1)Massacre of Christians in the Chouf Mountains of Lebanon in 1976-77;2)Forced recruitment by Lebanese Forces and the Lebanese Army;3)Copies of on-line news service since 23 Sept. 1989 and Copies of all articles on Lebanon from The Globe and Mail since 16 August 1989 [LBN2181]

1) According to both Keesing's Contemporary Archives and Facts on File, Christians in the Chouf area were attacked by Druze civilians after the leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, Kamal Jumblatt, was assassinated on 16 March 1977. Please see the attached copies of these documents for further information.

2) The United Nations report Conscientious Objection to Military Service (1985) states that there is no conscription in Lebanon. The same source states that this information was obtained from the Lebanese government, which ostensibly controls the Lebanese Army. [United Nations, Conscientious Objection to Military Service (New York: United Nations, 1985), p. 20.] The 1988 Amnesty International Report adds that there are several government and non-governmental forces competing for control of territory. Since these militias have what Amnesty International calls "certain governmental attributes" they appear to be operating outside of the legal norms of the officially recognized government of Lebanon. [Amnesty International, Amnesty Report 1988 (London: Amnesty International, 1988), p. 245.]

An expert on Lebanese militias contacted through the National Council on Canada-Arab Relations states that the Lebanese Army remains an essentially all-volunteer force. In his telephone conversation with the Research Officer on 28 September, Mr. Badri Hamadi added that the Lebanese Army has continued to apply its enrolment standards which make it difficult for a person to voluntarily join that force.

The situation with regard to the Lebanese Forces, the military wing of the Phalange is similar to that applying to all the militias in Lebanon, according to Mr. Hamadi. By far, the salary is the factor motivating most young men to join a militia such as the Phalangist Lebanese Forces. Members are also encouraged to keep the spoils of their looting. There is an element of status involved with militia membership, which for the most part comes from carrying a weapon. Forced recruitment does not exist, but the environment of the conflict is a great influence on the youth. This means that if you are not a member of the militia, people begin questioning your politics. In the word of Mr. Hamadi, the Lebanese militia expert, "If you are not a 'pro', you are an 'anti'." Those not with the militia are thought to be against it. There is, furthermore, an element of psychological pressure brought to bear upon the youth by the religious leaders in the community. The information provided by Mr. Hamadi can not be corroborated in published sources at the present time by the IRBDC.

3) Please find attached the requested documentation.