Chadian National Front-FNT (Front national tchadien), date of creation, treatment of its members, names, present location and status of its leaders and their goals; relationship between the FNT and the Renewed National Front of Chad-FNTR (front national tchadien rénové) [TCD35336.E]

According to Mondes rebelles, the Chadian National Front-FNT, also known as Front de libération du Ouaddai (FLO) was founded in the beginning of the 1980s by Mahamar Nour Adam Barka in Ouaddaï region (1996, 219). Barka appeared to be "theoretically" the FNT leader, but many "bande chiefs" emerged within the movement and acted as "loose cannon" (ibid.). Composed essentially of members of Zagawa ethnic group and Sudanese, the FNT operates in eastern and central Chad (ibid; Political Handbook of the World 1999, 185-186). According two published sources, Faris Bacha acts now as FNT leader (ibid.; Europa 1999, 896).

On 22 September 2000 the editor of Le Temps, a Chadian independent newspaper provided the following information:

The FNT is, since 1992, active in the eastern part of the country, near Sudan, and is led by Faris Bacha while the Renewed National Front of Chad (FNTR) is also a politico-military organisation founded in 1996 by some dissidents from the FNT. The two groups use military forces to try to overturn the Idriss Déby régime. However, while they share the same goal, they do not share concerted action nor the same leaders.

In the past, dissensions emerged within two organizations and some of their members joined the government side while other preferred exile, essentially in Benin, Sudan, Libya and France. It is known that many of those who joined the government are used by Idriss Déby régime in its fighting against Youssouf Togoimi and his Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) in the North or have been sent to the Democratic Republic of Congo to help the Kabila régime against different rebellions in that country.

According to Europa World Year Book, the FNTR is based in Sudan and is led by Maj. Adam Hamat (1999, 896). However, a 4 May 2000 AFP report claimed that Ahmat Yacub led the FNTR. Referring to a FNTR communiqué, a 2 RFI May 2000 report stated that Libya remains an important mediator between the Chadian government and the armed opposition [FNTR], despite "Tripoli's recent arrest of Chadian opposition members." The report does not provide the names of FNTR arrested.

Information on the names, present location and status of different leaders of the two armed rebellion groups could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Agence France Presse (AFP). 4 July 1999. "Chad Opposition Chief Signs Reconciliation Pact with Government." (NEXIS)

Balencie, Jean-Marc and Arnaud de la Grange. 1996. Mondes Rebelles: Acteurs, Conflits et Violences Politiques. Paris: Éditions Michalon.

The Europa World Year Book 1999. 1999. 44 th ed. Vol. 1. London: Europa Publications.

Political Handbook of the World: 1999. 1999. Edited by Arthur S. Banks.

Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

Radio France International (RFI) [Paris, in French]. 2 May 1999. "Rebels Confirm Clashes in North on 28 April." (NEXIS)

Le Temps [Djamena]. 22 September 2000. Telephone interview with an editor.

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential 1999-August 2000.

Africa Research Bulletin 1999-2000.

Amnesty International. 2000. Annual Report. Electronic version.

Country Reports 1999. February 2000.

Jeune Afrique 1999-September 2000.

La Lettre hebdomadaire de la FIDH 1999-2000.

Resource Centre Country File. Chad. 1999-2000.

Internet sites including:

Amnesty International Online.

Human rights Watch Online.

FIDH Online.

International Crisis Group (ICG).

Missionary Service News Agency (MISNA).

Panafrican News Agency (PANAM).


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