a-4446 (ACC-IRN-4446)

Nach einer Recherche in unserer Länderdokumentation und im Internet können wir Ihnen zu oben genannter Fragestellung Materialien zur Verfügung stellen, die unter anderem folgende Informationen enthalten (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 14. Juni 2005):

In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen konnten leider keine detaillierten Angaben über den Verlauf der Studentendemonstrationen in der Stadt Ahwaz oder die Zahl der Demonstranten oder Verhafteten gefunden werden. Es gibt eine große Zahl von Berichten über die Studentendemonstrationen im Iran seit 1999, die Stadt Ahwaz wird meist nur am Rande als eine von vielen Städten mit Demonstrationen erwähnt, genauere Angaben werden selten gemacht. Im folgenden stellen wir Zitate aus nach Jahren geordneten Materialien zusammen, in denen Ahwaz erwähnt wird. Wir weisen ausdrücklich darauf hin, dass wir aufgrund des umfangreichen Materials keine lückenlose Auflistung von Demonstrationen in Ahwaz vornehmen können, die folgenden Daten sind daher als Auswahl zu betrachten. Auch können wir nicht in allen Fällen Bestätigungen durch weitere Quellen anführen, ob sich die Ereignisse tatsächlich so zugetragen haben sollen. Zur leichteren Lesbarkeit heben wir in den Texten Angaben über Verhaftungen und Zahl der Demonstranten hervor:

Jahr 2001

Die zum Teil als militant beschriebene oppositionelle Bewegung Iran Mojahedin berichtete im Juli, im Oktober und im November 2001 von Demonstrationen mit Kämpfen bzw. Verhaftungen:

  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: MKO reports students clash with security forces on anniversary of uprising, 9. Juli 2001 (WNC 0GG9J1H00NC720)
    “Students in Jondi Shapour University in the southwestern city of Ahwaz gathered outside the student hostels last night to mark the uprising anniversary. State Security Forces and members of the paramilitary University Bassij attacked the demonstrators and beat them up, but students fought back and scuffles broke out.”
  • Iran Mojahedin: MKO reports demonstrations in various cities, 1. November 2001 (WNC 0GMCN9S03H4TQ5)

    “On the night of Wednesday, October 31, the furious people of Iran took to the streets of Tehran and other cities across the country, including Isfahan, Ardebil, Tabriz, Ahwaz, Sari, Rasht, Kermanshah, Shiraz, Yazd, Boroujerd, Khorramabad and Semnan and demonstrated against the clerical regime despite the unprecedented presence of suppressive forces. In many instances extensive clashes broke out between the demonstrators and the suppressive forces.”
  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: MKO reports on clashes in Ahwaz, demonstrations in Asfahan, 28. November 2001 (WNC 0GNKONY00R5OJ1)
“In protest to the unsanitary living conditions and the sewage overrunning the streets, hundreds of residents of "Se-Khayrieh" district of Ahwaz (southwestern Iran) staged a protest gathering on Tuesday, November 27, and blocked the main road in the area. The clerical regime sent the suppressive State Security Force to the area to disperse the crowd, but the angry residents resisted and clashed with them. Several protesters were injured and a number were arrested .

Jahr 2002

Auch im Jänner, Februar, November und Dezember 2002 berichtete die oppositionelle Bewegung Iran Mojahedin von Demonstrationen, darunter auch eine angeblich vom Regime organisierte Demonstration im Februar. Im Dezember seien die meisten der Verhafteten Angehörige der arabischen Minderheit in Ahwaz gewesen. Die Nachrichtenagentur Prima News spricht ebenfalls von Protesten im November und Dezember:

  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: Teacher hold protest demonstrations in provincial cities, 29. Januar 2002 (WNC 0GQT2EV01TNK4P)
    “Teachers staged similar demonstrations and protests today and yesterday outside the education departments and governor general’s offices in Yassouj, provincial capital of Kohkiluye, Khorram-Abad, provincial capital of Lorestan, and Ahwaz, provincial capital of Khuzistan. All these demonstrations were attacked by the suppressive forces.”
  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: National Resistance says people shun 11 Feb demonstrations, 12. Februar 2002 (WNC 0HA93V801WT5VF)

    “In spite of a fully-fledged mobilization by the mullahs’ regime for the past several weeks to put on a "show of force" on February 11, residents in Tehran and other cities across the country shunned the government-orchestrated demonstrations yesterday. [...]In the southwestern city of Ahwaz, demonstrators were mostly government employees, school children and members of repressive agencies.”
  • Prima News: Mass protests in Iran, 13. November 2002
    http://www.prima-news.ru/eng/news/news/2002/11/13/21535.html (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    “Students rallies are said to be taking place in the cities of Esfahan, Khorram-Abad, Mashad, and Hamadan. According to the SMCCDI, in Esfahan and Ahwaz workers have also taken to the streets these days. On November 11, clashes occurred in Esfahan between demonstrators and police.”
  • Prima News: Mass student arrests in Iran, 18. November 2002
    http://www.prima-news.ru/eng/news/news/2002/11/18/21623.html (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    „Iran is being swept by mass arrests of students demonstrating against the death penalty imposed on Professor Seid Hashami Aghajari of Tehran University by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. [...] Similar clashes between students and Islamic militants took place in Esfahan and Ahwaz. The SMCCDI reported that in the towns of Ahwaz, Shiraz and Hamadan police began arresting students spotted by Iranian law enforcement during last week’s mass protests against the death sentence to Professor Aghajari.”
  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: MKO reports ’suppressive’ forces attack students in Tehran, other cities, 17. November 2002 (WNC 0H5TXS600R6DRG)

    “In Ahwaz, suppressive agents attacked a 3,000-strong meeting of students in Ahwaz University. The clashes erupted at the School of Physical Education and rapidly spread to other departments. Students replied by throwing stones and shouting slogans such as "down with tyranny", "guns, tanks, Bassijis, are no longer effective", "incompetent Khatami, resign, resign" and "this is the last warning, the students’ movement is ready for uprising". A number of students were wounded in these clashes. Some 1,000 special anti-riot Guards have surrounded the Ahwaz University while busloads of Revolutionary Guards keep entering the campus.”
  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran: MKO Says Iranian Security Forces Arrest 80 Students, ’Seriously Injuring’ Dozens, 19. November 2002 (WNC 0H5VTRQ01G923Z)

    “Mullahs’ security forces charged at a protest gathering by students in the southwestern city of Ahwaz this afternoon, arresting some 80 students and seriously injuring dozens more. About 1,000 Revolutionary Guards officers of the special anti-riot squads and State Security Forces agents sealed off at noon all the streets leading to Ahwaz University to prevent local people and youths from joining the 3,000 protesting students inside the university. Students chanted "down with dictatorship" and "this is the last warning: students are ready for uprising" and thus showed their opposition to the ruling mullahs. An hour later, the suppressive force attacked the students, firing tear gas and severely beating up the protesters with truncheons. The detainees were taken to an unknown location by the State Security Forces.”
  • Prima News: Iranian students arrested ahead of Student Day, 9. Dezember 2002
    http://www.prima-news.ru/eng/news/news/2002/12/9/21979.html (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    Dozens of students were arrested in Iran on December 6 on the eve of Student Day. Arrests were reported in the cities of Tehran, Esfahan, Mashad, Shiraz and Ahwaz.”
  • Iran Mojahedin MKO Reports Security Forces Clash With Arab Iranian Protestors in Ahvaz, 29. Dezember 2002 (WNC 0H7ZS6Q00JCMCU)

    “Antigovernment demonstration by thousands of people in Ahwaz leads to extensive clashes with Revolutionary Guards; Mojahedin’s Secretary General hails resistance of her hometown’s residents, calls on young people in Khuzistan to rush to their support; Hundreds, mostly Arab Iranians, detained after six days of resistance"
  • Iran Mojahedin: Iran opposition: Workers at Ahwaz pipelines factory join antigovernment protests, 31. Dezember 2002 (WNC 0H83DGF00VC5MN)
“More than 1,000 workers at Ahwaz Pipelines Factory stopped work this morning and joined the antigovernment demonstrators who have been protesting for the tenth consecutive day today. An antigovernment demonstration, which began this morning by more than 5,000 Ahwaz residents in Soroush and Naderi streets, grew rapidly and spread to other parts of the city. Demonstrators attacked and severely damaged several patrol cars and centers of the mullahs’ repressive forces.”

Jahr 2003

Mehrere Quellen berichten von Demonstrationen im März, Juni und Juli 2003. Die Proteste im Sommer hätten laut Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung am 11. Juni auf Ahwaz übergegriffen, andere Quellen berichten von Demonstrationen am 13. und 14. Juni:

  • IRNA: Over 700 people stage anti-war rally in southwestern Iranian city, 24. März 2003 (WNC, 0hcb6gu01ptxae)
    “Over 700 people here in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran, staged a rally Monday afternoon against the US-British war on Iraq. The demonstrators, chanting slogans such as "Death to America", "Death to Israel", and "Death to Britain", gathered in front of the city’s religious seminary to voice anger at US campaign against Iraq.”
  • Rouzeghar-e Now: Cry Freedom, 20. Juni 2003
    http://iranvajahan.net/cgi-bin/news_en.pl?l=en&y=2003&m=06&d=21&a=8 (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    “It began unexpectedly. On Tuesday, 10th June 2003 many of the LA based television and radio stations run by exiled Iranians had their regular programming interrupted by some “good news.” It was already Wednesday in Iran and the situation was portrayed as “indescribable.” Soon all lines were besieged by frantic callers, many of them self-appointed reporters in the streets of Tehran. [...]For the next two days hundreds of demonstrators were beaten and arrested with a brutality reminiscent of the 1999 failed student uprising whose fourth anniversary will be held on 9th July. The authorities blamed “US backed hooligans and monarchist elements” for the troubles and downplayed their importance. But the demonstrations continued and soon spread to Tabriz, Isfahan, Ahwaz and Shiraz where one person was killed in mysterious circumstances.”
  • Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung: Iran-Report: Zehn Tage lang landesweite Unruhen, Juli 2003
    http://www.boell.de/downloads/presse/iran-report072003.pdf (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    „Den äußeren Anlass zu den am 10. Juni ausgebrochenen Studentenprotesten boten Privatisierungspläne der Regierung an den Universitäten des Landes. Doch wie schon so oft bei Studentenprotesten mündeten auch diese in politische Demonstrationen, die sich gegen das gesamte System richteten. [...] Schon am nächsten Tag griffen die Unruhen auf andere Großstädte wie Isfahan, Schiraz, Ahwaz, Mashad über. Es kam zu Zusammenstößen mit der Polizei und islamistischen Schlägertruppen.“
  • Iranian Opposition Website Reports Protests Staged in Several Towns, June 15, 2003 (WNC 0hgkxku03s2npu)

    “Antigovernment demonstrations erupted in Kian-Pars district of Ahwaz last night. Protesters expressed their support and solidarity for the young people and students in Tehran in their uprising by chanting slogans against clerical leaders.”
  • Financial Times: Iran student protests spread to other cities, 16. Juni 2003 (Lexis)

    “Domestic media yesterday reported gatherings by thousands of students and other people in the cities of Isfahan, Shiraz and Ahvaz in support of the Tehran protests.”
  • ISNA Web Site: Unrest Reported In Southern City Of Ahvaz, 14. Juni 2003

    “Ahvaz: A group of young people in the Kianpars neighbourhood of Ahvaz staged a rally last night with the claim that they are supporting what they called the student protests. The gathering began about 2200 (1730 gmt) on 23 Khordad (13 June) and the participants chanted slogans in opposition to, what they called, limits on freedom, according to an ISNA correspondent in Khuzestan. After these protests, a group of plainclothesmen, known as the Ansar, took hostile action which led to confrontation between the two sides. The gathering ended at about 2230 with the intervention of the security and law enforcement forces. A Law Enforcement Force official in Ahvaz told our correspondent that a number of people have been arrested in this connection. He said the unrest caused no damage to business premises or residential areas and that "we are holding preliminary investigation about last night’s detainees". This Law Enforcement official for Ahvaz refused to give more details until investigations have been completed.”
“Violent clashes took place overnight in downtown Tehran between police and participants in banned demonstrations to mark the fourth anniversary of the July 9, 1999 student riots. Similar clashes were also recorded in other Iranian cities such as Esfahan, Ahwaz, Shiraz, Khorram Abad, Khomeini Shahr, Mashad, Hamadan and Kermanshah.”

Jahr 2005

Mehrere Quellen berichten ausführlich über wochenlange Unruhen in Ahwaz im April 2005. Die Proteste würden von der arabischen Minderheit getragen und seien durch Angst vor einer „Iranisierung“ der Provinz Khuzestan ausgelöst worden. Am 12. Juni habe es auch mehrere Bombenanschläge in Ahwaz gegeben:

  • NZZ - Neue Zürcher Zeitung: Attentate vor den Wahlen in Iran, 13. Juni 2005
    http://www.nzzamsonntag.ch/2005/06/12/al/newzzE9V9TTJ7-12.html (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)
    „In Ahwaz, der Hauptstadt der ölreichen Provinz Khusistan im Südwesten des Landes, gingen innerhalb kurzer Zeit mehrere Bomben hoch. Die staatliche Nachrichtenagentur Irna berichtete, dass 8 Personen getötet und 75 verletzt wurden. [...] Zu den Anschlägen in Ahwaz bekannten sich eine iranisch-arabische Separatisten-Gruppe «Revolutionäre Märtyrerbrigade von al-Ahwaz». Ziel sei die «Befreiung al-Ahwaz’ von iranischer Besetzung». In der an den Irak angrenzenden Provinz Khusistan gibt es separatistische Bestrebungen. Khusistan hat einen hohen Bevölkerungsanteil arabischstämmiger Iraner. Landesweit machen diese nur drei Prozent der Bevölkerung aus. Die erdölreiche Region ist wirtschaftlich die wichtigste Provinz des Landes. Hinter den Attentaten werden die teils marxistischen Volksmujahedin vermutet. [...]
    Im April waren bei Unruhen in Ahwaz gemäss amtlichen Angaben fünf Personen ums Leben gekommen. Hunderte wurden festgenommen. Eine als amtliches Dokument präsentierte Erklärung, welche die iranischen Behörden später als Fälschung bezeichneten, hatte viele Menschen aufgebracht. Sie liess die Existenz eines Plans vermuten, demzufolge die Provinz «iranisiert» und «entarabisiert» werden solle. Auch dafür wurden «vom Ausland unterstützte subversive Elemente» verantwortlich gemacht und ein «Komplott» gegen die Präsidentschaftswahl vermutet. Diese findet am Freitag statt. Als Favorit gilt der frühere Staatspräsident Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. Bombenanschläge hat es seit in der Islamischen Republik keine mehr gegeben.“
  • HRW - Human Rights Watch: Iran: Reports of Ethnic Violence Suppressed, 11. Mai 2005 
    http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/05/10/iran10602.htm (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    “Plainclothes agents arrested Banitaraf, who has written 20 books on ethnic minorities in Iran, in Tehran on April 25 during a press conference held by the nongovernmental Center for the Defense of Human Rights. During this event, Banitaraf publicly criticized the government’s violent suppression of protests by ethnic Iranian-Arabs in Khuzistan’s capital, Ahwaz. He spoke out about the killing of local residents during the protests, which began on April 15. According to government critics, at least 50 people were killed by the government’s security forces. [...] Protests erupted in Ahwaz on April 15 following publication of a letter allegedly written by Mohammad Ali Abtahi, an advisor to President Mohammad Khatami, which referred to government plans to implement policies that would reduce the proportion of ethnic Arabs in Khuzistan’s population. The province is home to nearly two million Iranians of Arab descent. After security forces tried to disperse the demonstrators and opened fire on them, clashes between protestors and security forces turned violent. The violence spread to other cities and towns in Khuzistan. The next day, Abtahi and other government officials denied the existence of the letter and called it fake.”
  • Iran Focus: Iran executes teenage demonstrators in Ahwaz, 23. April 2005
    http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=1924 (Zugriff am 14. Juni 2005)

    “Iran’s Revolutionary Guards executed a number of teenage demonstrators in the streets of Ahwaz, southern Iran, according to eye-witnesses. Residents reported that Revolutionary Guards arrested demonstrators in the city streets and gunned them down to terrorise the local people and end a weeklong anti-government uprising that has spread throughout the oil-rich Khuzestan Province. Helicopters were also seen opening fire on demonstrators. [...] Fierce fighting has brought the province to a complete stand-still since Friday, when State Security Forces (SSF) opened fire on a 3,000-strong anti-government demonstration in the city of Ahwaz.Ahwaz was placed under a de facto martial law after anti-government demonstrations led to bloody clashes between local residents and security forces. [...] The Prosecutor-General of Ahwaz Amir Khani said today that five people had been detained by Iran’s Ministry of Intelligence and Security, charged with being the primary instigators of the clashes that are still on going in a number of districts. He also announced the arrest of a further 59 people involved in the clashes in Ahwaz by the security and intelligence apparatus.”
„[...] Der Festnahme des Publizisten gingen Unruhen voraus, die am 15. April 2005 in dem Stadtteil Shalang Abad (auch unter dem Namen Da’ira bekannt) im Zentrum von Ahvaz begonnen hatten. Etwa 1000 Demonstranten sollen sich versammelt haben, um gegen den Inhalt eines Schreibens zu protestieren, über das seit dem 9. April 2005 Gerüchte kursierten. Dieses Schreiben soll 1999 von einem Berater des iranischen Staatspräsidenten verfasst worden sein und einen politischen Maßnahmenkatalog zur Reduzierung der arabischen Bevölkerung in der Provinz Khuzestan enthalten. Dies solle unter anderem mittels der Umsiedlung von Arabern in andere Regionen des Landes, der Ansiedlung nicht-arabischer Bevölkerungsteile in der Provinz und der Umbenennung arabischer durch persische Ortsnamen erreicht werde n. Die Regierung, darunter auch der angebliche Verfasser des Schreibens, haben die Echtheit des Dokuments nachdrücklich dementiert. [...] Die iranischen Sicherheitskräfte haben offenbar exzessive Gewalt angewandt, um die Demonstrationen zu unterbinden. Die Regierung und das Parlament sollen eine Untersuchung der Unruhen angeordnet haben, an deren Wirksamkeit und Unparteilichkeit aber Zweifel angebracht sind.“

Diese Informationen beruhen auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen. Die Antwort stellt keine abschließende Meinung zur Glaubwürdigkeit eines bestimmten Asylansuchens dar.