Activities of the Muslim Brothers [MAR34797.E]

No mention of an organization that identifies itself as Muslim Brothers (or Muslim Brotherhood) in Morocco could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

In an August 1999 article in Le Monde diplomatique, Mohamed Tozy, a political sciences professor at Hassan II University in Casablanca, states that there are two major islamic organizations in Morocco, Al Islah wa Attawhid (Reform and Unicity) and Al'Adl wa al Ihssan (Justice and Charity). The latter, although illegal, is by far the most important in terms of membership and the articulation of its doctrine (ibid.).

A 9-15 February 1999 Jeune Afrique article quotes Mohammed Tozy as saying that Al'Adl wa al Ihssan's organization is similar to the Muslim Brothers, but followed the doctrine of leader Abdessalam Yacine which finds its inspiration in Suffi mysticism and Islamism. On 23 July 1999, Sheikh Yacine sent an open letter to King Mohammed VI calling for the restitution of "the wealth illegally amassed by the royal family" which would help to eliminate the country's foreign debt and "free the country from poverty." (IPS 18 May 2000; Courrier International 18-24 May 2000, 42). In March 2000, supporters of Sheikh Yacine and the pro-government islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD), whose numbers were estimated at between 200,000 and 850,000, marched through the city of Casablanca against the proposed amendments to the Moroccan personal status code that would have granted more rights to women (Courrier International 23-29 March 2000, 40; ibid. 18-24 May 2000, 42; Le Monde 17 May 2000). Yacine, 72, who was under house arrest since 1989 after being classified as "a threat to public order", was set free by the Moroccan authorities in May 2000 (IPS 18 May 2000).

For background information on Yacine's Al'Adl wa al Ihssan movement, please refer to MAR33357.F of 29 December 1999 and Political Handbook of the World 1999 which are available at Regional Documentation Centres.

As for the Al Islah wa Attawhid, it was initialy built on the model of the Muslim Brothers (Le Monde diplomatique Aug. 1999, 20). In 1997, some of its leaders joined the Popular Constitutional Democratic Movement (MPCD) which later became the PJD. The PJD has 12 members sitting in the lower house of parliament (IPS 18 May 2000). For background information on the PJD (MPCD), please refer to Political Handbook of the World 1999 which is available in regional Documentation Centres.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Courrier International [Paris]. 18-24 May 2000. No. 498. "Maroc : quand les islamistes se font menaçants."

_____. 23-29 March 2000. No. 490. "Maroc : quand les islamistes prennent la rue."

Inter Press Service (IPS). 18 May 2000. "Nizar Al-Aly. Rights-Morocco: Islamist Freed." (NEXIS)

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 9-15 February 1999. No 1987. Hamid Barrada. "Voyage au cœur de l'islamisme marocain : un entretien avec Mohamed Tozy." [Accessed 16 Dec. 1999]

Le Monde [Paris]. 17 May 2000. Jean-Pierre Tuquoi. "Cheik Yassine, chef des islamistes marocains, provoque le pouvoir." (NEXIS)

Le Monde diplomatique [Paris]. August 1999. Mohamed Tozy. "De l'action clandestine au parlement. Qui sont les islamistes au Maroc ?"

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential [London]

IRB databases

Political Handbook of the World 1999

World News Connection