Cocoa smuggling between Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. [GHA0286]

The loss of revenue due to the illegal transfer of cocoa to Côte d'Ivoire became a major problem in Ghana during the 1970's. [ The Europa Yearbook 1987: A World Survey, vol. 1, (London: Europa Publ., 1987), p. 1210.] In order to curb the smuggling of cocoa to neighbouring countries, the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) resorted to several measures, including tightening border security and increasing the severity of penalties imposed for those convicted of crimes amounting to economic sabotage. [Donald I. Ray, Ghana: Politics, Economics, and Society, (London: Francis Printers, 1986), p. 60. See p. 122 also.] Smuggling of cocoa out of Ghana is considered economic sabotage and any case arising from such a charge would be prosecuted through the system of Public Tribunals (see pp. 15 - 17 in the Ghana Overview published by the IRBDC). Persons convicted of economic sabotage have in some instances been sentenced to death, [ Amnesty Internaitonal, Ghana: Death Sentence for Economic Sabotage, London: 8 January 1988.] although the most common punishment for economic crimes is long jail sentences. [ Ray, p. 122.]

See Attachments

The Europa Yearbook 1987: A World Survey. Vol. 1. London: Europa Publications, 1987.

George Thomas Kurian, ed. Encyclopedia of the Third World. Vol. 1. New York: Facts on File, Publications, 1987.

Donald I. Ray, Ghana: Politics, Economics and Society. London: Francis Printers, 1986.

Amnesty International, Ghana: Death Sentence for Economic Sabotage. London: 8 January 1988.

Peter Chilson. "Defining the Border." West Africa. London: 15 August 1988.