Israel and Palestine: Travel documents issued by the Israeli government to residents of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, including procedure and issuing authority; restrictions, including validity period; whether entry can be refused upon return (2017-March 2020) [ZZZ200090.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Identification Cards

Israel's Ministry of Justice enacted in 2003 the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Provision [Order]) 5763 - 2003 (Israel 2003). According to sources, the Citizenship and Entry Law prohibits Palestinians from legally moving to Israel for family reunification (Adalah 3 Nov. 2019; US 13 Mar. 2019, 17; UN 27 Jan. 2020, para. 24), "with certain rare exceptions" (UN 27 Jan. 2020, para. 24). Sources report that as of 2019, the Citizenship and Entry Law has been renewed every year (Adalah 3 Nov. 2019; US 13 Mar. 2019, 17).

Sources report that Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank are issued identification cards based on the Palestinian Population Registry, which is administered by the Palestinian Authority (PA), though Israel maintains control [1] over it (Al Jazeera 18 Nov. 2017; Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 5.11, 5.14). These cards are for identification only and Israel-issued travel permits are still required for travel in or through Israel (Al Jazeera 18 Nov. 2017; Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 5.16). The identification cards affect how Palestinians can move through Israel, according to the Director General for the Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights (ICHR n.d.), in an April 2019 meeting with the Danish Immigration Service (DIS),

[i]n terms of which entry points an individual Palestinian can enter through, i.e. East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, it depends on the ID card that s/he holds. Palestinians from East Jerusalem hold a blue ID-card, which is a residency card, while Palestinians from the West Bank[] and the Gaza Strip hold a green Palestinian ID-card. Blue ID card holders can enter through Ben Gurion airport and through the Allenby Bridge, while green ID card holders can only enter through the Allenby/King Hussein Bridge. Palestinians from the Gaza Strip with a Palestinian ID card can enter through the Rafah Border Crossing, while Palestinians from the West Bank with a Palestinian ID card need prior coordination with the Egyptian Ministry of Interior if they want to enter through the Rafah Border Crossing. All three types of ID are fully controlled by the Israeli authorities in the sense that they have the sole power to grant and revoke these ID cards. (Denmark May 2019, 69-70)

The DIS report adds that the Rafah Border Crossing is controlled by the Egyptian authorities and that Hamas has authority on the Palestinian side (Denmark May 2019, 18).

2. PA Passport

The PA issues passports to residents of the West Bank and Gaza (Denmark May 2019, 54; European NGO 10 Jan. 2020). In order to apply for a PA passport, residents of the West Bank and Gaza must be on the Palestinian Population Registry (Al Jazeera 18 Nov. 2017; Denmark May 2019, 18).

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a representative of a humanitarian NGO based in Europe, whose areas of operation include Palestine, drawing on information collected from various sources, described the passport application as follows:

Palestinian passports are issued by the Palestinian Ministry of Interior in the West Bank, Department of Passports and Nationality. People in Gaza apply for passports through local private travel agencies in Gaza. Passport application package[s] will then be sen[t] by post to the [Ministry of Interior] in the West Bank. Based on the announced [Ministry of Interior] procedures and observations, passports are usually issued within 14 days. However, the length of this process (from submitting the application to a local travel agency to receiving the issued passport) might vary depending on security situation, Israeli restrictions, speed of the post-delivery, and the local agency). Upon issuance, passports are sent back to Gaza by post. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020)

3. Entering and Exiting Israel and Issuance of Travel Documents
3.1 Overview

According to sources, the process to enter Israel from Palestine differs between Gaza and the West Bank (Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 2.48; Gisha Oct. 2019, 6). Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) indicates in its thematic report on the Palestinian Territories that "Palestinians residing in the Gaza Strip all face a more stringent process to enter Israel" when compared to residents of the West Bank (Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 2.48). The Associated Press (AP) reports that according to Gisha [2], in 2017, "fewer than 6,000 people a month left [Gaza] on average, roughly half the level of 2016," compared to "several hundred thousand entry permits a year for West Bankers, ranging from day passes to those valid for several months" (AP 30 Apr. 2018). However, the website of the Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT), the Israeli Ministry of Defense unit responsible for implementing Israel's policy towards Gaza (Israel n.d.a), notes that around 1,000 residents from Gaza go through the Erez Crossing per day, without specifying the time period (Israel n.d.b).

According to the DFAT report, "male Gazans aged between 12 and 35 are unlikely to be approved" for a permit to enter Israel (Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 2.48). The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2018 indicates that "Israeli authorities often denied or did not respond to Palestinian applications for travel permits through the Erez Crossing. Israel largely limited entry and exit from Gaza at the Erez Crossing to humanitarian cases" (US 13 Mar. 2019, 97). Gisha adds, as cited by the DIS report, that "the only area where good data is accessible" regarding the processing and approval rate of applications for Gaza Strip residents who want to travel through the Erez Crossing via the Allenby/King Hussein Bridge is for "'medical requests'"; this is published monthly by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Denmark May 2019, 27). According to the WHO, 70 percent of the applications for crossing at Erez for healthcare reasons were approved in January 2020, and the average for 2019 was 65 percent, while 86 per cent of applications from the West Bank were approved in January 2020 (UN 2 Mar. 2020, 2, 4).

The DIS report indicates that to make an appeal following a refusal, "an administrative proceeding has to be launched; essentially suing [COGAT] in order to reverse its decision. In that process, the judge reviews the petition and determines whether or not to set a date for a hearing, thus compelling the state to defend COGAT's decision" (Denmark May 2019, 25). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

In an April 2019 meeting with the DIS, Gisha described the Israeli travel document system as follows:

no one can really master the Israeli permit system when it comes to exit, entry and residency of Palestinians. There are so many procedures. The extensive amount of rules and regulations give the impression that there is order and bureaucracy, but it is really a mess. (Denmark May 2019, 60)

Gisha adds in one of its reports that "Israeli authorities often change the way they implement the procedures. In addition, Israeli authorities sometimes do not implement requirements listed in a procedure, and sometimes make requirements that are not listed in them" (Gisha Oct. 2019, 3).

Similarly, in a 2018 report, the Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ) [3] indicates that characteristics of the Israeli permit regime include "'unpredictability'" and that it "lacks a significant amount of transparency," requiring Palestinians to hire lawyers to understand the court process (ARIJ 2018, 16-17). The report also mentions that permits can be "revoked whenever there is a problem justifying the revocation, according to the Israeli Intelligence Service" (ARIJ 2018, 2).

3.2 Gaza

The COGAT states that

[unofficial translation by Gisha]

[t]he entry of a resident of the Gaza Strip into Israel requires a permit by the Gaza CLA [Israeli Coordination and Liaison Administration], in accordance with the Entry to Israel order (Exemption of Gaza Strip residents) 5765-2005, as well as under the authority of the 'commander of the area' in accordance with the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order) 5763-2003. (Israel 27 Aug. 2019, 2)

The NGO representative stated that

[p]ermits [for Gaza residents] are meant to be approvals from the Israeli authorities to allow Gaza residents to leave Gaza through Erez crossing located at the north border between Gaza Strip and Israel. Destination of travels could be limited to Israel, the West Bank, or Jordan. Jordan is often used as a hub for Gaza travels to reach their final destination.

Travelers through the Erez crossing are required to hold a recognized [ID issued] by Israel, and therefore those who hold a temporary Palestinian IDs cannot travel through Erez crossing. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020)

The DIS report indicates that, according to Gisha,

there is no coordination between the Jordanian and the Israeli authorities when it comes to transiting Gaza Strip residents. This means that a person might get a 'non-objection letter' from the Jordanian authorities but not a permit from the Israeli side and vice versa. Gisha further explained that these are unconnected processes. If a person is denied a permit by Israel but has a non-objection, s/he would have to reapply for the Israeli permit. If s/he has a permit but not a non-objection letter, s/he may be denied exit from the Erez Crossing. (Denmark May 2019, 22, italics in original)

The DIS report also notes that, according to a meeting with an international agency in Tel Aviv, "an entry permit also implies that the person in question is also allowed to return to the Gaza Strip through the Erez Crossing" (Denmark May 2019, 80). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3.2.1 Procedure and Requirements

The NGO representative stated that the requirements to apply for a permit includes the following:

  • ID card recognized by Israel
  • Application submitted to the [Palestinian] Ministry of Civil Affairs
  • Letter to prove the reason for travelling (medical report, invitation letter for training, education)
  • Relevant proof or documents based on the type of permit. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020)

Israel's COGAT provides the following general application guidelines:

  1. Applications by Palestinians from the Gaza Strip to enter Israel are forwarded to the Gaza CLA by the Palestinian Civil Affairs Committee in Gaza, under the authority of the Palestinian Authority’s Ministry for Civil Affairs in Ramallah. The Civil Affairs Committee is responsible, at its discretion, for assembling, sorting and prioritizing the submission of applications by Palestinians in the Gaza Strip to the Israeli side. In exceptional cases requests filed by figures in the international community and recognized IOs [international organizations] are accepted.
  2. All forwarded applications will be considered in accordance with the security, political and strategic interests of the State of Israel, including individual security screenings regarding the applicant or members of his family, application compliance with the criteria put in place from time to time with respect to entry by Gaza residents into Israel, required administrative checks, such as authenticity of the supporting documents attached to the applications and the potential need for additional supporting documents, etc.. The above checks are an integral part of the consideration and approval process of each application. (Israel 27 Aug. 2019, 10-11)

Gisha provides the following advice on the application process:

Palestinians with a registered address in the Gaza Strip, or present in the Gaza Strip at the time of submission, file their applications to the Palestinian Civil Affairs Committee in Gaza. If the applicant is not physically in the Gaza Strip, the application can be filed by a relative or a friend. …

Given the complicated system and large number of applications, some applications are never forwarded from the Palestinian Civil Affairs Committee to the Israeli CLA for various reasons. Therefore, it is recommended to follow up with relevant officials on the Palestinian side with respect to the application's status. …

  • Applications must enclose all relevant documents, depending on the type of application. The documents must be current, clear and legible. Many applications are not processed due to the quality of the supporting documents enclosed. Unfortunately, the Israeli military rejects applications submitted with documents it deems to be of poor quality and does not necessarily inform the applicant of the issue. Documents may be submitted in Arabic, English or Hebrew. Applicants should make sure their applications are filed under the right category upon submission (e.g.: commerce permit, conferences and seminars etc.), ask for written confirmation that the application was filed and receive its serial number.
  • Applicants must record the date on which the application was filed and retain copies of the application itself and the documents enclosed with it.
  • Applications must be submitted in person at the offices of the Palestinian Civil Affairs Committee at al-Ansar building, across from the Commissioner's Palace in Gaza City. For more information on filing applications, applicants should contact the Palestinian Civil Affairs Committee. However, in our experience, it is preferable to arrive at the committee offices in person.
  • Contact the Economic Representative for applications concerning commercial matters.
  • Applications by recognized foreign and international organizations should be filed with the Department of International Organizations of the Gaza CLA, using the CLA's online application system … (Gisha Oct. 2019, 6-8)

The COGAT reports that the routine processing times for travel permits from Gaza to Israel, from the moment the application is received by the Gaza CLA, are the following:

[unofficial translation by Gisha]

  1. Permits for medical treatment (including people accompanying patients and travel abroad for medical treatment): 23 business days. Applications in cases involving an immediate medical emergency (life-saving) will be processed immediately.
  2. Visiting a sick relative (in the West Bank or Israel): 50 business days.
  3. Wedding in Israel/West Bank: 50 business days.
  4. Business meetings, attending conferences in Israel/West Bank: 50 business days.
  5. Entry for meetings at embassies and consulates in Israel/West Bank: 50 business days.
  6. Medical seminars and internships: 70 business days.
  7. Trade in Israel: 70 business days.
  8. Travel abroad for other purposes (subject to permissions status): 70 business days.
  9. Funeral in Israel: immediate processing. (Israel Oct. 2017)

However, according to Gisha, as cited by the DIS, Israeli authorities "keep the applications pending for so long that [permits] may become irrelevant" (Denmark May 2019, 27). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3.3 West Bank

The NGO representative stated that since 1995, Palestinians residing in the West Bank, excluding East Jerusalem, were granted Palestinian passports and that many West Bank residents still hold a "temporary Jordanian travel document" (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020). The DIS similarly indicates that the "majority of the Palestinians in East Jerusalem and some of the Palestinians in the West Bank hold Jordanian passports. Most of these passports are not nationality passports but temporary foreigner's passports" (Denmark May 2019, 23). The NGO representative said that Jerusalem residents

cannot use this travel document to travel through Ben Gurion international airport, as they have to use the Israeli travel document. Nonetheless, Jerusalemite[s] can have the visa to the destination country stamped on the Jordanian passport meanwhile exiting and entering from Ben Gurion using the Israeli travel document. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020)

According to Gisha, West Bank Palestinians must file their Israeli travel permit application with the "Palestinian District Coordination and Liaison offices (DCLs), which forward them to one of the 8 Israeli DCLs, according to the applicant's address" (Gisha Oct. 2019, 6). The COGAT website indicates that application for an entry permit to Israel for funerals, legal needs and visiting a consulate or an embassy can be filed online by Palestinians residing in the West Bank (Israel n.d.c). The COGAT notes that if "the application is approved, the Palestinian will be requested to retrieve the permit from the relevant DCL. If the application is denied, the resident will be given an explanation for the denial of the request" (Israel n.d.c).

Sources indicate that ["[m]any" (UN 2 Mar. 2020, 4)] women over 50 and men over 55 do not need a permit to enter Israel (Australia 15 Mar. 2017, para. 2.47; ARIJ 2018, 2; UN 2 Mar. 2020, 4) if they are residents of the West Bank (Australia 15 Mar 2017, para. 2.47; UN 2 Mar. 2020, 4).

The DIS report notes the following regarding the documents required from West Bank residents at the Allenby/King Hussein Bridge:

According to the Israeli procedures as translated by Gisha, Palestinians travelling through the Allenby/King Hussein Bridge could travel using either a) a valid Palestinian passport which is updated in the computerized register or b) a departure card and a valid ID card. Gisha does not have information about which grounds a departure card is issued on. This information on document requirements was confirmed by a humanitarian organisation which, on the other side, added that even though the Israeli border guard will ask for both documents, in practice only one of the two is needed in order to cross, and it does not have to be valid. The Palestinian Ministry of the Interior noted that Palestinians need both a Palestinian passport and an ID card to pass through the Allenby/King Hussein Bridge. (Denmark May 2019, 17, italics in original)

3.4 East Jerusalem

The NGO representative stated that, after the Oslo Accords, starting from 1995, Palestinians who lived in East Jerusalem were granted "a temporary Israeli travel document in addition to the temporary Jordanian travel document" (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020). The same source reported that the Israeli travel document is not the same as the passport issued to Israeli citizens and that "Palestinian Jerusalemite[s] were granted a 'permanent residency status' and not Israeli citizenship" (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020).

Similarly, the DIS reports that "Palestinian East Jerusalem residents[] only hold a temporary Israeli travel document; i.e. a laissez-passer" and "[w]henever these people leave and come back, they will be issued with an entry visa to Israel. When they exit Israel, their travel document will be stamped. This applies for travel through Ben Gurion International Airport as well as travel through other exit points," or "[d]epending on the type of passport they are travelling with, Palestinians returning from abroad to reinstate their residency in East Jerusalem need a pre-arrival visa to enter Israel" (Denmark May 2019, 22-23). The same source further indicates that the laissez-passer "could be renewed from abroad … for a maximum of two years at a time" but, "[a]ccording to several sources, a Palestinian with a residence permit in East Jerusalem, who stays abroad for more than seven years, risks [having] his/her residence permit revoked" (Denmark May 2019, 22-23).

The NGO representative stated that "[t]he travel document can be issued for any Palestinian Jerusalemite regardless of the age of [the] applicant" and described the process to apply as follows:

The application process starts with booking an appointment with the Israeli Ministry of Interior (MoI) office in Wadi El Joz in East Jerusalem. The applicant will book a date using a website or application designated for this purpose (called: myvisit). It may take several months to book a date to apply for the travel document.

On the date of the appointment, the applicant must appear in person in the MoI office.

The following requirements are needed in order to apply for the Temporary Israeli travel document:

  1. Filling in the application
  2. Presenting the ID
  3. Two personal photos
  4. Fees to be paid
  5. The period of Israeli travel document [is] either for 2 years or for 5 years, upon applicant request.

The process of issuing the Israeli travel document from the Israeli Ministry of Interior takes one month from the date of submitting the application. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020, 8)

Israel, on its government services and information website, states that to request a travel document, an appointment must be made through the myvisit website, but that an application may not be made if "[y]ou have been served restrictions by [a] court or other official, authorized bodies, while these restrictions are in effect" or "[y]ou owe an execution debt," as well as the following:

  • If you are replacing an expired or damaged laissez passer you must submit it.
  • If you are replacing a lost, stolen, or damaged laissez passer for the second time or more, you may be required to submit a court declaration.
  • Additional documents if you are under 18.
  • Your ID card and appendix if you have been issued one.

Children also need:

  • A parent's ID in which they are registered.
  • If your child is under 6, you should bring 2 passport photos. See the passport photo guidelines for instructions.

  1. Make an appointment at a Population and Immigration Authority office.
  2. Pay securely online.
    • You can also pay at the authority with your credit card, or with someone else's credit card if they are with you in person, and at self-service stands located across the country.
    • Paying online is cheaper than paying at the authority office. See the fees table.
  3. Go to the Population and Immigration office for your scheduled appointment.
    • Bring the printed application form with you. If you are under 18 you must be accompanied by one of your parents. …
    • After completing the application your passport will be issued and sent to you within approximately 3 weeks.
    • If you don't receive your travel doc[u]ment it will be returned to your local post office. If you don't collect it from the post office it will be returned to the authority office ... (Israel n.d.d, bold in original)

4. Restrictions, Including Document Validity Period

The NGO representative stated the following:

Holders of the Israeli travel permit must abide by the conditions of the permit i.e. may travel only to places and within the timeframe granted. For example, as some permits allow presence in Israel during daylight hours, which requires [the] holder to be out of Israel during the night.

Gaza residents have the right to return to Gaza via Israel (coming from Jordan or West Bank only) or Egypt as long as they carry a valid IDs and passports, unless a person travelled to Jordan via Israel and was obligated to sign a document that regulates her/his return. In some cases Israeli authorities required Gaza travellers to sign a documents committing to return to Gaza after 6 or 12 months. (European NGO 10 Jan. 2020)

According to sources, the hours for the Erez Crossing are the following:

from Gaza to Israel:

  • Sunday to Thursday: 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. (Gisha Oct. 2019, 9; Israel n.d.b).
  • Friday: 7:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. (Gisha Oct. 2019, 9; Israel n.d.b), for Gaza residents only (Israel n.d.c).

from Israel to Gaza:

  • Sunday to Thursday: 7:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. (Gisha Oct. 2019, 9; Israel n.d.b).
  • Friday: humanitarian and urgent case only (Israel n.d.b) or 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. (Gisha Oct. 2019, 9).

However, according to Al-Haq, an NGO based in Ramallah that "documents violations of the individual and collective rights of Palestinians" (Al-Haq n.d.), "[n]either the Rafah nor the Erez border crossing is regularly open" (Denmark May 2019, 54).

A COGAT document updated as of August 2019, in an unofficial translation by Gisha, contains a chart detailing access permits from Gaza and the West Bank, including validity period and other restrictions (Israel 27 Aug. 2019, 22-61); the chart is attached to this Response.

5. Whether Entry Can Be Refused Upon Return

In an April 2019 meeting with the DIS, Gisha explained the following:

West Bank residents do not need any special coordination or visas to enter Jordan for transit. They could land at the airport in Amman and then go directly to the Allenby/King Hussein crossing. In theory, Israel respects the right of West Bank residents to leave and re-enter from abroad.

Some Palestinians are blocked from entering Israel for security reasons. However, if these people do not have a status in another country, it would be difficult for Israeli authorities to keep them from transiting via Israel for the purpose of re-entering the Gaza Strip, if they used Erez to transit abroad in the first place. Israeli authorities would probably hinder their transit in Israeli areas, but could probably not stop them from entering the West Bank or the Gaza Strip, unless they had a permanent or long-term stay permit in another country. (Denmark May 2019, 63)

According to sources, in 2016 Israel enacted a policy that allowed Gaza residents to travel through Israel to Jordan in order to travel abroad if they agreed not to return for a period of one year (Israel 18 Sept. 2017, 12-13; Haaretz 24 Feb. 2018; The Times of Israel 17 Aug. 2017), but Gazan Palestinians may return within the one-year time period for humanitarian reasons (Israel 18 Sept. 2017, 13; Haaretz 24 Feb. 2018). Information on whether the policy is still in effect could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Gisha, in an interview with the DIS, stated that it has not heard of residents of Gaza or the West Bank, registered in the Palestinian Population Registry, who "stayed in another country for a longer period of time" not being able to "to return and take up residence again" (Denmark May 2019, 65). According to the DIS, "Palestinians, who have stayed abroad for years, might not know if their residence permits have been revoked" and that, according to Gisha, "[i]t is possible for Palestinians abroad to inquire by proxy in order to seek verification of their residency status by local authorities" (Denmark May 2019, 14). Further information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Notes

[1] According to the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority (PA) administers the Palestinian Population Registry by tracking and submitting changes to Israel who has the authority to approve the changes (Denmark May 2019, 67; US 13 Mar. 2019, 99). Sources report that Israel has not processed change requests since 2000 (Al Jazeera 18 Nov. 2017; US 13 Mar. 2019, 99). According to a 2019 report by the Danish Immigration Service (DIS), Israeli authorities "currently" only add births and deaths to the registry (Denmark May 2019, 50)

[2] Gisha is a non-profit organization in Israel "whose goal is to protect the freedom of movement of Palestinians, especially Gaza residents" and offers legal assistance and public advocacy (Gisha n.d.).

[3] The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ) is a Palestinian NGO whose mission is "promoting sustainable development in the occupied Palestinian territories and the self-reliance of the Palestinian people through greater control over their natural resources" (ARIJ n.d.).

References

Adalah. 3 November 2019. "Israel Set to Extend 'Temporary' Law that Tears Palestinian Families Apart – For 16th Year in a Row." [Accessed 27 Feb. 2020]

Al-Haq. N.d. "About Al-Haq." [Accessed 21 Apr. 2020]

Al Jazeera. 18 November 2017. Linah Alsaafin. "The Colour-Coded Israeli ID System for Palestinians." [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ). 2018. Nasser Al-Qadi. The Israeli Permit Regime: Realities and Challenges. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ). N.d. "Vision & Mission." [Accessed 28 Feb. 2020]

Associated Press (AP). 30 April 2018. Karin Laub and Mohammed Daraghmeh. "For Palestinians, Israeli Permits a Complex Tool of Control." [Accessed 2 Mar. 2020]

Australia. 15 March 2017. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). DFAT Thematic Report: Palestinian Territories. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Denmark. May 2019. Danish Immigration Service (DIS). Palestinians: Access and Residency for Palestinians in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

European NGO. 10 January 2020. Correspondence from a representative to the Research Directorate.

Gisha Legal Center for Freedom of Movement (Gisha). October 2019. Access Kit: A Guide to Procedures and Protocols that Regulate Access to and from the Gaza Strip. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Gisha Legal Center for Freedom of Movement (Gisha). N.d. "About Gisha." [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Haaretz. 24 February 2018. Amira Hass. "To Leave Gaza, Israel Asks Palestinian Minors to Commit They Not Return for a Year." [Accessed 28 Feb. 2020]

Independent Commission for Human Rights (ICHR). N.d. "Board of Commissioners and Director General." [Accessed 28 Feb. 2020]

Israel. 27 August 2019. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). Unclassified Status of Authorizations for the Entry of Palestinians into Israel, Their Passage Between Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Strip and Their Travel Abroad. Unofficial translation by Gisha. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Israel. October 2017. Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). "Processing Permit Applications by Palestinian Residents of the Gaza Strip." Unofficial translation by Gisha. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Israel. 18 September 2017. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). Unclassified Status of Palestinians: Authorizations of Entry into Israel, Their Passage Between Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Strip and Their Travel Abroad. Unofficial translation by Gisha. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Israel. 2003. The Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Provision) 5763 – 2003. Unofficial translation. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Israel. N.d.a. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). "About COGAT." [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Israel. N.d.b. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). "Erez Crossing." [Accessed 3 Mar. 2020]

Israel. N.d.c. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). "Entrance Form to Israel." [Accessed 3 Mar. 2020]

Israel. N.d.d. The Government Services and Information Website. "Apply for a Travel Document (Laissez Passer) for Permanent Residents Who Are Not Israeli Citizens." [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

The Times of Israel. 17 August 2017. Dov Lieber. "More Gazans Now Allowed to Travel Abroad via Israel, but There's a Catch." [Accessed 28 Feb. 2020]

United Nations (UN). 2 March 2020. World Health Organization (WHO). Health Access: Barriers for Patients in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Monthly Report: January 2020. [Accessed 21 Apr. 2020]

United Nations (UN). 27 January 2020. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD). Concluding Observations on the Combined Seventeenth to Nineteenth Reports of Israel. (CERD/C/ISR/CO/17-19) [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

United States (US). 13 March 2019. Department of State. "Israel and the Golan Heights." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2018. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information; University of London – Centre for Palestine Studies.

Internet sites, including: Amnesty International; BADIL Resource Center for Palestinian Residency and Refugee Rights; BBC; ecoi.net; EU – European Asylum Support Office; Factiva; Forced Migration Review; HaMoked; Human Rights Watch; Inter-Agency Task Force on Israeli Arab Issues; The Jerusalem Post; Middle East Eye; Right to Enter; Sweden – Swedish Migration Agency; Travel Visa Pro; UK – Home Office; UN – Refworld.

Attachment

Israel. 27 August 2019. Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). "Permit Charts – Judea and Samaria Area" and "Permit Charts – Gaza Strip." Unclassified Status of Authorizations for the Entry of Palestinians into Israel, Their Passage Between Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Strip and Their Travel Abroad. Unofficial translation by Gisha. [Accessed 26 Feb. 2020]