Sections of the Polish Penal Code that deal with assault; the punishment against a Polish citizen for leaving Poland while on a suspended one-year sentence and two-year probation for assault [POL42151.E]

Les chapitres du code pénal de Pologne qui renferment les articles visant les différentes catégories de voies de fait et les sanctions correspondantes ont été annexés à cette réponse. En juillet 2003, l'article 157 a été modifié; on y a ajouté l'interdiction des préjudices physiques envers les enfants (Pologne 6 juin 1997a). L'article prévoit également qu'une telle infraction est punissable d'une peine d'emprisonnement d'au plus deux ans (ibid.). Aucune autre modification n'a été apportée aux articles annexés dans la version modifiée de juillet 2003 (ibid.).

Selon la conseillère principale et consule de l'ambassade de la République de Pologne à Ottawa, l'article 72 du code pénal de Pologne (annexé) prévoit qu'il revient au tribunal de décider des conditions d'une probation (18 nov. 2003; Pologne 6 juin 1997a; ibid. 6 juin 1997b). L'interdiction de quitter le pays peut être l'une de ces conditions, mais ce n'est pas une condition qui s'applique automatiquement à tous les contrevenants (voir aussi l'article 73 du code pénal) (ambassade de la République de Pologne 18 nov. 2003; Pologne 6 juin 1997a; ibid. 6 juin 1997b). Cependant, la conseillère a signalé que dans les cas où l'on impose cette condition, le tribunal ordonnera aux autorités chargées de la délivrance des passeports de ne pas en délivrer au contrevenant en question, en vertu des paragraphes 6(1) et 6(3) de la loi polonaise sur les passeports (ambassade de la République de Pologne 18 nov. 2003). Si un passeport a déjà été délivré, ces mêmes autorités ont ordre d'annuler sa validité (ibid.; Pologne s.d.). La conseillère a également cité le paragraphe 75(2) du code pénal qui stipule qu'une entorse aux conditions de la probation entraînera son annulation et le rétablissement de la sentence initiale (ambassade de la République de Pologne 18 nov. 2003; Pologne 6 juin 1997a; ibid. 6 juin 1997b).

Selon des renseignements obtenus le 17 novembre 2003 lors d'un entretien téléphonique avec un avocat spécialisé en droit civil et en droit criminel de Ruda Slaska, dans la province polonaise de Silésie, un citoyen polonais qui se rend à l'étranger tout en étant sous le coup d'une condamnation d'un an avec sursis et d'une probation de deux ans pour voies de fait ne subira ni conséquence ni sanction pour avoir quitté le pays. Les personnes en probation jouissent de la liberté de mouvement (avocat 17 nov. 2003). Elles ne sont pas tenues de se présenter régulièrement devant un agent de probation ou tout organisme chargé de l'application de la loi (ibid.). Il y a une seule condition imposée à toutes les personnes en probation : qu'elles gardent la paix et ne commettent pas d'autres infractions (ibid.).

Il n'y a qu'une seule exception : lorsque l'accusateur public demande expressément au tribunal d'imposer comme condition l'obligation de se présenter devant un agent de probation ou l'interdiction de quitter le pays; dans ce dernier cas, on confisque habituellement le passeport (ibid.). De telles demandes, extrêmement rares, ne sont donc faites que dans des cas exceptionnels (ibid.).

Cette réponse a été préparée par la Direction des recherches à l'aide de renseignements puisés dans les sources qui sont à la disposition du public, et auxquelles la Direction des recherches a pu avoir accès dans les délais prescrits. Cette réponse n'apporte pas, ni ne prétend apporter, de preuves concluantes quant au fondement d'une demande d'asile ou de statut de réfugié. Veuillez trouver ci-dessous la liste des autres sources consultées pour la réponse à cette demande d'information.

Références


Ambassade de la République de Pologne à Ottawa. 18 novembre 2003. Entretien téléphonique avec la conseillère principale et consule.

Avocat, Ruda Slaska, Pologne. 17 novembre 2003. Entretien téléphonique.

Pologne. S.d.. Ustawa o Parzportach [loi sur les passeports, telle qu'elle a été modifiée le 22 juillet 2002]. Envoyée par l'ambassade de la République de Pologne à Ottawa, 20 novembre 2003.

_____. 6 juin 1997a. Kodeks Karny [code pénal, tel qu'il a été modifié le 11 juillet 2003]. Envoyé par l'ambassade de la République de Pologne à Ottawa, 5 novembre 2003.

_____. 6 juin 1997b. Code pénal. Section générale. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code1.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

Autres sources consultées


Bases de données de la CISR

Dialog/WNC

Sites Internet, y compris :

BBC

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL)

Réseau d'information des Nations Unies sur la criminalité et la justice

Rzeczpospolita [Varsovie, en polonais]

WorldNews

Documents annexés

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section spéciale : chapitres XXVI-XXXV. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code3.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section spéciale : chapitres XIX-XXV. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code2.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section générale : chapitre VIII. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code1.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003] Documents électroniques annexés

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section générale : chapitre VIII. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code1.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

Chapter VIII.

Measures Connected with the Placing [of] the Perpetrator under Probation

Article 66. § 1. The court may conditionally discontinue the criminal proceedings if the guilt and social consequences of the act are not significant, the circumstances of its commission do not raise doubts, and the attitude of the perpetrator not previously penalised for an intentional offence, his personal characteristics and his way of life to date provide reasonable grounds for the assumption that even in the event of the discontinuance of the proceedings, he will observe the legal order and particularly that he will not commit an offence.
§ 2. Conditional discontinuance shall not be applied to the perpetrator of an offence for which the statutory penalty exceeds 3 years deprivation of liberty.
§ 3. In the event that the injured party has been reconciled with the perpetrator, the perpetrator has redressed the damage or the injured party and the perpetrator have agreed on the method of redressing the damage, the conditional discontinuance may be applied to a perpetrator of an offence for which the statutory penalty does not exceed 5 years deprivation of liberty.
Article 67. § 1. The conditional discontinuance shall be made for the term of probation which is between one and two years, which shall run from the date the judgment becomes valid and final.
§ 2. In discontinuing conditionally the criminal proceedings, the court may, in the probation period, place the perpetrator under the supervision of a probation officer or a person of public trust, association, or community organisation whose activities include educational care, preventing the demoralisation of or providing assistance to sentenced persons.
§ 3. In discontinuing conditionally the criminal proceedings, the court shall require the perpetrator to redress in whole or in part the damage, and may impose on him the obligation specified in Article 72 § 1 sections 1-3 or 5, and also adjudicate a pecuniary consideration as specified in Article 39 section 7, and an interdiction on driving a vehicle as specified in Article 39 section 3, for a period of up to 2 years.
§ 4. The provision of Article 74 shall be applied accordingly.
Article 68. § 1. The court shall resume the criminal proceedings, if the perpetrator has during the probation period committed an intentional offence, for which he has been validly and finally sentenced.
§ 2. The court may resume the criminal proceedings if the perpetrator during the probation period flagrantly breaches the legal order, and in particular if he committed an offence other than that specified in § 1, evades supervision, does not perform the obligations or penal measure imposed or if he does not fulfill the settlement concluded with the injured person.
§ 3. The court may resume the criminal proceedings if, after the decision on the conditional discontinuance was rendered but before it became valid and final, the perpetrator flagrantly breached the legal order, and in particular if he committed an offence within that time.
§ 4. The criminal proceedings conditionally discontinued may not be resumed any later than 6 months after the expiration of the probation period.
Article 69. § 1. The court may conditionally suspend the execution of a penalty of deprivation of liberty of up to 2 years or execution of a fine adjudicated as a one-off penalty, if it is regarded as sufficient to attain the objectives of the penalty with respect to the perpetrator, and particularly to prevent him from relapsing into crime.
§ 2. In suspending the execution of a penalty, the court shall primarily take into consideration the attitude of the perpetrator, his personal characteristics and conditions, his way of life to-date and his conduct after the commission of the offence.
§ 3. Suspension of the execution of the penalty shall not be applied to the perpetrator as specified in Article 64 § 2, unless there is an exceptional case justified by extraordinary circumstances; suspension of the execution of the penalty specified in Article 60 § 3 through 5 shall not be applied to the perpetrator as specified in Article 64 § 2.
Article 70. § 1. Suspension of the execution of a penalty shall be granted for a probation period, which runs from the time the sentence becomes valid and final and is for:
1) from 2 to 5 years - in the case of a conditional suspension of the execution of a penalty of deprivation of liberty,
2) from one year to 3 years - in the case of a conditional suspension of the execution of a fine or a penalty of restriction of liberty.
§ 2. In the case of the conditional suspension of the execution of a penalty with respect to a perpetrator who is a young offender or the one specified in Article 64 § 2, the probation period is from 3 to 5 years.
Article 71. § 1. In suspending the execution of a penalty, the court may impose a fine of up to 180 times the daily rate, if its imposition is not provided for on another basis. In suspending the execution of a penalty of restriction of liberty, the court may impose a fine of up to 90 times the daily rate.
§ 2. In the event of ordering the execution of the penalty of the deprivation or restriction of liberty, the fine adjudicated under § 1 shall not be subject to execution; the penalty of deprivation or restriction of liberty shall be reduced by the number of days equal to the number of daily fines paid, rounded up to the nearest full day.
Article 72. § 1. In suspending the execution of a penalty, the court may obligate the sentenced person:
1) to inform the court of the probation officer about the progress of the probation period,
2) to apologise to the injured person,
3) to carry out a duty incumbent upon him in order to provide support for another person,
4) to perform remunerated work, to pursue an educational activity or train himself for an occupation,
5) to refrain from abusing alcohol or using narcotics,
6) to submit to medical treatment, particularly drug withdrawal or rehabilitation programmes,
7) to refrain from frequenting specified community circles or places,
8) to engage in other appropriate conduct in the probation period, if it may prevent the commission of a further offence.
§ 2. The court may obligate the perpetrator to redress the damage in whole or in part, unless it has adjudicated a penal measure as specified in Article 39 section 5, or a payment of consideration as specified in Article 39 section 7.
Article 73. § 1. In suspending the execution of a penalty, the court may, in the probation period, place the perpetrator under the supervision of a probation officer or a person of public trust, association, or community organisation whose activities include educational care, preventing the demoralisation of or providing assistance to sentenced persons.
§ 2. The placing under supervision is mandatory with respect to a young perpetrator of an intentional offence, and with respect to the perpetrator specified in Article 64 § 2.
Article 74. § 1. The time and manner of execution of the imposed obligations, specified in Article 72 shall be determined by the court after hearing from the sentenced person; the imposition of the obligation specified in Article 72 § 1 section 6 shall require the additional consent from the sentenced person.
§ 2. If educational or general care considerations warrant this, the court may, during the probation period, institute, extend or modify the obligations imposed on a person sentenced to a deprivation of liberty with a conditional suspension of its execution, as mentioned in Article 72 § 1 sections 3 through 8, or release him from these obligations (except the obligation specified in Article 72 § 2), and likewise either place the sentenced person under supervision or release him from the aforesaid.
Article 75. § 1. The court shall order the execution of the penalty, if the sentenced person during the probation period, committed an intentional offence similar to the previous one, for which he has been validly and finally sentenced for a penalty of deprivation of liberty.
§ 2. The court may order the execution of the penalty, if the sentenced person in the probation period flagrantly breached the legal order, and, in particular, if he committed an offence other than that specified in §1, has not paid the fine, has evaded supervision, or failed to fulfill the obligations or penal measures imposed.
§ 3. The court may order the execution of the penalty if, after the sentencing decision was rendered but before it became valid and final, the perpetrator flagrantly breached the legal order, and in particular if he committed an offence within that time.
§ 4. The order to execute the penalty may not be issued any later than 6 months after the end of the probation period.
Article 76. § 1. The sentence shall be expunged by virtue of law 6 months from the termination of the probation period.
§ 2. If a fine or a penal measure were imposed upon the sentenced person, the expunction of the sentence may not occur before the execution, remission or prescription thereof; this shall not be applied to the penal measure specified in Article 39 section 5.
Article 77. § 1. The court may conditionally release a person sentenced to the penalty of deprivation of liberty from serving the balance of the penalty, only when his attitude, personal characteristics and situation, his way of life prior to the commission of the offence, the circumstances thereof, as well as his conduct after the commission of the offence, and while serving the penalty, justify the assumption that the perpetrator will after release respect the legal order, and in particular that he will not re-offend.
§ 2. In particularly justified cases the court, in imposing the penalty of deprivation of liberty, may determine more rigorous restrictions to prevent the possibility of him benefiting from the conditional release other than those specified in Article 78.
Article 78. § 1. The sentenced person may be conditionally released after serving at least half of the sentence, albeit with a minimum of 6 months.
§ 2. The sentenced person specified in Article 64 § 1 may be conditionally released after serving two-thirds of the sentence, and the sentenced person specified in Article 64 § 2, after serving three-quarters of the sentence; the conditional release may not occur before the lapse of one year.
§ 3. The person sentenced to 25 years of deprivation of liberty may be conditionally released after serving 15 years of the sentence, and the person sentenced to deprivation of liberty for life, after serving 25 years of the sentence.
Article 79. § 1. The provisions of Article 78 § 1 and 2 shall be applied accordingly to a sum of two or more penalties not amenable to an aggregate penalty, which the sentenced person has to serve as subsequent terms; the provision of Article 78 § 2 shall be applied if even one of the offences has been committed in the conditions specified in Article 64.
§ 2. Notwithstanding the conditions specified in Article 78 § 1 or 2, the sentenced person may be conditionally released after serving 15 years deprivation of liberty.
Article 80. § 1. In case of conditional release, the portion of the penalty which remains to be served constitutes a probation period, which may not, however, be less than 2 or longer than 5 years.
§ 2. If the sentenced person is the person specified in Article 64 § 2, the probation period may not be shorter than 3 years.
§ 3. In a case of the conditional release of a person sentenced to deprivation of liberty for life, the probation period shall be 10 years.
Article 81. In case of revocation of the conditional release, the sentenced person may not again be conditionally released before the lapse of one year from the date of committing him to the penal institution, and in case of the penalty of deprivation of liberty for life, before the lapse of 5 years.
Article 82. If in the probation period and in the course of the following 6 months, the conditional release has not been revoked, the sentence shall be considered to have been served at the time of the conditional release.
Article 83. A person sentenced to a penalty of limitation of liberty who has completed at least half of the adjudged penalty, respected the legal order, performed diligently the work ordered by the court, and fulfilled the obligations imposed upon him, may be relieved by the court from the rest of the penalty, considering it as executed.
Article 84. § 1. The court may, after half of the period for which the penal measures specified in Article 39 sections 1 through 3 were imposed, consider them executed, if the sentenced person has respected the legal order and he has been subjected to the penal measure for at least one year.
§ 2. The provision of § 1 shall not be applied if the penal measure specified in Article 39 section 3 has been adjudicated under Article 42 § 2.
...

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section spéciale : chapitres XIX-XXV. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code2.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

CHAPTER XIX.

Offences Against Life and Health

...
Article 153. § 1. Whoever, through the use of force against a pregnant woman or by other means, without her consent, terminates the pregnancy or induces her by force, an illegal threat, or deceit to terminate the pregnancy shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 6 months and 8 years.
§ 2. Whoever commits the act specified in § 1, after the foetus has become capable of living outside the pregnant woman's body shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
...
Article 156. § 1. Whoever causes grievous bodily harm in a form which:
1) deprives a human being of sight, hearing, speech or the ability to procreate, or
2) inflicts on another a serious crippling injury, an incurable or prolonged illness, an illness actually dangerous to life, a permanent mental illness, a permanent total or substantial incapacity to work in an occupation, or a permanent serious bodily disfigurement or deformation shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
§ 2. If the perpetrator acts unintentionally he shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to 3 years.
§ 3. If the consequence of an act specified in § 1 is the death of a human being, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 2 and 12 years.
Article 157. § 1. Whoever causes a bodily injury or an impairment to health other than specified in Article 156 § 1, shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
§ 2. Whoever causes a bodily injury or an impairment to health lasting not longer than 7 days, shall be subject to a fine, the penalty of restriction of liberty or the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to 2 years.
§ 3. If the perpetrator of the act specified in § 1 or 2 acts unintentionally he shall be subject to a fine, the penalty of restriction of liberty or the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to one year.
§ 4. The prosecution of the offence specified in § 2 or 3 shall, if the bodily injury or an impairment of health did not exceed 7 days, occur upon a private charge.
§ 5. If the bodily injury or an impairment of health, did not exceed 7 days, and the injured person is the person closest to the accused, the prosecution shall occur upon the motion of the latter.
Article 158. § 1. Whoever participates in a brawl or a beating in which a human being is exposed to the immediate danger of the loss of life or to a consequence referred to in Article 156 § 1 or in Article 157 § 1, shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to 3 years.
§ 2. If the consequence of the brawl or beating is a serious bodily injury or a serious impairment of health, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 6 months and 8 years.
§ 3. If the consequence of the brawl or beating is the death of a human being, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
Article 159. Whoever, taking part in a brawl or beating, uses a firearm, knife or other similarly dangerous instrument shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 6 months and 8 years.
...
Chapter XXV.

Offences Against Sexual Liberty and Decency

Article l97. § 1. Whoever, by force, illegal threat or deceit subjects another person to sexual intercourse shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
§ 2. If the perpetrator, in the manner specified in § 1, makes another person submit to other [sic] sexual act or to perform such an act, he shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
§ 3. If the perpetrator commits the rape specified in § 1 or 2, with particular cruelty, or commits it in common with other person, he shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 2 and 12 years.
Article 198. Whoever, taking advantage of the vulnerability of another person, or of the lack of ability to recognise the significance of the act or ability to control his/her conduct, resulting from mental disability or disorder, subjects such a person to sexual intercourse or makes him/her submit to another sexual act or to perform such an act shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 6 months and 8 years.
Article 199. Whoever, abusing a relationship of dependence or by taking advantage of a critical situation, subjects such a person to sexual intercourse or makes him/her submit to another sexual act or to perform such an act shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to 3 years.
Article 200. § 1. Whoever subjects a minor under 15 years of age to sexual intercourse or makes him/her submit to another sexual act or to perform such an act shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
§ 2. The same punishment shall be imposed on anyone, who records pornographic material with the participation of such a person.
...
Article 203. Whoever, by force, illegal threat or deceit, or by abusing a relationship of dependence or by taking advantage of a critical situation, subjects another person to practice prostitution shall be subject to the penalty of the deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
...

Pologne. 6 juin 1997. Code pénal. Section spéciale : chapitres XXVI-XXXV. Traduction anglaise. (Academy of European Law) http://www.era.int/domains/corpus-juris/public_pdf/polish_penal_code3.pdf [Date de consultation : 22 oct. 2003]

Chapter XXVI.

Offences Against the Family and Guardianship

...
Article 207. § 1. Whoever mentally or physically mistreats a person close to him, or another person being in a permanent or temporary state of dependence to the perpetrator, a minor or a person who is vulnerable because of his mental or physical condition shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
§ 2. If the act specified in § 1 is compounded with a particular cruelty, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
§ 3. If the consequence of the act specified in § 1 or 2 is a suicide attempt by the injured person on his or her life, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 2 and 12 years.
...
Chapter XXVII.

Offences Against Honour and Personal Inviolability

...
Article 217. § 1. Whoever strikes a human being or in another manner breaches his personal inviolability, shall be subject to a fine, the penalty of restriction of liberty or the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to one year.
§ 2. If the act was caused by the provocative conduct of the injured person or if the injured person responded with an act of the same kind, the court may waive the imposition of a penalty.
§3. Prosecution shall be by private accusation.
...
Chapter XXX.

Offences Against the Administration of Justice

Article 232. Whoever, by using violence or an illegal threat influences the official functions of a court of justice shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
...
Article 245. Whoever uses violence or unlawful threat with a purpose of influencing a witness, expert witness, translator, prosecutor or the accused or consequently breaches personal inviolability of such a person shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
...
CHAPTER XXXII.

Offences Against Public Order

...
Article 254. § 1. Whoever actively takes part in a riot knowing that its participants jointly commit a violent assault on a person or property shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to 3 years.
§ 2. If the result of the violent assault is the death of a person or a serious detriment to their health, the participant in the riot specified in § 1, shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
...
Chapter XXXV.

Offences Against Property

...
Article 280. § I. Whoever commits theft with the use of violence against a person or through threatening the immediate use of violence or by causing a person to become unconscious or helpless shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 2 and 12 years.
§ 2. If the perpetrator of a robbery uses a firearm, knife, or any other dangerous item or paralysing means, or acts in another manner immediately threatening life or acts in co-operation with another person using such a firearm, item or means or manner shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a minimum term of 3 years.
Article 281. Whoever, with the purpose of maintaining possession of the stolen property, immediately after committing a theft uses violence against a person or threatens its immediate use, or causes a person to become unconscious or helpless shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
Article 282. Whoever, with the purpose of gaining a material benefit, by using violence or threatening the life or health of a person, or threatening a violent attack against property, causes another person to dispose his own property or property of other persons, or causes a person to cease operating their business shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 1 and 10 years.
Article 283. In the event of that the act is of a lesser significance, the perpetrator of the act specified in Article 279 § 1, Article 280 § 1 or in Article 281 or 282 shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years.
...