_en.pdf

„On Monday, December 16, 2019, Syrian regime forces used artillery to fire shells at the Martyr Yaser Da’boul Schhol in Hayyan town in the northern suburbs of Aleppo governorate […]

On Wednesday, January 1, 2020, at around 11:45, Syrian Regime forces, which we believe were stationed in Jabal Azan area in the southern suburbs of Aleppo, fired a Tochka 9M79 missile loaded with 9N24 cluster munitions, which fell near the Martyr Abdo Salameh Basic school.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 16)

„On Tuesday, February 25, 2020, Syrian Regime forces used artillery and missile launchers to fire several shells and missiles, targeting Idlib city, the capital of the governorate. Among these missiles, we were able to verify the presence of at least one missile loaded with cluster munitions. The cluster missiles fell on al Thawra School.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 16)

„On Monday, July 27, 2020, Syrian Regime forces used a missile launcher and artillery to fire a number of shells on Balyoun village in Jabal al Zaweya in the southern suburbs of Idlib governorate, targeting al Muhdatha School.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 18)

„Conscirption: Syrian Regime forces have routinely conscripted children […]

After being conscripted, children work in various combat and non-combat roles, usually being assigned the tasks of transporting ammunititon, cleaning, fortification and guarding within the group they join; in battles and attacks, the participate alongside adults in fighting, with most of the conscripted children whose deaths we recorded being among the ranks of Syrian Regime forces, who put them directly into hostilities.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 19)

„In their attacks, Russian forces have specifically targeted numerous school and kindergartes, partially or completely destroying them, resulting in many child victims.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 22)

„Syrian Democratic Forces have forcibly conscripted children in a widespread manner […]

The Ciwanen oreger (‘Revolutionary Youth’) Organization and the Women’s Protection Units are among the most prominent parties responsible for child conscription operations and for placing children in the training camps and in the Syrian Democratic Forces’ combat units. We have noted an increase in cases and incidents of kidnapping of female and male children by both these entities since the beginning of 2020.“ (SNHR, 20. November 2020, S. 28-29)

·      SNHR – Syrian Network for Human Rights: On the 10th Anniversary of the Popular Uprising: 227,413 Syrian Civilians Documented Killed, Including 14,506 by Torture, with 149,361 Detained/Forcibly Disappeared, and 13 Million Others Displaced, 15. März 2021
https://sn4hr.org/wp-content/pdf/english/On_the_10th_Anniversary_of_the_Popular_Uprising_227413_Syrian_Civilians_Documented_Killed_en.pdf

„The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) documented the deaths of at least 227,413 civilians, including 29,457 children and 16,104 women (adult female) in Syria at the hands of the parties to the conflict and the controlling forces, between March 2011 and March 2021.“ (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 15)

„The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) documented at least 149,361 individuals, including 4,924 children and 9,264 women (adult female) who are still arrested or forcibly disappeared in Syria, at the hands of the parties to the conflict and the controlling forces, between March 2011 and March 2021.“ (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 16)

„The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) documented the deaths due to torture of at least 14,506 individuals, including 180 children and 92 women (adult female) at the hands of the parties to the conflict and the controlling forces, between March 2011 and March 2021.“ (SNHR, 15. März 2021, S. 18)

SOS Children’s Villages ist eine internationale Wohltätigkeitsorganisation zur Betreuung von Waisen und verlassenen Kindern.

·      SOS Children’s Villages: SOS Children’s Village Damascus, ohne Datum
https://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/where-we-help/asia/syria/damascus

„In 2017, due to the high number of children who had lost parental care, more SOS families were formed in another part of Damascus.

What we do in Damascus

Care in SOS families: Over 150 children and young people currently live in the care of SOS Children's Village in Damascus. Brothers and sisters grow up together in the care of an SOS mother. The SOS families, from both Aleppo and Damascus, have stayed together during the war and have moved to safer areas wherever necessary.

Support for young people: SOS Children’s Villages supports young people while they continue their studies, do further training or look for a job.“ (SOS Children’s Village, ohne Datum)

Syrians for Truth and Justice besteht aus einem Team von Forschern, Anwälten und Freiwilligen, die sich der Aufdeckung von Menschenrechtsverletzungen in ganz Syrien widmen.

·      STJ - Syrians for Truth and Justice: Early Marriage Hits High Rates in some Areas of Syria, 17. September 2020
https://stj-sy.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Early-Marriage-Hits-High-Rates-in-some-Areas-of-Syria.pdf

„In this extensive report, Syrians for Truth and Justice / STJ brings under the spotlight the difficulties adolescent girls battle with throughout Syria, particularly in Idlib province, and northern rural Aleppo, as well as al-Hasaka province, held by the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. The difficulties are actually the result of giving girls in marriage at an early age or persuading them into believing that marriage is the only solution to conquer their social isolation. Monitoring the past three years of the Syrian conflict, STJ recorded a marked increase in early marriage cases. In Idlib, for instance, early marriage ratios exceeded other marriages in the province. The same surge was detected in northern rural Aleppo.

In al-Hasaka province, northeast Syria, SARA Organization for Combating Violence against Women documented 82 child marriage cases between 2019 and the first-half of 2020. […]

Information obtained by STJ indicates that poverty and displacement, as well as established traditions and norms are the reasons, which, in one way or another, increased early marriage cases in the target areas, particularly among the displaced, being marginalized and the most vulnerable groups.“ (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 3)

„It appears that the most dangerous of these consequences is that these marriages are not officially registered, especially in Idlib province and northern rural Aleppo, which are held by armed opposition groups. Having kept a track of several early marriage cases, it became clear that these marriages are registered neither at the local courts in both areas, since the courts lack official recognition, nor at the courts in areas held by the Syrian government, for numerous families refrain from seeking courts there, fearing arrest. This lack of official proceedings leads to serious consequences, especially for the wife and children, including primarily the wife's denial of the registration’s recognition and carrying out the children’s affiliation proceedings, and depriving her of her rights to inheritance or obtaining her marital dues (in advance/ deferred dowry), if a dispute arises. Regarding children, the consequences are also drastic, for they might grow to be almost stateless, because the unregistered marriage denies them birth certificates and other official documents, which in turn, deprives them of their entitlements to education, job opportunities, inheritance, and having a family.“ (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 4)

„Child marriage is deeply rooted in Syrian communities. But still, STJ monitored a marked increase in these marriages as the conflict in Syria grew more acute, particularly in areas outside the control of the Syrian government in Idlib province, where poverty plays a central role in the growth of this phenomenon, especially among the internally displaced groups. Fathers, heads of displaced families mostly, seek to give their daughters in marriage to escape economic burdens, prompted to do so by the repeated displacement from their home areas during confrontations.“ (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 5)

„Areas in northern rural Aleppo also witnessed an increase in early marriage cases, among girls under the age of 18. There, the spread of the phenomenon is attributed to reasons matching to the ones led to the rise in child marriage among IDPs in Idlib province.“ (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 8)

„In al-Hasaka province, held by the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, early marriages proliferate for economic and social reasons. The war also had exacerbated the phenomenon, for many children abandoned school and people feared for their girls from spinsterhood.“ (STJ, 17. September 2020, S. 10)

Das Borgen-Projekt ist eine Interessengruppe mit Sitz in den USA, die es sich zum Ziel gesetzt hat, die politische Aufmerksamkeit auf die globale Armut zu lenken.

·      The Borgen Project: 10 Facts about Child Labor in Syria, 22. Oktober 2019
https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about-child-labor-in-syria/

„Child labor in Syria was a problem prior to the start of the war, but the conflict has greatly exacerbated the situation. Children are working in more than 75 percent of households with almost half of them being reported as providing a “joint” or “sole” source of income.

The situation in Syria is characterized by hidden forms of exploitation and child labor. It is not uncommon to see children maintaining produce stands and working out in the open. However, child labor in Syria has increasingly turned towards working in factories or laboring as cleaners, garbage collectors, construction workers, mechanics or carpenters. […]

Syrian law bars anyone who has not completed their basic education or is under the age of 15 from working. However, since the escalation of the war, this is rarely enforced. In Damascus, children as young as seven-years-old can be found working. In Lebanon, Syrian refugees as young as five-years-old work. Many children see nothing strange about their circumstances since they are surrounded by other children of similar ages.“ (The Borgen Project, 22. Oktober 2019)

The Syrian Observer ist eine Webseite, die sich großteils der Übersetzung von syrischen Nachrichtenartikeln widmet.

·      The Syrian Observer: Orphanages in Syria are operating at and over capacity, 27. August 2018
https://syrianobserver.com/features/46137/orphanages_syria_are_operating_and_over_capacity.html#:~:text=There%20are%20two%20orphanages%20that,a%20family%20who%20is%20willing

„The number of children in Syrian orphanages has risen to 32,000, including 22,000 children in Damascus and its countryside according to the Services Director in the Assad regime’s Ministry of Social Affairs, Maysa Midani.

Midani said that orphans, which are registered with an orphanage association, could be sponsored with a monthly payment, whether the child is living at the orphanage or with family.

She added in a statement that to sponsor an orphan meant securing food, clothes, education and healthcare, costing about 7,000 Syrian pounds on average, along with a package of in-kind aid.

The number of orphans in orphanages has grown greatly because of the war, with tens of thousands of children being orphaned. […]

Children of known parentage are limited to orphanages, as the law does not permit any family to take them through sponsorship, despite the fact that religion does not prohibit sponsorship, but actually strongly encourages children to be cared for.

Midani said that the children in orphanages could not be attached to an alternative family unless they were relatives. There are many children who have been left without family care who are “unaccompanied” — that is, there is no one from their family to take them. They cannot be dealt with as children of unknown parentage, but they can be sponsored financially when they are in the orphanage. In these sorts of cases, the Ministry will track the family in search of a sponsor, solely from among their relatives. This is included under the category of “legal guardianship” and not sponsorship.“ (The Syrian Observer, 27. August 2018)

UN OCHA (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) ist das Amt der Vereinten Nationen für die Koordinierung humanitärer Angelegenheiten.

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Recent Developments in Northwest Syria - Situation Report No. 21 - As of 20 October 2020, 20. Oktober 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2039571/nw_syria_sitrep21_20201020.pdf

„Protection: The protection environment in northwest Syria continues to be severely affected by the compounding impacts of COVID-19 mitigation measures, the economic downturn, prolonged and large-scale displacement, as well as the impacts of the ongoing armed conflict. Partners are engaged in addressing the increased adoption of negative and harmful coping strategies due to the current context. These include child marriage and child labour, including its worst forms, as well as increased exposure to domestic violence such as marital rape, sexual harassment and exploitation, including from community members and relatives. Some women are reported to leave their abusive relationships, but lack safe shelter elsewhere. GBV [Gender-Based Violence] partners continue to report that male adolescents are exposed to sexual abuse, especially in orphanages, and note an increase in rates of sexual harassment and abuse against children, especially by other children.“ (UN OCHA, 20. Oktober 2020, S. 4)

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Syrian Arab Republic: 2020 Humanitarian Response Plan (December 2020) , Dezember 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2045423/2020_syria_humanitarian_response_plan.pdf

„42 per cent of surveyed households report signs of psychosocial distress in children – nightmares, lasting sadness and anxiety, amongst others – in the last 30 days, suggesting that many girls and boys are in a situation of prolonged distress. […]

Half a million children are chronically malnourished […]

In 2019, 23 per cent of victims of explosive hazards accidents were children, of whom 42 per cent were injured or killed while playing. […]

Fuelled also by increasing economic hardship and a dramatic loss of purchasing power due to the devaluation of the Syrian pound, affected population have little choice but to increasingly resort to harmful coping mechanisms, many of which disproportionately affect women and girls, including child/forced marriage and various forms of gender-based violence.“ (UN OCHA, Dezember 2020, S. 9)

·      UN OCHA – UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Recent Developments in Northwest Syria - Situation Report No. 26 - As of 26 March 2021, 26. März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2048096/20210326_sitrep_26_final.pdf

„Temporary family separations have been reported, and lack of temporary residential care for unaccompanied and separated children have also been reported.“ (UN OCHA, 26. März 2021, S. 9)

UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) ist der Bevölkerungsfonds der Vereinten Nationen.

·      UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund: Voices from Syria 2020: Assessment Findings of the Humanitarian Needs Overview (Draft), 2. April 2020
https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/voices_from_syria_2020_final_draft.pdf

„’Most girls are unable to complete their studies due to fear of kidnapping and death. Parents are afraid that the girl will be kidnapped and bring shame to the parents or incur greater financial expenses.’ (Woman from Ar Raqqa sub district, Ar Raqqa governorate)

Overwhelmingly, the fear of violence has been identified as a reason for not sending children – and particularly daughters – to school. The violence noted included kidnapping and subsequently sexual violence, sexual harassment on the way to school as well as within school grounds, and physical and sexual harassment by staff.“ (UNFPA, 2. April 2020, S. 18)

„Many children have been left as unaccompanied and separated children throughout nine years of crisis. In 2019, FGD [focus group discussion] participants noted, as in previous years, that children have become unaccompanied, separated and/or head of households, due to the death of one parent and remarriage of another where the child is not wanted in the new household, (notably the remarriage of the mother). Other causes include divorce, displacement and detention or disappearance of a parent, usually the father.

Unaccompanied/separated children and/or child-headed households are at risk of various forms of violence. They experience verbal and physical violence by other children within their host families and are marginalised from community structures. In other instances children will isolate unaccompanied/separated children from play groups because of their status of being without parents. Some respondents noted the exploitation they experience by their care-takers, such as being forced to work or beg. Another noted the violence they experience, especially sexual violence and the potential marginalisation they experience when they survive such violence: ‘unaccompanied children are exposed to community neglect, organ trade, child labour, sexual abuse, and mistreatment. Girls that have suffered rape or sexual abuse become outcasts.’ (Woman from Daret Azza sub district, Aleppo governorate). The psychological and emotional distress that children experience due to witnessing the violence against their family members, such as the killing of their parent or caregivers was also underlined. They are then further victimised by violence through exploitation and maltreatment by other caregivers and/or community members. Child labour was identified again as one of the many child rights’ violations that children face, especially girls. Child labour is a form of violence as it harms the mental, social, physical and psychological development of children. As noted by respondents, the crisis continues to deprive children of their right to an education, as they are forced to meet the financial needs of their families.

‘Children are deprived of education and they are forced to work in jobs that are physically unsuitable to provide the requirements of living. They do so either by helping the father to support the family or, in cases of dead fathers, the child might work for long hours in order to make a living for his brothers, sisters, and mother.’ (Woman from Al Hasakah sub district, Al Hasakah governorate)

Children may be at risk of being forced to work when they are within the vicinity of restaurants and cafes. Boys are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labour and abuse, while girls were noted to be at extreme risk of exploitation, verbal and sexual harassment when forced to work or beg.“ (UNFPA, 2. April 2020, S. 19-20)

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) ist das Flüchtlingshochkommissariat der Vereinten Nationen.

·      UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: International Protection Considerations with regard to people fleeing the Syrian Arab Republic - Update VI, März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2049565/606427d97.pdf

“In particular, actors to the conflict are reported to target children for abduction, arbitrary arrest and detention, enforced disappearance, torture, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and extra-judicial executions. Children are targeted for a variety of reasons, including their real or perceived participation in political activities or in combat support roles, and their real or perceived association with other parties to the conflict, including on account of their familial relations, their area of origin, and/or their religious or ethnic identity.” (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 174-175)

“Children are also reported to be at risk of child-specific forms or manifestations of persecution, including sexual violence; forced and/or child marriage; domestic violence; “honour crimes”; worst forms of child labour such as under-age recruitment, trafficking, forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation; as well as hazardous work likely to harm their health, safety or morals such as begging, street vending, collecting garbage, domestic work, and working on construction sites.” .(UNHCR, März 2021, S. 176)

“IDP children, children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, undocumented children, children with disabilities as well as orphaned, abandoned and separated children are reported to be particularly vulnerable to different forms of exploitation, including underage recruitment, child labour, forced and/or child marriage, sexual exploitation, and trafficking.” (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 177)

“In areas where schools are systematically targeted by airstrikes or bombardment by parties to the conflict, children are regularly deprived of their right to education as schools have been closed, damaged or destroyed, or because parents fear for the safety of their children. In areas under de facto control of HTS [Hay’at Tahrir Al-Sham] and other hard-line or extremist Islamist groups, girls are reported to be banned from schools if they do not abide by these groups’ dress codes.’” (UNHCR, März 2021, S. 177-178)

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) ist das Kinderhilfswerk der Vereinten Nationen.

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: A place called home - separated and unaccompanied Syrian children, 20. März 2017
https://www.unicef.org/stories/place-called-home-separated-and-unaccompanied-syrian-children

„There was an immediate need to create a safe haven for these children, while efforts were being made to reunite the children with their families. This is how a UNICEF-supported home came into existence and opened its doors to 74 orphaned and separated children. […]

The temporary home offers children a protective environment to restore some normality into children’s abnormal lives. The children wake up at seven in the morning to have breakfast together before school. Every day after school, they receive extra classes covering different subjects to help them catch up with their peers.“ (UNICEF, 20. März 2017)

·      UNICEF – United Nations international Children’s Emergency Fund/ILO – International Labour Organization/UNHCR – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Child Labour, within the Syrian Refugee Response: A Regional Strategic Framework for Action, 31. Oktober 2019
https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/5a74728d4.pdf

„Inside Syria, working children are found in all types of work, paid and unpaid, self-organised and employed. For example, children work in agriculture, street vending, washing cars, doing metal work, carpentry or begging. Many children are also recruited and exploited by armed forces and groups.“ (UNICEF/ILO/UNHCR, 31. Oktober 2019, S. 9)

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: Syria 9, Juni 2020
https://www.unicef.org/mena/sites/unicef.org.mena/files/2020-06/Syria%209%20English%20Pamphlet%20June%20update.pdf

„Grave Violations against children in Syria

Children killed 2019: 897 […]

Children injured 2019: 557 […]

Children recruited into fighting 2019: 820 […]

Attacks on education facilities: 2019: 157 […]

Attacks on medical facilities: 2019: 105“ (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 2)

„Early marriage, child labour, child recruitment into the fighting

84% of communities inside Syria say that child labour is a concern.

Nearly 70% of communities reported child marriage a concern.

The highest level of child labour were reported in Ar-Raqaa and Deir-ez-Zor.

Young girls were considered most affected by child marriage.“ (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 5)

„Education

2.8 million children out of school.

Inside Syria: 2 Million children (over one third of Syria’s school-aged children)

2 in 5 schools cannot be used because they are destroyed, damaged, sheltering displaced families or being used for military purposes.

Almost half of the people report child labour preventing or reducing school attendance.“ (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 6)

„Health and Nutrition

Inside Syria

Over 2/3 of children with physical or mental disabilities require specialized services unavailable in their area.

50% of all health care facilities are partially functioning or aren’t functioning at all.“ (UNICEF, Juni 2020, S. 7)

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: After almost ten years of war in Syria, more than half of children continue to be deprived of education, 24. Jänner 2021
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/after-almost-ten-years-war-syria-more-half-children-continue-be-deprived-education

„Children in Syria continue to bear the brunt of the crisis that will be marked by a grim milestone of ten years in March this year. The education system in Syria is overstretched, underfunded, fragmented and unable to provide safe, equitable and sustained services to millions of children.

Inside Syria, there are over 2.4 million children out of school, nearly 40 per cent are girls. This number has likely increased in 2020 due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic which exacerbated the disruption to education in Syria. One in three schools inside Syria can no longer be used because they were destroyed, damaged or are being used for military purposes. Children who are able to attend school often learn in overcrowded classrooms, and in buildings with insufficient water and sanitation facilities, electricity, heating or ventilation.

The UN is able to confirm nearly 700 attacks on education facilities and personnel in Syria since the verification of grave violations against children began. Last year, 52 attacks were confirmed.“ (UNICEF, 24. Jänner 2021)

·      UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: Syria conflict 10 years on: 90 per cent of children need support as violence, economic crisis and COVID-19 pandemic push families to the brink, 10. März 2021
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/syria-conflict-10-years-90-cent-children-need-support-violence-economic-crisis-and

„The situation for many children and families remains precarious, with nearly 90 per cent of children in need of humanitarian assistance, a 20 per cent increase in the past year alone. […]

According to verified data, between 2011 and 2020:

Almost 12,000 children were killed or injured;

More than 5,700 children – some as young as seven years old – were recruited into the fighting;

More than 1,300 education and medical facilities and personnel have come under attack;“ (UNICEF, 10. März 2021)

USDOS (US Department of State) ist das US-Außenministerium.

·      USDOS – US Department of State: 2020 Country Report on Human Rights Practices: Syria, 30. März 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2048105.html

“c. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment

The law provides for the protection of children from exploitation in the workplace and prohibits the worst forms of child labor. There was little publicly available information on enforcement of the child labor law. The regime did not make significant efforts to enforce laws that prevent or eliminate child labor. Independent information and audits regarding regime enforcement were not available. The minimum age for most types of nonagricultural labor is 15 or the completion of elementary schooling, whichever occurs first, and the minimum age for employment in industries with heavy work is 17. Parental permission is required for children younger than 16 to work. Children younger than 18 may work no more than six hours a day and may not work overtime or during night shifts, weekends, or on official holidays. The law specifies that authorities should apply “appropriate penalties” to violators; however, there was no information that clarified which penalties were appropriate to assess whether such penalties were commensurate with those for other analogous serious crimes, such as kidnapping. Restrictions on child labor do not apply to those who work in family businesses and do not receive a salary.

Child labor occurred in the country in both informal sectors, including begging, domestic work, and agriculture, as well as in positions related to the conflict, such as lookouts, spies, and informants. Conflict-related work subjected children to significant dangers of retaliation and violence.

Various forces, particularly terrorist groups and regime-aligned groups, continued to recruit and use child soldiers (see section 1.g.).

Organized begging rings continued to subject children displaced within the country to forced labor.“ (USDOS, 30. März 2021, Section 7)

World Vision International ist eine internationale evangelikale Hilfsorganisation.

·      World Vision International/Frontier Economics: Too High a Price to Pay: The Cost of Conflict for Syria's children , 4. März 2021
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/FINAL_Syria%2010th%20Anniversary%20Global%20Policy%20Report_small.pdf

„World Vision’s assessments in North West Syria indicate that every single girl we spoke to lives with the fear of being raped and sexually assaulted. Child marriage, which can result in significant physical and psychological harm and abuse, has increased to an alarming level. […]

An estimated 82 per cent of children recruited by armed actors have been used in direct combat roles and 25 per cent of those recruited children have been under the age of 15 years.“ (World Vision International/Frontier Economics, 4. März 2021, S. 8)

“Strategic and widespread ATTACKS ON EDUCATION have been a characteristic of the Syrian conflict, systematically targeting education infrastructure and personnel, despite schools being intended as safe spaces, essential to children’s development. Instead, the UN has verified year-on-year increases in attacks on schools and teachers. Since verified reporting began in 2014, the UN has documented 700 attacks on education, including 52 in 2020. UN reporting consistently identifies that majority of attacks on education and health to be caused by air strikes perpetrated by government or pro government forces.“ (World Vision International/Frontier Economics, 4. März 2021, S. 11)

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