Anfragebeantwortung zu Kosovo: Menschenhandel: Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und deren Umsetzung in der Praxis, insbesondere Opferschutz und strafrechtliche Verfolgung der TäterInnen [a-11509]

2. März 2021

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen sowie gegebenenfalls auf Expertenauskünften, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Schutz für Opfer von Menschenhandel und deren Familien (Unterkunft)

Schutz für Opfer von Menschenhandel und deren Familien im Falle von Gerichtsprozessen (gegen international tätige TäterInnen)

Effektivität von Opferschutz (Möglichkeit sich unerkannt in einem anderen Landesteil niederzulassen)

Unterschiede im Opferschutz, je nachdem, ob das Opfer im In- oder Ausland ausgebeutet wurde

Unterschiede in der strafrechtlichen Verfolgung der TäterInnen, je nachdem, ob das Opfer im In- oder Ausland ausgebeutet wurde

Stigmatisierung von Opfern von Menschenhandel im Kosovo

Quellen:

Anhang: Quellenbeschreibungen und Informationen aus ausgewählten Quellen

Kurzbeschreibungen zu den in dieser Anfragebeantwortung verwendeten Quellen sowie Ausschnitte mit Informationen aus diesen Quellen finden Sie im Anhang.

Schutz für Opfer von Menschenhandel und deren Familien (Unterkunft)

Artikel 23, Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218 zur Verhinderung und Bekämpfung von Menschenhandel und zum Schutz der Opfer von Menschenhandel, legt fest, dass Opfern von Menschenhandel Unterstützung in Zentren sowie in provisorischen Unterkünften gewährt werde. Wenn notwendig, sei es möglich, dass diese auch von der Polizei unterstützt und geschützt würden. (Gesetz Nr. 04/ L-218, Artikel 23 (1))

Die Expertengruppe für Maßnahmen gegen Menschenhandel (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, GRETA) beschreibt in ihrem Bericht aus 2016 die Situation in den Unterkünften. Im Kosovo sei das Ministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, zusammen mit staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Partnern, für die Bereitstellung von Hilfe für Opfer von Menschenhandel verantwortlich. (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 26) Das Ministerium für Arbeit und Soziales betreibe eine vorübergehende Unterkunft für Opfer von Menschenhandel, deren Risiko als „hoch“ oder „mittel“ eingestuft werde. Die Unterkunft befinde sich seit 2013 etwa 15 km von Pristina entfernt, in Lipjan. Sie bestehe aus einem großen zweistöckigen Gebäude auf einem weitläufigen, aber spärlichen Grundstück, das von einer hohen Mauer umgeben sei. Der Eingang sei verschlossen und bewacht. Bis zu 25 Personen könnten untergebracht werden, mit separater Unterkunft für männliche Opfer sowie zwei Wohnungen für Mütter mit Kindern. Der durchschnittliche Aufenthalt betrage Berichten zufolge 25 Tage (kürzester Aufenthalt: ein Tag; längster Aufenthalt: 69 Tage). (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 27) In seinem Jahresbericht zu Menschenhandel vom Juni 2020 erwähnt das USDOS jedoch, dass die Einrichtung die Kapazität habe, 40 Personen mit getrennten Räumen für Frauen, Männer und Familien unterzubringen und die Opfer durchschnittlich 90 Tage in der Unterkunft blieben (USDOS, 25. Juni 2020).

Laut GRETA würden Personen mit geringem Risiko an das Zentrum einer NGO verwiesen werden. Opfer von Menschenhandel würden ermutigt in ihren Unterkünften zu bleiben. Sie würden bei vorübergehendem Verlassen der Unterkunft von der Polizei und falls notwendig einem Mitarbeiter begleitet. Befragungen würden immer auf einer Polizeistation stattfinden. Die NGO-Unterkunft verfüge GRETA zufolge über sieben Betten für Frauen und Kinder. Die Bewohner blieben bis zu sechs Monaten. Im Beobachtungszeitraum habe es zwölf Personen gegeben, die die vom Zentrum angebotenen Dienstleistungen täglich in Anspruch nahmen, jedoch nicht immer dort lebten. (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 27)

Das US-Außenministerium (US Department of State, USDOS) erklärt in seinem Bericht zu Menschenhandel vom Juni 2020 (Berichtszeitraum April 2019 bis März 2020), dass in der staatlichen Einrichtung Opfer untergebracht würden, die als risikoreich eingestuft würden. Während des laufenden Gerichtsverfahrens hätten Opfer außerhalb der Unterkunft eine Polizeieskorte und es werde eine Genehmigung der Staatsanwaltschaft benötigt, um die Einrichtung dauerhaft zu verlassen. Die Opfer blieben durchschnittlich 90 Tage, bevor sie in eine von einer Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführten Unterkunft verlegt würden. Die beiden von Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführten Notunterkünfte würden Unterstützungsdienste für Opfer leisten, die als risikoarm bis mittelschwer eingestuft würden. Eine dieser von Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführten Unterkünfte sei ausschließlich für Kinder bestimmt. (USDOS, 25. Juni 2020)

Im Hinblick auf sekundäre Rechtsvorschriften seien die Standardarbeitsanweisungen für Opfer von Menschenhandel im Kosovo (Standard Operating Procedures [SOP] for Trafficked Persons in Kosovo, 2008 und 2013 geändert) relevant für Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 6). Diese beschreiben, dass eine frühzeitige Risikobewertung während einer ersten Prüfung durch einen Polizeibeamten der Abteilung zur Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und einen Sachbearbeiter vorgenommen werde. Falls ein individueller Sicherheitsplan erforderlich sei, würden der Polizeibeamte und der Sachbearbeiter diesen unverzüglich unter Berücksichtigung der Ergebnisse der Risikobewertung entwickeln. Eine Kopie des Risikobewertungsberichts und des Sicherheitsplans würden an die jeweilige Unterkunft gesendet werden, bevor die Person dorthin begleitet werde. (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt, S. 37-38)

Wenn eine sichere Unterbringung erforderlich sei, werde die Entscheidung auf der Grundlage des Risikos getroffen, dem die betroffene Person ausgesetzt sei (Fälle mit hohem Risiko und mittlerem oder niedrigem Risiko), und der besonderen Bedingungen, die den Fall umgeben würden (z.B. Mutter mit Kindern). In Fällen mit hohem und mittlerem Risiko werde ISF kontaktiert. Es würden keine Maßnahmen ergriffen werde, bevor der mutmaßlichen Betroffenen die Möglichkeit gegeben wurde, ihre Ansichten, Gedanken und möglichen Bedenken zu äußern, und eine vollständige und informierte Zustimmung eingeholt wurde. (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt, S. 39)

Die Mindeststandards für die Betreuung von Opfern des Menschenhandels (von der Regierung im Jahr 2010 verabschiedet, siehe GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 6) sehen unter anderem vor, dass die Dauer des Aufenthalts in der Unterkunft flexibel sei und sich nach den Bedürfnissen und Umständen der Begünstigten richte. Es sei möglich zwischen den Unterkünften zu wechseln. Erwachsene Begünstigte könnten nicht gezwungen werden in der Unterkunft zu bleiben, oder sie zu verlassen. (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 93)

Die Gewährleistung der physischen Sicherheit der Begünstigten und des Personals habe Priorität. Mitarbeiter der Unterkünfte sollten sich in Fall einer Sicherheitsbedrohung unverzüglich an die Polizei und andere zuständige Einrichtungen wenden. Abhängig von der Art der Unterkunft müssten angemessene Schutzmaßnahmen getroffen werden, wie zum Beispiel Kameras, Lichter, Zäune, Türen, Alarmanlagen, Sicherheitskräfte usw. Nur Personen aus zuständigen Behörden solle Zugang gewährt werden. (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 93-94)

Opfer von Menschenhandel sollten auch nach dem Verlassen der Unterkunft betreut werden. Die Folgemaßnahmen sollten den Schutz vor erneutem Menschenhandel und den Schutz vor Stigmatisierung und Diskriminierung umfassen (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 105).

Es konnten keine Informationen zu Maßnahmen zum Schutz der Familie von Opfern von Menschenhandel gefunden werden.

Schutz für Opfer von Menschenhandel und deren Familien im Falle von Gerichtsprozessen (gegen international tätige TäterInnen)

Gesetz Nr. 04 / L-218 vom 4. September 2013 zur Verhinderung und Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und zum Schutz der Opfer des Menschenhandels biete, laut Artikel 15, Opfern von Menschenhandel in strafrechtlichen Ermittlungen angemessenen Schutz auf der Grundlage von individueller Risikobewertung. Aufgezeichnete Aussagen seien in einem solchen Fall für die Gerichtsverhandlung akzeptiert. Sichtkontakt zwischen Opfern und Angeklagten sowie Zeugenaussagen in öffentlichen Sitzungen seien zu vermeiden. (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 15)

Artikel 18 besagt, dass personenbezogene Daten, sowie Informationen zum Privatleben und Identität von Opfern von Menschenhandel während des Strafverfahrens von den Strafverfolgungsbehörden zu schützen seien. Die Weitergabe von Daten von staatlichen Schutzmaßnahmen für die Opfer sei untersagt. Im Falle von Lebensbedrohung, sei es für das Opfer möglich seinen / ihren Namen, Nachnamen, Geburtsdatum und -ort gemäß den im Gesetz zum Schutz personenbezogener Daten und den jeweils geltenden Gesetzen festgelegten Bedingungen zu ändern. (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 18)

Artikel 19 des Gesetzes legt fest, dass es möglich sei, Opfer oder Zeugen innerhalb oder außerhalb Kosovos unterzubringen, wenn die Sicherheit es erfordere. Weiters hätten Opfer und Zeugen von Menschenhandel Zugang zu bestehenden Zeugenschutzprogrammen gemäß dem Zeugenschutzgesetz und der Strafprozessordnung. Das Gericht könne es Opfern oder Zeugen erlauben ihre Beweise elektronisch darzulegen. (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 19)

Artikel 20 des Gesetzes bietet eine Liste der Unterstützung- und Schutzmöglichkeiten für Opfer von Menschenhandel. Dabei wird unter anderem das Recht auf Schutz von Opfern und Zeugen (und in bestimmen Fällen auch von deren Familien) gemäß dem Zeugenschutzgesetz genannt (Artikel 20, 2.5). (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 20)

Das Zeugenschutzgesetz Nr. 04/L-015 1. September 2011 beschreibt in Artikel 5 mögliche Schutzmaßnahmen. Diese inkludieren physischen Schutz, vorübergehenden Umsiedlung an einen sicheren Ort, spezielle Verfahren für den Zugang zu Daten und Dokumenten in Bezug auf geschützte Personen, Änderung des Wohn-, Arbeits- oder Studienortes der geschützten Person, Identitätsänderung, Änderung des Aussehens, einschließlich plastischer Chirurgie, finanzielle Unterstützung sowie soziale, rechtliche und andere notwendige Unterstützung. (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-015, Artikel 5)

Die Standardarbeitsanweisungen für Opfer von Menschenhandel im Kosovo fassen die Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten von Opfern und Zeugen während des Prozesses zusammen und listen nebst den oben genannten Unterstützungen, folgende Leistungen für Opfer beziehungsweise Zeugen von Menschenhandel auf: Geleitschutz zum, im und vom Gericht, Vermeidung des Kontakts mit dem verdächtigen Täter oder den verdächtigen Komplizen oder der Familie des Täters oder der Komplizen beim Betreten des Gebäudes, Ausschluss der Öffentlichkeit aus dem Gerichtssaal, keine Medienberichterstattung oder falls dies nicht möglich ist, der Schutz sensibler Daten in den Medien. (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt, S. 65)

Falls nach Abschluss des Prozesses zusätzliche Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zum Schutz des Opfers erforderlich sind, werde umgehend eine neue Risikobewertung durchgeführt und der Risikomanagementplan überarbeitet. Das Opfer müsse seine schriftliche Zustimmung zur Umsetzung des überarbeiteten Plans geben und werde rechtzeitig informiert, wenn eine Änderung eintritt (z. B. Freilassung des Täters aus dem Gefängnis). (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt, S. 66)

Ahmet Maloku, Professor an der juristischen Fakulität der Iliria Universität in Pristina, Kosovo, und Elda Maloku, Lehrassistentin am gleichen Institut, analysieren in ihrem Artikel zu Schutz von Opfern von Menschenhandel und Funktionalisierung institutioneller Mechanismen im Kosovo aus dem Jahr 2020 Akten abgeschlossener Fälle von Menschenhandel. Es sei festgestellt worden, dass die Opfer während des Zeugenaussagenprozesses gemäß den Bestimmungen des Zeugenschutzgesetzes geschützt worden seien. Die Opfer seien im Vorhinein über die im Zeugenschutzgesetz vorgesehenen Zeugenschutzmaßnahmen informiert worden.

Es sei nicht bekannt, ob es während und nach der Abgabe von Aussagen an die zuständigen Stellen Erpressungen gegen Opfer gegeben habe. Laut der Aufzeichnungen seien keine Maßnahmen gegen diese Art von Straftaten ergriffen worden.

Opfer von Menschenhandel würden auch anderweitig geschützt. Von 57 behandelten Fällen seien 45 Opfer in sicheren Unterkünften untergebracht worden. (Maloku und Maloku, 2020, S. 29-33)

Laut der Expertengruppe für Maßnahmen gegen Menschenhandel (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, GRETA) gebe es innerhalb der Polizei eine spezielle Direktion für den Schutz von Zeugen, die nach dem Zeugenschutzgesetz Nr. 04 / L-015 zuständig ist. Nach Angaben der Behörden sei es bis zur Veröffentlichung des Berichts (2016) nicht erforderlich gewesen, Opfer oder Zeugen von Menschenhandel an diese Direktion zu verweisen. Vor Inkrafttreten des Gesetzes seien zwei Opfer von Menschenhandel auf das Zeugenschutzprogramm verwiesen worden, das zum damaligen Zeitpunkt von der UNMIK (Mission der Vereinten Nationen im Kosovo) - EULEX (EU-Rechtsstaatlichkeitsmission im Kosovo) geleitet wurde. (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 38)

Es konnten als Teil der Recherche keine Informationen zu speziellen Maßnahmen gefunden werden, wenn es sich um international tätige TäterInnen handelt.

Effektivität von Opferschutz (Möglichkeit sich unerkannt in einem anderen Landesteil niederzulassen)

Im Rahmen der zeitlich begrenzten Recherche konnten keine Informationen zur unerkannten Niederlassung in einem anderen Landesteil gefunden werden. Gesucht wurde mittels ecoi.net, Google und Factiva, nach einer Kombination der folgenden Suchbegriffe auf Deutsch und Englisch: Kosovo, Menschenhandel, Opfer, Schutz, Unterbringung, Berichte, Erfahrungen, anderer Landesteil, neue Stadt, neues Dorf, unbekannt.

Es konnten als Teil der Recherche generell nur wenige Informationen zur Effektivität von Opferschutz gefunden werden.

Das US-Außenministerium (US Department of State, USDOS) schreibt in seinem Bericht zu Menschenhandel vom Juni 2020 (Berichtszeitraum April 2019 bis März 2020), dass die Regierung die Gesamtfinanzierung des Opferschutzes erhöht habe, jedoch die Finanzierung für von Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführte Unterkünfte zum fünften Mal in Folge reduziert habe. Die Regierung habe zwei von Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführte Unterkünfte genehmigt und teilweise finanziert, zusätzlich zur staatlichen zwischenzeitlichen Sicherheitseinrichtung (Interim Security Facility, ISF). Die Regierung habe keine Unterstützungseinrichtung in den vier nördlichen Bezirken des Landes.

Die staatlichen Mittel für von Nichtregierungsorganisationen geführte Unterkünfte seien unzureichend, und ohne ausländische Geber könne der Betrieb nicht fortgesetzt werden. Darüber hinaus gebe es bürokratische Verzögerungen und Verwirrung über die Verantwortlichkeiten, was zu Verzögerungen bei der Finanzierung in den Vorjahren führte. Im Jahr 2019 erlaubte das Ministerium für Arbeit und Soziales Nichtregierungsorganisationen, eine einjährige Finanzierung zu beantragen, eine Erhöhung gegenüber der achtmonatigen Laufzeit des Vorjahres. Aufgrund einer monatelangen bürokratischen Verzögerung seien die Nichtregierungsorganisationen jedoch nur für elf Monate finanziert worden.

Ein multidisziplinärer nationaler Überweisungsmechanismus (NRM) liefere Standardarbeitsanweisungen (SOPs) zur Identifizierung und Überweisung von Opfern an Dienste. Nichtregierungsorganisationen hätten berichtetet, dass der NRM gut funktioniere. Die gute Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Akteuren sei betont worden.

Die Zivilgesellschaft berichte von einer guten Qualität der Versorgung der Opfer, jedoch hätten Reintegrationsprogramme aufgrund mangelnder Ressourcen und hoher Arbeitslosigkeit insgesamt nur begrenzten Erfolg. (USDOS, 25. Juni 2020)

Laut dem Kosovo-Bericht der Europäischen Kommission aus 2020 sei die Funktionsweise der acht Notunterkünfte für Opfer häuslicher Gewalt und Menschenhandel nicht einheitlich, was hauptsächlich auf den Mangel an nachhaltiger Finanzierung zurückzuführen sei. Im Sommer 2020 sei in Zubin Potok eine neue Unterkunft eröffnet worden, die die vier nördlichen Bezirke abdecke und das Netzwerk der Schutzinstitutionen vervollständige. (Europäische Kommission, 6. Oktober 2020, S. 35)

Die Europäische Kommission gibt weiter an, dass die Rechtsvorschriften zum Menschenhandel weitgehend mit denen der EU abgestimmt seien. Die Umsetzung könne jedoch verbessert werden, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die proaktive Identifizierung von Opfern, die Gewährleistung von Hilfe und Unterstützung sowie die verstärkte Verfolgung und Verurteilung von Tätern. (Europäische Kommission, 6. Oktober 2020, S. 41)

Der Zivilgesellschaftsbericht über Menschenrechte im Kosovo im Jahr 2019 des Kosovar Gender Studies Center (KGSC) gibt an, dass obwohl es Unterkünfte gebe, die speziell für Opfer von Menschenhandel eingerichtet wurden, die Polizei und andere zuständige Institutionen solche Fälle immer noch Unterkünften für häusliche Gewalt zuweisen würden. Dies führe zu Verwirrung unter den Mitarbeitern, denen das erforderliche Fachwissen und die Fähigkeit zur ordnungsgemäßen Behandlung von Fällen von Menschenhandel fehle. (KGSC, Juni 2020, S. 28)

Die Medienorganisation Kosovo 2.0 zitiert in einem Artikel vom Dezember 2018 Teuta Abrashi, stellvertretende Direktorin des Zentrums für den Schutz der Opfer und die Verhinderung des Menschenhandels, eine Nichtregierungsorganisation, die Unterkünfte für Opfer von Menschenhandel zu Verfügung stellt (Center for Protection of Victims and Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings, PVPT), die erklärt, dass das Profil der Opfer, die zunehmend kosovarisch sind, weitere institutionelle Anstrengungen, vom Bildungssektor bis zu Berufsbildungszentren, erfordere, um Bedingungen für eine langfristige Integration zu ermöglichen. Ihre Organisation habe in Zusammenarbeit mit lokalen Unternehmen Beschäftigungssysteme eingerichtet, mit gemischtem Erfolg. Einige Arbeitgeber hätten die Zusammenarbeit missbraucht, doch zum Zeitpunkt der Recherche hätten 97 Frauen und Mädchen an solchen Programmen teilgenommen.

Die Reintegrationsprogramme würden jedoch aufgrund der hohen Arbeitslosigkeit im Kosovo und des Mangels an Ressourcen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen.

Weiters habe das PVPT die Organisation finanziellen Probleme.

Als NGO, die vom Ministerium für Arbeit und Soziales (MLSW) für das Angebot sozialer Dienste lizenziert wurde, habe PVPT Anspruch auf staatliche Mittel. Die staatlichen Mittel seien jedoch unzureichend und der Arbeitsprozess führe zu Finanzierungslücken. (Kosovo 2.0, 4. Dezember 2018)

Unterschiede im Opferschutz, je nachdem, ob das Opfer im In- oder Ausland ausgebeutet wurde

Artikel 20 des Gesetzes Nr. 04 / L-218 zur Verhinderung und Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und zum Schutz der Opfer des Menschenhandels vom 4. September 2013 bietet eine Liste von fundamentalen Rechten für Opfern von Menschenhandel. Die in diesem Artikel vorgesehenen Rechte stünden auch Opfern zur Verfügung, die aus einem anderen Land nach Kosovo zurückgeführt wurden, sowie begleitenden Angehörigen des Opfers. (Gesetz Nr. 04 / L-218, Artikel 20(3))

Laut Verordnung Nr. 13/2017 über die Wiedereingliederung von repatriierten Personen, hätten repatriierte Personen unter anderem im Falle von Zugang zu öffentlichen Dienstleistungen (Artikel 5), Zugang zu Wohnraum (Artikel 7) und Sozialschutz (Artikel 8) die gleichen Rechte, wie andere Bürger Kosovos. (Gesetz Nr. 13/2017, Artikel 5-8)

Artikel 33 der Verordnung Nr. 13/2017 besagt, dass bei der Wiedereingliederung von zurückgeführten Personen schutzbedürftigen Personen, wie Opfern von Menschenhandel, besondere Aufmerksamkeit zu widmen sei. Die Art der Unterstützung werde fallspezifisch auf der Grundlage der Beurteilung der individuellen Umstände festgelegt. (Gesetz Nr. 13/2017, Artikel 33)

Unterschiede in der strafrechtlichen Verfolgung der TäterInnen, je nachdem, ob das Opfer im In- oder Ausland ausgebeutet wurde

Artikel 108 des Strafgesetzbuchs der Republik Kosovo (Code Nr. 06 / L-074) 14. Jänner 2019 definiert eine Anzahl von im Ausland begangener Straftaten, für die das Strafrecht des Kosovo angewendet werde. Darunter fallen Straftaten nach Artikel 163 (Sklaverei, sklavereiähnliche Bedingungen und Zwangsarbeit) und 165 (Menschenhandel) des Strafgesetzbuches. Dies gelte laut Artikel 109 auch für Ausländer, die außerhalb des Hoheitsgebiets von Kosovo eine Straftat gegen einen Staatsangehörigen der Republik Kosovo begangen haben, sich im Kosovo aufhalten, und eine Straftat begangen haben, die auch am Ort der Ausführung gesetzlich strafbar ist. Für den Fall, dass ein Strafverfahren schon in einem anderen Land eingeleitet wurde, siehe Artikel 110 des Strafgesetzbuches. (Gesetz Nr. 06/L-074, Artikel 108-110)

Stigmatisierung von Opfern von Menschenhandel im Kosovo

Der Artikel der Medienorganisation Kosovo 2.0 vom Dezember 2018 legt dar, dass Opfer von Menschenhandel aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach zu Hause stigmatisier und von ihren Familien und Gemeinden abgelehnt würden. (Kosovo 2.0, 4. Dezember 2018)

Als Teil einer Bachelorarbeit an der Jönköping Universität in Schweden, führte Vlora Skeja Interviews mit MitarbeiterInnen von drei verschiedenen NGOs in Pristina durch, die in Unterkünften für Opfer von Menschenhandel arbeiteten, sowie einem Anwalt für Opfer von Menschenhandel. Laut der Interviewpartner sei Prostitution in Kosovo sehr stigmatisiert und die Bevölkerung assoziiere Menschenhandel mit Prostitution. Aus diesem Grund würden die Frauen (die Opfer von Menschenhandel sind) häufig von der Gemeinschaft abgelehnt werden. (Skeja, 2016, S. 30, S. 38)

Stigmatisierung hindere die Opfer daran sich wieder vollständig in die Gesellschaft zu integrieren. (Skeja, 2016, S. 39)

Die Gemeinschaft akzeptiere die Frauen nicht und helfe nicht bei der Reintegration (Skeja, 2016, S. 41). Eine Heimmitarbeiterin habe von einem Fall berichtet, wo sie für eine Frau einen Job in einer Bäckerei organisiert habe. Nachdem MitarbeiterInnen herausgefunden hätten, dass die Frau ein Opfer von Menschenhandel sei, hätten zehn von ihnen kündigen wollen. Die Frau habe daraufhin ihren Job verloren und arbeite nun als Prostitutierte. (Skeja, 2016, S. 41-42)

Roos de Wildt gibt in ihrer Vorstudie zur Dynamik von Sexhandel und Prostitution im Kosovo an, dass nach dem Verlassen der Sexindustrie junge Frauen aufgrund des Stigmas, das mit dem Menschenhandel verbunden sei, Schwierigkeiten haben könnten, sich wieder in ihre Gemeinschaft zu integrieren. (De Wildt, 2012, S. 29)

Quellen: (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 2. März 2021)

·      De Wildt, Roos, Utrecht University: Preliminary Study on Sex Trafficking and Prostitution Market Dynamics in Kosovo, 2012 (verfügbar auf Legislationline)
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5027/file/Kosovo_Report%20University%20Utrecht_sex_trafficking_prostitution_2012_en.pdf

·      Europäische Kommission: Kosovo 2020 Report [SWD(2020) 356 final], 6. Oktober 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2040144/kosovo_report_2020.pdf 

·      Gesetz Nr. 04/L-015: Law No. 04/L-015 on Witness Protection, veröffentlicht in Official Gazette of the Republic of Kosova No. 13, 1. September 2011
https://www.refworld.org/docid/601448f44.html

·      Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218: Law No. 04/L-218 on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Victims of Trafficking, veröffentlicht in Official Gazette of the Republic of Kosova No. 34, 4. September 2013
https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/601d3c8a4.pdf

·      Gesetz Nr. 06/L-074: Code No. 06/L-074, Criminal Code of the Republic of Kosovo, inoffizielle Übersetzung veröffentlicht von UNHCR, 14. Jänner 2019
https://www.refworld.org/docid/6012e70d4.html 

·      Gesetz Nr. 13/2017: Regulation (GRK) No.13/2017 on Reintegration of Repatriated Persons, offizielle Übersetzung veröffentlicht von UNHCR, 6. September 2017
https://www.refworld.org/docid/5ddfcf8f4.html 

·      GRETA – Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Report on the compliance of Kosovo with the standards of the Council of European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, adopted on 22. Dezember 2015, veröffentlicht am 12. April 2016
https://rm.coe.int/16806454cc

·      KGSC – Kosovar Gender Studies Center: Civil society report on human rights in Kosovo in 2019, Juni 2020
http://kgscenter.net/site/assets/files/1767/ngos_report_on_human_rights_2019.pdf 

·      Kosovo 2.0: Kosovo’s Battle with Human Trafficking, 4. Dezember 2018
https://kosovotwopointzero.com/en/kosovos-battle-with-human-trafficking/

·      Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program: Minimum Standards of Care for Victims of Trafficking, 2010 (verfügbar auf Legislationline)
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5024/file/Kosovo_Minimum_Standards_of_care_vicitims_of_trafficking_2010_en.pdf

·      Maloku, Ahmet und Maloku, Elda: Protection of Human Trafficking Victims and Functionalization of Institutional Mechanisms in Kosovo, Acta Universitatis Danubius, Juridica, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020
https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/9EIMG?_s=XDBU7hhtRgcv99XMhlFjlghA1Ec%3D

·      Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator (Kosovo): Standard Operating Procedures for Trafficked Persons in Kosovo, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt (verfügbar auf Legislationline)
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5028/file/Kosovo_Standard%20Operating%20Procedures%20for%20Trafficked%20Persons%20_en.pdf

·      Skeja, Vlora: ‘Ending up in the streets’, A qualitative study about the process of support of leaving trafficking and re-entering the community in Kosovo, Bachelor thesis, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, 2016
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:972426/FULLTEXT01.pdf

·      USDOS – US Department of State: 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report: Kosovo, 25. Juni 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2036297.html 

 

Anhang: Quellenbeschreibungen und Informationen aus ausgewählten Quellen

Roos de Wildt promovierte in Kultur- und Global Kriminologie an der Universität Utrecht in den Niederlanden und der Universität Hamburg mit den Schwerpunkten Prostitution und Menschenhandel zu sexuellen Zwecken im Kosovo.

De Wildt, Roos, Utrecht University: Preliminary Study on Sex Trafficking and Prostitution Market Dynamics in Kosovo, 2012 (verfügbar auf Legislationline)
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5027/file/Kosovo_Report%20University%20Utrecht_sex_trafficking_prostitution_2012_en.pdf

„After leaving the sex industry, young women can experience difficulties integrating back into their community, due to the stigma associated with being trafficked. The women do not always receive sufficient assistance to integrate back into their communities and often return to similar socio-economic circumstances as those that contributed to them being lured into the sex industry in the first instance. These factors are said to make re-trafficking a large problem in Kosovo.“ (De Wildt, 2012, S. 29)

·      Europäische Kommission: Kosovo 2020 Report [SWD(2020) 356 final], 6. Oktober 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2040144/kosovo_report_2020.pdf

„The functioning of the eight shelters for victims of domestic violence and trafficking in human beings is uneven mainly due to the lack of sustainable funding. A new shelter in Zubin Potok opened in summer 2020, covering the four northern municipalities and completing the network of protection institutions.“ (Europäische Kommission, 6. Oktober 2020, S. 35)

„Legislation on trafficking in human beings is broadly aligned with the relevant EU acquis, but implementation could be improved, especially regarding the pro-active identification of victims, ensuring assistance and support and increasing prosecution and conviction of perpetrators. Kosovo should adopt its new 2020-2024 strategy and action plan against trafficking in human beings.“ (Europäische Kommission, 6. Oktober 2020, S. 41)

·      Gesetz Nr. 04/L-015: Law No. 04/L-015 on Witness Protection, veröffentlicht in Official Gazette of the Republic of Kosova No. 13, 1. September 2011
https://www.refworld.org/docid/601448f44.html

„Article 5

Types of Protection Measures

1. Protection measure is applied to ensure the protection for the protected person from serious threat against his life, physical or mental health or to close persons defined in this Law.

2. Protection measures are as follows:

2.1. physical protection of the protected person;

2.2. temporary relocation of protected person to a secure place;

2.3. special procedures for access to data and documents related to protected persons from offices for issuing the documents and other formal information databases;

2.4. change of the protected person’s place of residence, work or study;

2.5. change of identity of the protected person;

2.6. change of the protected person appearance, including plastic surgery;

2.7. financial support for the protected person;

2.8. social, legal and other necessary assistance for the protected person; and

2.9. special regime for the protected person in custody, in correctional institutions.

3. Directorate makes a proposal for applying one or more protection measures, taking into account specific circumstances and the opinion of the endangered person. Protection measures can be implemented only with the consent of the endangered person. Application of protection measures which are not accepted by the protected person is prohibited, except the case foreseen with paragraph 4 of this Article.“ (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-015, Artikel 5)

·      Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218: Law No. 04/L-218 on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Victims of Trafficking, veröffentlicht in Official Gazette of the Republic of Kosova No. 34, 4. September 2013
https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/601d3c8a4.pdf

„Article 15

Treatment of victims of trafficking in human beings in criminal investigation and proceedings

1. Victims of trafficking in human beings receive adequate protection based on the individual risk assessment.

2. In cases when issues related to offenses according to this Law are reviewed in the court, for persons identified as victims, the prosecutor and other authorized parties must request and the court allows application of the special investigation opportunity, in line with the Criminal Procedure Code. Statements will be recorded and they will be completely acceptable during the trial. Statements from this paragraph might be used for local victims and victims that are located outside of Kosovo.

3. Without prejudice to the rights to protection, and in accordance with individual assessment carried out by the authorities, victims receive special treatment that aims to prevent re-victimization, in particular for vulnerable victims, thus avoiding, for as much as it is possible, the following situations:

3.1. unnecessary repetition of interviews during investigation, criminal prosecution or trial;

3.2. visual contact (confrontation) between the victims and defendants while giving testimony such as interviews and indirect interrogations, through adequate means including appropriate communication technologies;

3.3. giving testimony in open public session; and

3.4. unnecessary interviewing regarding intimate relations of the victim while he/she was trafficked.“ (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 15)

„Article 18

Protection of data/personal and privacy

1. Personal data, private life and identity of victims of trafficking are protected by the law enforcement authorities during the criminal procedure. The recording, maintenance, utilization of personal data of the victim of trafficking is carried out in line with conditions set by the Law on Protection of Personal Data.

2. In line with paragraph 1. of this Article, an agreement for exchange of information between authorities that deal with identification and assistance of the victim should be drafted, as well as with criminal investigation while fully respecting the protection of personal data and privacy and safety of the victims’ integrity.

3. All information exchanged between the victim and a professional providing medical, psychological, legal or other assistance or services shall be confidential and shall not be exchanged with the third persons without victim’s consent, in case of a child victim, without the consent of the legal representative.

4. Disclosure of data related to state protection measures for the victims of trafficking in human beings, persons that provide such protection, as well as persons that provide assistance in fighting trafficking in human beings is forbidden.

5. In case that the life or health of the victim of trafficking is threatened from the real danger, than, according to his/her request, based on the court decision taken upon prosecutor’s request, he/she is given the possibility to change his/her name, surname, date and place of birth, in line with conditions set in the law for protection of personal data and respective legislation in force.

6. Disclosure of information regarding protection measures and confidential information of the victim of trafficking, as well as disclosure of information related to criminal prosecution and measures provided for the safety of participants in criminal procedure, is sentenced in line with the law for the protection of personal data and legislation on criminal and administrative acts.

Article 19

Ensuring safety of the victims or witnesses

1. Competent body as defined in the Law on Protection of Witnesses, takes all necessary measures to ensure that the victim or the witness of trafficking in human beings and his/her family is provided with appropriate protection in case that his/her security is at risk, including measures for his/her protection from intimidation and retaliation of traffickers and their collaborators.

2. When it is necessary for ensuring physical safety of the victim or the witness, based on the request of the victim or the witness, or in consultation with him/her, the competent body undertakes all necessary measures for his/her displacement within or outside of Kosovo in line with the sub-chapter H of the law for the protection of personal data and limitation of disclosing his/her name, address and other personal identification information to the extent it is possible.

3. Victims and witnesses of trafficking in human beings have access to existing witness protection programmes in line with Law on Witness Protection and the Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo.

4. In cases of appearing in front of court that deal with criminal actions according to this Law, the court might allow presumed victims or witnesses to present their evidence in cameras or through other electronic or special means, as deemed appropriate by the court.

5. A victim of trafficking or a witness outside of Kosovo that might be able to provide information while investigating cases related to trafficking in human beings might be given provisional authorization to remain in Kosovo and appropriate protection during these periods, and according to conditions that are considered appropriate by the institutions in charge.

6. Nothing in this law forbids the victims and their authorized representatives to claim compensation ordered by the court, according to the civil and legal procedure which is guaranteed by the laws in force.

Article 20

Assistance and protection of victims of trafficking in human

1. Victims of trafficking in human beings are given protection and assistance by the Authorities set in Article 6 of this Law, under their competencies and in line with this Law and other normative acts.

2. In line with Criminal Procedure Code, a victim of trafficking has the fundamental rights as it follows:

2.1. right to information on the progress of criminal proceedings, as well as to all the rights pertained according to this Law and other legislation in force.

2.2. right to be treated as a party in procedure;

2.3. right of access to free of charge legal services;

2.4. right to written or oral translation services over all the phases of procedure, in an understandable language to him/her;

2.5. right to protect victims and witnesses, and in certain cases also for their families that are subjected to threats or intimidations in line with the Law on Witness Protection;

2.6. right to privacy and confidentiality;

2.7. right to enunciation of legal means, including legal assistance in this matter;

2.8. right to provisional refuge;

2.9. right to a reflection period of thirty (30) to ninety (90) days with purpose of recover.

2.10. right to medical, psychological assistance and social welfare services, payment as it might be necessary for meeting their needs and in line with legislation in force;

2.11. right to indemnity and compensation;

2.12. right to participation in sessions on determination of the sentence or information regarding the sentence;

2.13. right to information on release or escape of the defendant from detention centers.

3. Rights from this Article are provided to victims prior, during and after completion of criminal procedures.

4. Assistance services envisaged by this Article are also at the disposal of victims repatriated from another country in the Republic of Kosovo and accompanying dependants of the victim.

5. Assistance and support to victims of trafficking is made available once the competent authorities have reasonable-grounds for believing that the person might have been subjected to an envisaged action of trafficking in human beings.

6. Assistance and support for the victim are not conditioned with the victim’s willingness to cooperate during investigations, prosecutions or judgment.

7. Assistance and support measures are provided based on appropriate accord and information, taking into account special needs of children and other vulnerable victims.

8. Victims’ Defender provides legal assistance and support to the victim of trafficking in human beings, since the very first contacts with the competent bodies. Victims’ defender takes part in all procedural stages and represents the victim of trafficking in all trial sessions.

9. Each time when the competent body, international organizations and non-governmental organizations that are active in this field has reasonable reasons to believe that a person is victim of trafficking in human beings, then one such person is provided with protective measures and assistance determined by this Law.“ (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 18-20)

„Article 23

Security and support of Centers and shelters for temporary housing of victims of trafficking

1. Government ensures support of Centers and provisional shelters as well as protection of victims of trafficking in human beings, with aim that the specialized centers or shelters to be able to provide conditions for accommodation, personal hygiene, food, urgent care and legal assistance, social, psychological and medical care, safety and protection, as well as assistance in mediation and in contacting family and relatives.

[…]

5. With aim to guarantee safety of centers and shelters that accommodate victims of trafficking in human beings, centers and shelters, as per their requests, are provided assistance and safety by the police.“ (Gesetz Nr. 04/L-218, Artikel 23)

·      Gesetz Nr. 06/L-074: Code No. 06/L-074, Criminal Code of the Republic of Kosovo, inoffizielle Übersetzung veröffentlicht von UNHCR, 14. Jänner 2019
https://www.refworld.org/docid/6012e70d4.html 

„ Article 108

Applicability of criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo to specific criminal offenses committed outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo

1. The criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo apply to any person who commits the following criminal offenses outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo:

1.1. the criminal offenses provided for in Articles 142-147, 151-154, 158, 159, 160-163, 165, 167-169, 232, 234, 267-274, 287, 288, 296-298, 324 and 325 of this Code: and,

1.2. criminal offenses which on the basis of an international agreement binding on the Republic of Kosovo must be prosecuted even though committed abroad.

2. The criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo apply to any person who is a national of the Republic of Kosovo and who commits a criminal offense provided for in Articles 309-310 and Articles 421-424 outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo regardless of whether the act in question is also punishable at the place of its commission.

3. The criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo apply to any person who commits a criminal offense provided for in Articles 129-139 of this Code outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo where such offense constitutes a threat to the security of the Republic of Kosovo or its population, in whole or in part.

4. Except as provided in paragraph 2. of this Article, the criminal laws of Kosovo apply to any person who is a national of the Republic of Kosovo if such person commits a criminal offence outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo and if this act is also punishable at the place of its commission.

5. Paragraph 1. of this Article shall also apply to any person who, subsequent to the commission of a criminal offence, becomes a resident of the Republic of Kosovo.

Article 109

Applicability of criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo to foreign person committing criminal offenses outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo

1. The criminal laws of the Republic of Kosovo apply to any person who is a foreign person if:

1.1. such person has committed a criminal offense outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo against a national of the Republic of Kosovo even when such a criminal offense is not referred to in Article 108 of this Code;

1.2. this act is also punishable at the place of its commission; and

1.3. the perpetrator is found on the territory of the Republic of Kosovo or has been transferred to the Republic of Kosovo.

Article 110

Special prerequisites for prosecution of criminal offenses committed outside the territory of the Republic of Kosovo

1. In the cases provided for in Article 107 of this Code, if criminal proceedings have commenced but have not been completed in another jurisdiction, criminal proceedings shall be initiated in the Republic of Kosovo only upon the authorization of the Chief State Prosecutor of the Republic of Kosovo.

2. In the cases provided for in Articles 108 and 109 of this Code, criminal proceedings shall not be initiated if:

2.1. the perpetrator has completely served the punishment imposed in another jurisdiction;

2.2. the perpetrator has been acquitted in another jurisdiction by a final court judgment or the punishment was waived or prescribed by statutory limitation; or

2.3. criminal proceedings for that criminal offense in another jurisdiction may only be initiated upon request of the injured party and such request has not been presented.

3. Criminal proceedings pursuant to Article 111 of this Code may be initiated in the Republic of Kosovo only upon the authorization of the Chief State Prosecutor of the Republic of Kosovo.

4. In the cases provided for in Article 107 of this Code the criminal prosecution of a foreign person may be transferred to a foreign jurisdiction on the condition of reciprocity. (Gesetz Nr. 06/L-074, Artikel 108-110)

·      Gesetz Nr. 13/2017: Regulation (GRK) No.13/2017 on Reintegration of Repatriated Persons, offizielle Übersetzung veröffentlicht von UNHCR, 6. September 2017
https://www.refworld.org/docid/5ddfcf8f4.html 

„3. Vulnerable persons may need special reintegration measures. Vulnerable persons shall be identified and their needs for support with special measures will be assessed by competent bodies. […]

Article 5

Access to public services

1. Repatriated persons shall be entitled to access public services, civil registration, provision of personal documents, housing, education, social services and scheme, health care, vocational training, employment, free legal aid, under the same level as other citizens of the Republic of Kosovo.

2. Municipalities shall provide municipal public services to repatriated persons in

compliance with relevant applicable legislation.“ (Gesetz Nr. 13/2017, Artikel 5)

„Article 7

Access to housing

1. Repatriated persons shall be entitled to housing as other nationals of the Republic of Kosovo, including placement in public care institutions, when criteria provided for in the applicable legislation are fulfilled.

2. Repatriated persons shall be placed in the residence where they used to live before emigrating from Kosovo.

3. MLW [Ministry of Labour and Welfare], MoH [Ministry of Health] and municipalities shall provide vulnerable persons with 24h services and care by accommodating them in community-based institutions and houses.“

„Article 8

Social Protection

1. Repatriated persons shall be entitled to social protection as all other nationals of the Republic of Kosovo, pursuant to the applicable legislation.

2. The Centre for Social Work shall support repatriated persons in need for completing their documentation to benefit from the social scheme, social services, accommodation and housing based on needs identified and relevant applicable legislation.” (Gesetz Nr. 13/2017, Artikel 7-8)

„Article 33

Assistance and support for vulnerable persons

1.       During the process of reintegration of repatriated persons, special attention shall be paid to vulnerable persons, as follows:

[…]

1.8.             victims of trafficking in human beings;

[…]

2. Nature of assistance and support shall be determined based on the assessment of individual circumstances of any case, including specific support measures if necessary.

3.The vulnerable groups’ initial needs shall be assessed at the Reception Office in the BCP [Border Crossing Point] immediately upon arrival and shall be recorded in CMS [Case Management System].

4. Upon arrival in the municipality, the multidisciplinary team shall assess the needs based on the available documentation and field visits.

5.The multidisciplinary team shall prepare the individual reintegration plan and shall refer the case to the competent bodies for receiving services.” (Gesetz Nr. 13/2017, Artikel 33)

Die Expertengruppe für die Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels (Group of Experts against Trafficking in Human Beings, CoE-GRETA) ist ein Gremium des Europarats, das sich aus unabhängigen ExpertInnen zusammensetzt, die die Umsetzung der Konvention des Europarates zur Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels überwachen.

·      GRETA – Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Report on the compliance of Kosovo with the standards of the Council of European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, adopted on 22. December 2015, 12. April 2016
https://rm.coe.int/16806454cc

„126. The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare operates a temporary shelter for victims of trafficking considered to be of ‘high’ or ‘medium’ level risk, which was visited by GRETA [Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings]. The Ministry fully finances the shelter and the annual budget was said to amount to 80 000 euros. The shelter, which is located some 15 km from Pristina, in Lipjan, has been at its current location since November 2013. Previously, another shelter operated under the authority of the Ministry of Justice.

The current shelter was constructed with funding from the European Commission. It occupies a large two-storey building located in spacious but sparse grounds surrounded by a high wall. The entrance to the shelter is locked and guarded. Up to 25 persons can be accommodated, with separate accommodation for male victims as well as two apartments for mothers with children. The facilities and furniture were new and clean, but the atmosphere was sterile. There was little for anyone living there to do. A library contained a small number of books, mostly in English. There were no toys for children. At the time of the visit there were no trafficked persons staying at the shelter. The two most recent residents left in February 2015. A total of 25 trafficked persons had stayed at the shelter since it opened at its current location (including one man from Albania trafficked for forced begging). The average stay was said to be 25 days (shortest stay: one day; longest stay: 69 days).

127. The shelter had 11 staff, including the Director, victim advocates, nurses and an educator. At the time of GRETA’s [Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings] visit there was no in-house psychologist or medical doctor but these services are provided by visiting specialists.

128. If the police have reasonable grounds to believe that a person has been trafficked, they are brought to the shelter. The police evaluate the risk level of the individual; those considered to be at medium/high risk are referred to the State shelter and those considered to be at low risk are referred to the PVPT Centre [NGO Centre for Protection of Victims and Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings] (see paragraph 129). The police complete a standard form containing details about the trafficked person, which is also signed by the shelter. Trafficked persons are encouraged to remain in the State shelter, but they cannot be forced to stay against their will. Trafficked persons are asked to sign a statement that they agree to stay at the shelter. If trafficked persons go out of the shelter temporarily (e.g. to court), they are escorted by the police and if necessary a staff member. If the police wish to interview a trafficked person, the interview always takes place at a police station.

129. In July 2008, the NGO PVPT [NGO Centre for Protection of Victims and Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings] set up a rehabilitation centre for victims and potential victims of trafficking, the only one in Kosovo*. The centre has 11 staff with a variety of qualifications (including a medical doctor, psychologist and sociologist). It has seven beds for women and children. At the time of GRETA’s [Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings] visit there were four women staying in the centre. There were also 12 people who used services provided by the centre on a daily basis but who did not live there. The rehabilitation centre provides long-term rehabilitation and reintegration of victims of trafficking. Victims are provided with safe accommodation, food and clothing, medical care, psychological and legal counselling, psycho-social activities, mediation and family counselling, basic professional courses, educational activities (in co-operation with the Ministry of Education), and sessions on awareness and empowerment. Residents stay up to six months. A rehabilitation plan is drawn up for each person and they are regularly assessed to see how they are progressing. The shelter offers legal and medical advice and has enough funding to send people for specialist medical check-ups. A significant challenge with regard to reintegration is co-operation with private companies, which are sometimes subsidised to employ a trafficked person, but once the money for the subsidy runs out the company may stop employing the person. The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare through procurement procedures buys housing and rehabilitation services from the NGO PVPT [NGO Centre for Protection of Victims and Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings] worth annually around 33 000 euros (20% of the centre’s budget). The Ministry also monitors the quality of the services provided.“ (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 27)

„186. There is a special directorate for the protection of witnesses within the Police which has jurisdiction under the Law on Witness Protection No. 04/L-015. According to the authorities, there has been no need to refer victims or witnesses of THB [trafficking in human beings] to this directorate. Before the entry into force of this law, two victims of THB were referred to the witness protection programme, which at that time was led by UNMIK [United Nations Mission in Kosovo] –EULEX [EU-Rechtsstaatlichkeitsmission im Kosovo].“ (GRETA, 12. April 2016, S. 38)

Das Kosovar Gender Studies Center (KGSC) ist eine in Pristina ansässige Nichtregierungsorganisation, die Genderfragen erforscht und das Geschlechterbewusstsein im Kosovo fördert.

·      KGSC – Kosovar Gender Studies Center: Civil society report on human rights in Kosovo in 2019, Juni 2020
http://kgscenter.net/site/assets/files/1767/ngos_report_on_human_rights_2019.pdf 

„Although there are shelters established specifically for victims of human trafficking, Kosovo Police and other responsible institutions still assign such cases to domestic violence shelters. This creates confusion among staff members who lack the necessary expertise and capacity to properly handle trafficking cases.“ (KGSC, Juni 2020, S. 28)

Kosovo 2.0 ist eine unabhängige Medienorganisation, deren Ziel es ist, die Gesellschaft in Diskussionen einzubeziehen und das Verständnis für aktuelle Angelegenheiten im Kosovo und darüber hinaus zu vertiefen.

·      Kosovo 2.0: Kosovo’s Battle with Human Trafficking, 4. Dezember 2018
https://kosovotwopointzero.com/en/kosovos-battle-with-human-trafficking/

„After undergoing a program of rehabilitation, with few employment prospects and the likelihood of being stigmatized back home and rejected by their families and communities, many victims have an insecure future.

Abrashi explains that the profile of victims being increasingly Kosovar requires further institutional efforts for creating conditions for long term integration, from the education sector to vocational training centers, as many survivors need to be accepted into school or to develop skills through various training opportunities.

She explains how her organization has set up employment schemes in cooperation with local companies, with mixed success. Some employers have abused the cooperation, she says, although 97 women and girls are currently participating in such programs.

The reintegration programs still face other significant challenges though, due to both high levels of unemployment in Kosovo and a lack of resources, with PVPT [Center for Protection of Victims and Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings] needing to allocate its own funds to pay for professional courses.

And the organization has its own financial struggles.

As an NGO licensed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MLSW) to offer social services, PVPT is entitled to government funding. But last year saw a decrease in Ministry funding for NGO-run shelters, with 152,870 euros allocated for victim protection, compared to 171,010 euros in 2016.

Abrashi highlights that NGO-run shelters have reported that government funding is inadequate and says that the labored process frequently results in cash flow issues as the MLSW requires funding applications every six months, causing a funding gap while applications are processed and approved.

For instance, in January 2018, due to budgetary delays, the government had to allocate an emergency fund to the shelters offering services to victims of human trafficking and those of domestic violence.

Adile Shaqiri, a senior official within MLSW, says that it is hard for the government to provide full support for NGO-run shelters when they are operating as non-governmental organizations and emphasizes that no victim of trafficking would be left without the shelter they require due to the 24-hour state-run shelter.

‘The Ministry of Finance has a rule on public financing of NGOs and every organization needs to go through the selection process,’ she says. ‘So while that happens, it takes time. But the government has always allocated an emergency fund if it has been required.’

Abrashi, however, says that the situation is not sustainable.

‘The government needs to have a budget line that helps the centers. We always face the same thing and need to find an ad hoc solution,’ she says, saying that NGO-run shelters often have to rely on funding from foreign donors in order to survive. ‘Instead of having the support in January, we have it in spring and risk having to close.’“ (Kosovo 2.0, 4. Dezember 2018)

·      Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program: Minimum Standards of Care for Victims of Trafficking, 2010
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5024/file/Kosovo_Minimum_Standards_of_care_vicitims_of_trafficking_2010_en.pdf

„3.9. Preparations for the release from the shelter

STANDARD: The release of the beneficiary from the shelter should be done with her/his consent.

CRITERIA:

[…]

2. In order to rehabilitate and empower the beneficiary, the length of the stay in the shelter should be flexible, based on the beneficiary’s needs and circumstances.

3. The beneficiary can be transferred from one shelter to another with her/his consent, according to the agreements between shelters, and the services that the beneficiary requires. In this case, THBIS [Trafficking in Human Beings Investigation Section] should evaluate the level of risk.

[…]

WHAT WE SHOULD NOT DO:

4. The beneficiary must not be obliged to return to their families when security and economic conditions are not favorable.

5. Adult beneficiaries cannot be forced to stay in the shelter if they want to leave.

6. Adult beneficiaries cannot be forced to leave the shelter if they want to stay.“ (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 93)

„4. SECURITY

STANDARD: Security of beneficiaries and staff of the service providers must be ensured.

CRITERIA:

11. Ensuring the physical security of beneficiaries and staff (of the service providers) must always be a primary concern.

12. Service Providers should undertake prevention measures and manage actions on time in any case of security threats, for both their staff and beneficiaries.

13. During the stay in the shelter when a staff member identifies and assesses a security threat to beneficiary or others in the shelter, they should immediately contact police and other competent institutions.

14. The evaluation of the level of risk for each beneficiary should be done by law enforcement institutions, and according to the level of risk the beneficiary is sent to an appropriate shelter accompanied by the basic forms with his/her information.

15. If a beneficiary does not accept the support of and/or accommodation in a shelter, she/he should be made aware of the consequences and risks of staying outside the shelter and should be further advised on prevention actions and provided with service provider numbers in case of danger.

16. In arrival at the shelter, beneficiaries possessions which are considered to be dangerous for the beneficiary herself/himself and others will be confiscated by responsible staff and the confiscation documented.

17. Beneficiaries should be informed about security measures in and out of the shelter

18. Depending on the type of shelter that accommodates high- or medium-risk beneficiaries; adequate protection measures need to be taken. For example: cameras, lights, fences, doors, alarm, security guard, etc.

19. Taking into consideration the nature of trafficking, it is very important for the shelter to be well-protected and to be allowing access only to individuals from competent institutions.

20. Shelter staff should be informed of management procedures in cases of threats and danger to the place where they are staying.

WHAT WE SHOULD NOT DO:

4. Child beneficiaries must not have access to sharp objects or dangerous tools.

5. The beneficiary must not be returned home if there is any indication that the family is involved in their trafficking.

6. The beneficiary must not be returned in the place where there are indications that he/she can be re-trafficked.“ (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 93-94)

„ 13. FOLLOW-UP

STANDARD: The process of case follow-up should ensure that beneficiaries’ long-term needs are fulfilled

CRITERIA:

1. Follow up includes:

a) Protection from re-trafficking;

b) Protection from stigmatization and discrimination;“ (Kosovo Anti Trafficking Program, 2010, S. 105)

·      Maloku, Ahmet und Maloku, Elda: Protection of Human Trafficking Victims and Functionalization of Institutional Mechanisms in Kosovo, Acta Universitatis Danubius, Juridica, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020
https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/9EIMG?_s=XDBU7hhtRgcv99XMhlFjlghA1Ec%3D

„From access to the files of completed cases for the criminal offense of trafficking in human beings, it was observed that the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings were respected in the Kosovo courts, as follows:

·         Victims of trafficking in human beings were protected during the testimony process in terms of the provisions of the Law on Witness Protection.

·         Victims of human trafficking were previously informed of the witness protection measures provided for in the Law on Witness Protection.

·         Victims of trafficking as witnesses in criminal proceedings have been given the right to use their own language, or have been provided with translation in all cases.“ (Maloku und Maloku, 2020, S. 29)

„It is not known whether there was any blackmail against victims of trafficking in human beings during and after the statement was made to the competent bodies, and according to the records there were no actions taken against victims or victims of this type of crime. “ (Maloku und Maloku, 2020, S. 30)

„Human trafficking victims were provided with shelter. Of the 57 cases treated, 45 victims were placed in safe houses.“ (Maloku und Maloku, 2020, S. 33)

·      Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator: Standard Operating Procedures for Trafficked Persons in Kosovo, ohne Datum, Pdf-Dokument laut Dateieigenschaften im Jänner 2014 erstellt
https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5028/file/Kosovo_Standard%20Operating%20Procedures%20for%20Trafficked%20Persons%20_en.pdf

„Measure 5: Early Risk Assessment

WHAT: It is an evaluation interview to determine any immediate danger as to the health and safety of the presumed trafficked person. The final aim is to establish the next steps to ensure the presumed victim’s safety and wellbeing, including the development of an individual safety plan if necessary.

WHEN: It is made during the initial screening, after the presumed trafficked person has been provided with basic needs and detailed information on her/his entitlements, available services, and the interview process.

WHO: Police officer of the Anti-Trafficking Section and the appointed case manager. In case of a child, also the legal guardian is present.

[…]

In case an individual safety plan is required, the police officer and the case manager will promptly develop it taking into consideration the risk assessment outcomes. They then sign the plan and ask the presumed trafficked person to do the same. If the latter is a child, the legal guardian also signs the report.

A copy of the risk assessment report and of the beneficiary safety plan is sent to the identified shelter before the presumed trafficked person is accompanied to it.“ (Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, S. 37-38)

„Measure 6: Referral to Support Service

[…]

When safe accommodation is required, the decision is made based on the level of risk that the presumed trafficked person faces (high-risk and medium or low risk cases) and the special conditions surrounding the case (e.g. mother with children). For high- and medium risk cases, ISF is immediately contacted, unless the presumed trafficked person thinks differently. No action is taken before the presumed trafficked person has been given the chance to express her/his views, thoughts and possible concerns and full and informed consent has been obtained.

Before the referral takes place, the presumed trafficked person is fully informed about the shelter and the services provided. At the same time, the shelter is accurately informed by the Police officer of the Anti-Trafficking Unit about the trafficked person’s arrival (name of the referred person, time of arrival, accompanying persons). Information about health issues and safety risks concerning the presumed trafficked person is shared with the shelter (all documents – risk assessment report, safety plan are provided to the shelter).“ (Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, S. 39)

„Measure 3: Victim-Witness Support during the Trial

WHAT: It is the provision of safety, psychological, and legal support to minimise the security risks and the risk of any re traumatisation the victim may face as a result of her/his participation in the legal proceedings. This will allow the victim to feel safe and give a meaningful statement.

WHEN During the trial.

WHO: Police, prosecutor, judge, lawyer , case manager and interpreter (in case of a foreign victim In case of a child , also the legal

HOW: The support during the trial is ensured through:

- Physical protection of the victim witness;

- Testimony recording, video conference so that the victim witness does not have to appear personally or at least will not be confronted with the suspect perpetrator (e.g. video testimony, closed circuit television, use of screens, providing testimony in judicial chambers, written statement to be read during trial, closed hearing prior to the trial)

- A set of questions that shall not be superfluous, offensive or could result in a re victimization of the trafficked person;

- Escort of victims witnesses to, in and from the court;

- Avoidance of contact with the suspect perpetrator or suspect accomplices , or the family of the perpetrator or accomplices when entering the building (e.g. use of side entrance, separate waiting room, etc.);

- Provision of support persons to stand beside witness during testimony;

- Proper interpretation;

- Exclusion of the public from the court room;

- No media reporting or, in case this is not possible, protection of sensitive data (e.g. the personal history, name and photograph of the victim witness) must be ensured . In some cases, the victim or witness may use a pseudonym.

If the victim faces high safety risks, video conferencing, telephone or vide o testimony or testimony given in writing and read during the trial is considered.“ (Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, S. 65)

„Measure 4: Victim-Witness Support after the Trial

WHAT: It is the support provided to the assisted trafficked person once the legal proceeding is over.

[...]

In order to ensure the safety of the trafficked person, additional security measures may have to be implemented after the trial.

WHEN: After the trial and as far as the safety measures are needed if the safety of the victim is at risk.

WHO: Case manager and other professionals from the shelter and, in case of safety measures, police officers

HOW: See the “How section” of the SOPs [Standard Operating Procedures] concerning Further Assistance and Social Inclusion and Return or Resettlement. In case it is necessary to take additional safety measures to protect the victim once the trial is over, a new risk assessment is promptly performed and the risk management plan revised. The victim shall give her/his written consent for the revised plan implementation and is informed in a timely manner whenever a change occur s (e.g. release of the perpetrator from the prison).“ (Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, ohne Datum, S. 66)

Vlora Skeja war Studentin an der Fakultät für Gesundheit und Soziales, Universität Jönköping (Schweden).

·      Skeja, Vlora: ‘Ending up in the streets’, A qualitative study about the process of support of leaving trafficking and re-entering the community in Kosovo, Bachelor thesis, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, 2016
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:972426/FULLTEXT01.pdf

„The last theme present how the professionals talk about women’s entrance into society. The reintegration is perceived as the most challenging and often failed aspect of their work and support. Professionals relate this failure foremost to how the community, and how the local people perceive and interact with the women. According to the professionals there is a widespread stigma associated with prostitution in Kosovo and people associate trafficking with prostitution, which is understood as being voluntary. They explain that such stigmatization easily occur because of the geographical size of Kosovo as a country and as linked with collective ways of living and thinking. As a consequence the women are often rejected by the ‘community’, which make them vulnerable for re-trafficking or ‘ending up in the streets’, or into homelessness and prostitution.“ (Skeja, 2016, S. 30)

„The shelter workers who work most closely with the women all talk about their experiences of the women’s re-integration into the community as the most challenging aspect of their work. The challenges professionals talked at length about when the women were to be re-integrated into the community were closely linked with other people’s perceptions and actions, which they related to a widespread stigma around foremost prostitution. The local members were said according to the professionals to equate trafficking with prostitution.“ (Skeja, 2016, S. 38)

„‘(…) Stigmatization, judgmental attitudes are blocking the victims from fully reintegrating into the society. There is a misunderstanding rooted in the community where they struggle to separate the terms ‘trafficking’ and ‘prostitution’. But also a kind of denial when it comes to the question if trafficking exists.’“ (Skeja, 2016, S. 39)

„Other shelter workers claimed that the support by the community is not around when one has overstepped the norms and values in the community, the shelter workers especially related this to the trafficked women, Lirije states this aspect in following example: ‘The family wont accept her even though she have been rehabilitated in the shelter, and when it comes to release her into the community, the community wont accept her’. What is significant with the community in Kosovo according to the professionals is that it can be perceived as a social security network, but if something oversteps the norms and the values in the community there is rejection and shame towards the community members whom overstepped the norms (e.g. the women).“ (Skeja, 2016, S. 41)

„The shelter worker Sandra explains one example of this where she had managed to get a woman a job in a bakery but when her colleagues found out she had been a trafficked woman the husbands to the other women had protested, ‘their husbands don’t want them to work at the same place as this woman’. Hence, Sandra put the woman’s fate in ending up in the streets and prostitution down to her loosing her job because of how she was labeled and stigmatized by the community:

‘I once helped one of the victims to get a job at a bakery. She worked there for a while but the manager called one day saying that 10 of her staff wanted to quit their jobs. They had found out that the woman has a background of being trafficked. The staff had said that their husbands don’t want them to work at the same place as this woman, either the woman is fired or they leave their jobs. This woman ended up in the streets and now she is a prostitute because she cant finance herself otherwise. The reintegration is the weakest point of the anti-trafficking work. They end up in the streets, the biggest problem is that there is nothing planned for them after the rehabilitation period at the shelter.’ “ (Skeja, 2016, S. 41-42)

USDOS (US Department of State) ist das US-amerikanische Außenministerium.

·      USDOS – US Department of State: 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report: Kosovo, 25. Juni 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2036297.html 

„The government conducted robust joint investigations and inspections and increased overall funding for victim protection. However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. Judges continued to impose weak sentences on convicted traffickers and first responders lacked guidance and proactive identification efforts for victims of forced begging, especially children. Despite increasing overall funding for victim protection, the government decreased funding for NGO-run shelters for the fifth consecutive year, forcing NGOs to rely on foreign donors. […]

A multi-disciplinary national referral mechanism (NRM) provided standard operating procedures (SOPs) for identifying and referring victims to services. […] NGOs continued to report the NRM functioned well and highlighted good cooperation among actors.

The government licensed and partially funded two NGO-run shelters to provide services to victims, along with the state-run Interim Security Facility (ISF). These shelters provided legal assistance, medical and psychological services, counseling, education, recreational services, and other rehabilitative support. Authorities afforded foreign victims the same rights and services as domestic victims. Victims also had access to nine Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MLSW) support facilities, but the government did not have a care facility in the country’s four northern municipalities. ISF temporarily accommodated victims assessed as high-risk. Authorities required victims to have a police escort outside of the ISF while court proceedings were ongoing and required approval from a prosecutor and the KP for victims to permanently leave the ISF while assessed as high-risk. The facility had the capacity to shelter 40 individuals with separate rooms for females, males, and families. Victims stayed at the ISF for an average of 90 days before transferring to an NGO-run shelter. ISF [Interim Security Facility] accommodated 27 victims (17 victims in 2018). The two NGO-run shelters provided support services to victims assessed as low- to medium-risk; one of these NGO-run shelters was solely for children. Civil society reported good quality of care for victims, but reintegration programs had limited success due to a lack of resources and high overall unemployment. […]

Government funding was inadequate for NGO-run shelters, and operations could not continue without foreign donors. In addition, there were bureaucratic delays and confusion over responsibilities, resulting in funding delays in previous years. In 2019, MLSW allowed NGOs to apply for one-year funding, an increase over the eight-month duration in the previous year. However, due to a month-long bureaucratic delay, NGOs received only 11 months of funding. […]

All 26 victims participated in investigations and court proceedings (15 in 2018). The government reported suspected traffickers were not present when victims provided statements, and foreign victims could return to their countries of origin after testifying, without waiting for the conclusion of the trial. The law allowed compensation from the state if victims could not get restitution from their traffickers.“ (USDOS, 25. Juni 2020)

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