1. Information and copy of Special Military and Disturbance Decree II and Decree XIII. 2. Information on the Kaduna Mafia from 1979 to the present. 3. Information on the exchange rate for the Nigerian Naira in $US in 1979 and 1988. [NGA2427]

1. There is no information regarding Decree No. XIII available to the IRBDC at the present time.

The Civil Disturbances Special Tribunal, Decree No.2 was established following the religious riots in Kaduna in 1987. It was set up to try some of the 600 arrested during the disturbances. ["Nigeria Establishes Special Appeals Tribunal", BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 30 August 1986.] [ibid. p.12.] Although the Tribunal was empowered to impose the death sentence, Amnesty International reports none have been passed. The Civil Disturbances Special Tribunal Decree No.2 provided for the establishment of a special federal court with jurisdiction over a wide range of offenses under the Criminal and Penal Code, including the capital offenses of treason and murder. [ibid. p.12.] Some of the other offenses covered by this decree are unlawful assembly, demolition of buildings during riots, insults to a religion, disturbing religious worship, arson and membership in unlawful societies. [BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, "Nigeria Issues Decrees on Civil Unrest and Religious Societies", 02 April 1987.] This Tribunal does not allow any appeal to a higher court. Of the 160 people tried by the tribunal chaired by a Supreme Court Judge, 75 were convicted and sentenced to terms of imprisonment. [Nigeria: Amnesty International 1989, p.12.]

2979. However, the rate for 8 January 1988 was Naira 4.1102 to the US Dollar, and for 23 December 1988, it was Naira 5.2994 to the US Dollar. Attached are the Foreign Exchange sections of the Globe and Mail for the above dates.

For further information, please find excerpts of the following documents:
Colin Legum, ed., Africa Contemporary Record Annual Survey and Documents 1983-84, New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1984, pp.B518-521.
"Nigeria: The Mafia's Hand", Africa Confidential, London: Miramoor Publications Ltd., 6 July 1983.
"Nigeria: Old Frictions", Africa Confidential, London: Miramoor Publications Ltd., 28 November 1984.
"Nigeria: Shadows of the Mafia", Africa Confidential, London: Miramoor Publications Ltd., 18 January 1984.
"Nigeria: Tomorrow"s Leaders", Africa Confidential, London: Miramoor Publications Ltd., 16 November 1983.
Nigeria, International Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Racial Discrimination, United Nations, 3 November 1987, pp.1-7., CERD/C/149/Add.25.