a-6702 (ACC-BDI-6702)

nach einer Recherche in unserer Länderdokumentation und im Internet können wir Ihnen zu oben genannter Fragestellung Materialien zur Verfügung stellen, die unter anderem folgende Informationen enthalten (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 14. April 2009):
USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2008 - Burundi, 25. Februar 2009
“Discrimination against Hutus, who constituted an estimated 85 percent of the population, occurred less frequently during the year. The constitution requires ethnic quotas for representation within the government and in the military. Hutus significantly increased their presence and power in the government following the 2005 elections. During the year significant improvements were made in integration of primarily Hutu former combatants into the security forces. The minority Tutsis, particularly southern Tutsis from Bururi Province, historically have held power and continued to dominate the economy.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2009, Sec. 5)
“The legal minimum wage for unskilled workers continued to be 160 Burundian francs (approximately $0.15) per day. However, in practice most employers paid their unskilled laborers a minimum of approximately 1,500 Burundian francs ($1.30) a day. Such an income did not provide a decent standard of living for a worker and family. Most families relied on second incomes and subsistence agriculture to supplement their earnings. The Department of Inspection within the Ministry of Labor is charged with enforcing minimum wage laws, but there were no reports of enforcement in recent years. The legal minimum wage had not been revised in many years, and there were no known examples of employer violations.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2009, Sec. 6e)
IRIN – Integrated Regional Information Network: Burundi: Thousands flee food crisis in north, 15. Jänner 2009
“The food crisis looming in the northern province of Kirundo has prompted more than 1,000 families to flee their homes in search of food in neighbouring countries, officials say. The governor of Kirundo, Juvenal Muvunyi, told IRIN on 15 January that 1,375 families had fled to neighbouring Rwanda or Tanzania in search of food. […] Kirundo province, once considered Burundi's food basket, is facing recurrent food shortages because of poor rains. […] Food shortages were also reported in the eastern Ruyigi province, with the local media saying some 8,000 people had fled to Tanzania in search of food. However, local administration officials played down the food crisis, saying only dozens of people were leaving the province to seek jobs in Tanzania.” (IRIN, 15. Jänner 2009)
UN Security Council: Fourth report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi, 28. November 2008 (veröffentlicht auf RefWorld
“Since June, some 57,000 refugees have returned to Burundi. This includes the return of 19,848 former refugees who fled the country in 1972. The return rate of Burundian refugees sharply increased in 2008, owing to the closing of camps in the United Republic of Tanzania as well as the beginning of the organized return of long-term refugees. […] Access to land remains the most important reintegration challenge, which primarily affects the main provinces of return, notably Makamba, Muyinga and Ruyigi. More than 80 per cent of former 1972 refugee returnees do not have access to land upon return, mostly because their family land has been redistributed by the authorities or occupied since the 1970s. This situation poses a security risk and has given rise to conflicts between current land occupants and returnees who lay claim to their old land holdings. UNHCR and the Government are providing temporary shelter to these returnees.” (UN Security Council, 28. November 2008, S. 13-14)
IRIN – Integrated Regional Information Network: Burundi: Fighting for land, 6. Oktober 2008
“Thousands of Burundians have returned home after years of refugee life in Tanzania, but finding shelter and enough land to farm remains a challenge. ‘Fifteen percent of long-term returnees repatriated this year are landless,’ said Léon Ndikunkiko, spokesman for the Ministry of National Solidarity, National Reconstruction, Human Rights and Gender. […] This year, the numbers increased after the Tanzanian government decided to close the camps by December. By mid-September, some 75,000 had returned to Burundi, including 17,392 long-term refugees. While some had been away since 1972, others had never seen their homeland, having been born in exile or left as children. Many, however, have come back to find their houses destroyed or occupied by other people.” (IRIN, 6. Oktober 2008)
RI – Refugees International: Burundi: Stability Depends on Successful Reintegration of Returnees, 1. Oktober 2008 (veröffentlicht auf RefWorld
“There are four categories of returnees who receive and require varying degrees of assistance. First, those who fled to Tanzania in 1972, when civil war broke out in Burundi, receive a small $45 cash allowance when they return and are allowed to carry up to 100 kg of luggage per person. Out of 72,700 Burundians who have returned in 2008, some 15,000 are part of the 1972 caseload; in total some 45,000 people from the 1972 group are expected to return by next year. Second, refugees who fled a later conflict in 1993 are considered to be less self-sufficient, and therefore receive a six-month food package, other supplies, and the $45 cash allowance. A third category consists of spontaneous returnees who decided to return home because they feared being forcibly expelled or hoped to recover their land and property in a newly peaceful Burundi. During their journey back, many people suffered harassment and extortion from border forces, including rape of women and girls. Finally, people who were not legally refugees were forcibly expelled from Tanzania. Initially invited by the Tanzanian authorities to register, with the hope of integrating locally, they were later expelled from the country without notice or time to recover their belongings or documentation. The most vulnerable among these two categories of people do receive assistance upon return in a very random manner.” (RI,      1. Oktober 2008)
BBC: Country profile - Burundi, letzte Aktualisierung 30. Oktober 2008
“Burundi, one of the world's poorest nations, is emerging from a 12-year, ethnic-based civil war. Since independence in 1961, it has been plagued by tension between the dominant Tutsi minority and the Hutu majority. The ethnic violence sparked off in 1994 made Burundi the scene of one of Africa's most intractable conflicts. It is now beginning to reap the dividends of a peace process. But it faces the formidable tasks of reviving a shattered economy and of forging national unity.” (BBC, letzte Aktualisierung 30. Oktober 2008)
IMF – International Monetary Fund: Burundi: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Februar 2007 (veröffentlicht auf unesco.org)
“Burundi is one of the world’s poorest countries, with per capita incomes at US$83 at end-2004. The seriousness of poverty poses a major risk to the country’s economic and social recovery.” (IMF, Februar 2007, S. 11)
“Vulnerable groups: characteristics and risks
[…]  Rural and urban poor: Typically, the rural and urban poor face difficulties stemming from low financial resources limiting their access to basic social services. In urban areas, it is primarily lack of employment and income, whereas in the rural areas it 2 0 is natural risks such as drought and low productivity, which are at the root of their vulnerability.
[…] Internal and external refugees: The different conflicts that have affected Burundi created an unprecedented humanitarian disaster with a high number of internal and external refugees. Many of them joined the ranks of the poor during the crisis because their property was pillaged and destroyed. A great many of them also became physically and psychologically disabled, malnourished and sick from endemic diseases. According to a study conducted by UNICEF in 1997, 84 percent of displaced persons displayed symptoms of conjunctivitis. The HIV rate is high among the internally displaced and they suffer from a high prevalence of sexual violence.” (IMF, Februar 2007, 19-20)
·       IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: Burundi: Situation of Hutu women born abroad to Burundian parents (2005-2007) [BDI102641.E], 29. Oktober 2007
„Approximately 85 percent of Burundi's population belongs to the Hutu ethnic group (AFP 30 Aug. 2005; US 6 Mar. 2007, Sec. 5). According to Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2006, discrimination against Hutus by Tutsis, who have traditionally held disproportionate economic and military power, is decreasing, and the presence of Hutus in government is increasing (ibid.). However, despite the election of a Hutu-led government in 2005, ethnic tensions persist (AP 31 Aug. 2007). In November 2005, the United Nations (UN) published its Fifth Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Burundi, in which it explained that large numbers of people who had fled Burundi due to conflict, were returning, only to find their properties destroyed, damaged or occupied (UN 21 Nov. 2005, 7). The UN goes on to state: The situation of women returnees, particularly widows, is further exacerbated by the lack of adequate legislation to address their inheritance and land access rights. UNHCR [Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees], the World Food Programme (WFP) and other members of the United Nations country team are continuing to provide basic assistance to the returnees, especially in the areas of food, shelter, education and health. (ibid.) In 2005, the Burundian government reportedly planned to expel thousands of Rwandan asylum seekers, the majority of whom were women and children (AP 13 June 2005; HRW 27 May 2005). According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), the asylum seekers who are Hutu (ibid.) feared being victims of violence as local people's courts (gacaca) were being set up to try perpetrators of Rwanda's 1994 Tutsi genocide (ibid.; AP 13 June 2005). A 12 July 2007 report published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) indicated that since 2002, 300,000 Burundians had returned home, of which 256,000 had been living in neighbouring Tanzania. The majority of Burundian returnees are ethnic Hutus (AP 31 Aug. 2007). The report stated that the UNHCR, along with other non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the World Food Programme, is helping the Burundian returnees with reintegration by providing six months of free healthcare (ibid.) and two years of free education for children, in addition to food rations, cash grants (ibid.; UN 12 July 2007), farming tools and basic household items (ibid.).“ (IRB, 29. Oktober 2007)
Diese Informationen beruhen auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen. Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines bestimmten Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar. Wir empfehlen, die verwendeten Materialien zur Gänze durchzusehen.