A July 1998 demonstration held by the Union of the Forces for Change (Union des forces du changement-UFC) [TGO35672.E]

No mention of a July 1998 demonstration held by the Union of the Forces for Change (UFC) could be among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

However, sources indicate that on 17 July 1998, the streets of Lomé, the Togolese capital, were deserted when "banks, businesses and shops stayed closed as workers followed an appeal by Gilchrist Olympio, the chairman of the UFC for a "dead city day" to protest the reelection of the president Gbassingbe Eyadema (AP 17 July 1998; AFP 17 July 1998; Africa Research Bulletin 24 Aug. 1998, 13179).

A 5 July 1998 article also revealed that "opposition parties held the first in a series of public meetings to protest what they called "the confiscation of victory" in the 21 June 1998 presidential elections (The Washington Post 5 July 1999). The same source added that "the meetings are being held because the government banned street protest" (ibid.). According to Keesing's Record of World Events, on 27 June 1998, the Minister of the Interior issued a proclamation, which banned all public protests (June 1998, 42322).

Various sources refer to four-day demonstrations held through out the country, particularly in Lomé, which started immediately after the announcement on 24 June 1998 of the results of the 21 June 1998 presidential elections by the Interior and Security Minister (PANA 26 June 1998; The Washington Post 24 June 1998; DPA 24 June 1998; IPS 6 July 1998). Most demonstrators were supporters of the Union of the Forces for Change (UFC) who alleged that Gilchrist Olympio was the true winner of the election (ibid.).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 July 1998. "Togolese Capital Shuts Down to Protest President's Reelection." (NEXIS)

Africa Research Bulletin [London]. 24 August 1998. "Togo: Election Not Recognised."

Associated Press (AP). 17 July 1998. "Lome Becomes 'Dead City' in Protest Against Togo President." (NEXIS)

Deutsche Presse-Agentur (DPA). 24 June 1998. BC Cycle. "Confusion in Togo as Electoral Commission Head and Four Others Quit." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 6 July 1998. "Politics-Togo: Relative Calm Returns." (NEXIS)

Keesing's Record Of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1998. Vol. 44, No 6. "Togo: Presidential Election."

Panafrican News Agency (PANA). 26 June 1998. Afeto Kuma. "Togo; Demonstrators Clash With Security Forces Again in Lomé." (African News/NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 5 July 1998. "Opposition Begins Protests on Togo Vote." (NEXIS)

_____. 25 June 1998. James Rupert. "Reelection of Togo's President Draws Protests; Longtime Leader Halts Ballot Count, Crushing Hope for First Free Election." (NEXIS)

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential 1998.

IRB databases.

Jeune Afrique 1998.


Resource Centre country file. Togo. 1998.

World News Connection (WNC).

Internet sites including:

Amnesty International.

BBC Online.

Human Rights Internet (HRI).

Human Rights Watch.

International Crisis Group (ICG).

Missionary Service News Agency (MISNA).

Organisation of Africa Unity (OAU).

Panafrican News Agency (PANA).


United Nations Commission for Human Rights.

Internet search engines: