Information on abuse directed towards members or former members of the Jamaica Defense Force because of their duties during the 1989 and 1993 elections and information on the protection available to them [JAM25910.E]

Information on the above-mentioned topic could not be found among the sources consulted by the DIRB.

For your reference, please find attached a few news reports that refer to some of the duties carried out by members of the Jamaican Defense Forces during the 1989 and 1993 elections.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


The Associated Press (AP). 4 February 1989. AM Cycle. "Groups Call for Peaceful Jamaican Election." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 February 1989. PM Cycle.Edward Holland. "After Election Win Manley Promises Close Ties With Washington." (NEXIS)

Sun-Sentinel [Fort Lauderdale, Fla.]. 31 March 1993. Final edition. J. P. Slavin. "Jamaica's Patterson Wins Easily." (NEXIS)

Additional Sources Consulted

Amnesty International Report. Yearly.

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. Yearly.
LCHR. Critique: Review of the Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. Yearly


Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) Daily Reports.

Hemisphere [Miami]. Quarterly.

Human Rights in Developing Countries. Yearly.

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. Monthly.

Latinamerica Press [Lima]. Weekly.

Latin American Regional Reports: Central America & the Caribbean [London]. Monthly.

Problèmes d'Amérique latine [Paris]. Quarterly.

Material from the Indexed Media Review (IMR) or country files containing articles and reports from diverse sources (primarily dailies and periodicals) from the Weekly Media Review.

Newspapers and periodicals pertaining to the appropriate region.

IRB, Internet, USINS and UNHCR databases.

On-line search of media sources.


This list is not exhaustive. Country-specific books available in the Resource Centre are not included.