Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.
Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar. Alle Übersetzungen stellen Arbeitsübersetzungen dar, für die keine Gewähr übernommen werden kann.
Wir empfehlen, die verwendeten Materialien im Original durchzusehen. Originaldokumente, die nicht kostenfrei oder online abrufbar sind, können bei ACCORD eingesehen oder angefordert werden.
In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen konnten im Rahmen der zeitlich begrenzten Recherche keine Informationen zur Anerkennungsquote und keine spezifischen Informationen zur Versorgung von Flüchtlingen und AsylwerberInnen gefunden werden.
Im jährlich erscheinenden Jahresbericht zur Menschenrechtslage des US Department of State (USDOS) vom April 2011 wird die Situation von Flüchtlingen in Serbien dargestellt. Neben den Rechtsgrundlagen wird ein Überblick über die Behördenzuständigkeiten gegeben. Darüber hinaus finden sich Informationen zu grundlegenden Rechten und Pflichten der Flüchtlinge (Unterbringung, Recht auf Arbeit, Zugang zu öffentlichen Leistungen) in Serbien:
“The constitution provides for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. The government cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian organizations in providing protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, refugees, returning refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons, and other persons of concern. […]
Protection of Refugees
The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country was a transit country for a mixed flow of migration toward Western Europe. The majority of registered asylum-seekers disappeared before an initial decision was made on their applications and sometimes before interviews were conducted. The government in law and practice provided protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Asylum-seekers had freedom of movement in the country after establishing their identity and filing an application for asylum. They were eligible for public assistance, including accommodation and food, but they did not have the right to employment until recognized as refugees through the country's refugee status determination process. The SCR controlled the country's sole asylum center, which had capacity for approximately 80 persons. At the end of August, there were 34 asylum-seekers in the asylum center. The SCR is also responsible for status determination and care of refugees from the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the year the SCR provided 680 construction kits and 495 income-generation grants to secure durable solutions for refugees and IDPs that were valued at 2.24 million euros ($3 million) and intended to provide 3,676 refugee and IDP families in 139 municipalities with durable solutions for housing. According to official SCR statistics, 86,155 refugees from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina resided in the country, while the government estimated that approximately 200,000 to 400,000 former refugees were naturalized but not socially and economically integrated into the country. Approximately 900 refugees lived in collective centers throughout the country. The government also provided temporary protection (refugee status on a prima facie basis) to individuals from former Yugoslav republics who may not qualify as refugees. The refugee status of individuals from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continued to be regulated under the 1992 Decree on Refugees.” (USDOS, 8. April 2011, Section 2d)
In einem bereits etwas älteren Bericht des US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) vom Juni 2010 werden Informationen zu den Rechtsgrundlagen des serbischen Asylwesen zur Verfügung gestellt. Des Weiteren wird angegeben, dass AsylwerberInnen, die nicht aus dem ehemaligen Jugoslawien stammen und deren Identität nicht nachgewiesen werden könne, für 30 Tage in Verwaltungshaft kommen würden. Nach den 30 Tagen würden die Behörden jene Personen, die um Asyl ansuchen, in das Padinska Skela Center für AusländerInnen im Belgrader Gefängnis bringen und sie dort – ohne die Möglichkeit der Kontrolle der Rechtmäßigkeit des Vorgehens – bis zu dem Zeitpunkt an dem sie ihre Identität nachweisen könnten - oder bis die betroffenen Personen entweder repatriiert würden oder ein Asylverfahren eingeleitet würde - festhalten. UNHCR sowie Rechtsberatungsstellen hätten Zugang zum Center. Von UNHCR anerkannte oder bei der Regierung registrierte Flüchtlinge stehe es frei, ihren Wohnsitz zu wählen. AsylwerberInnen müssten die Asylbehörde schriftlich über Änderungen des Wohnsitzes informieren. Die meisten AsylwerberInnen würden jedoch aufgrund des beschränkten Zugangs zum Arbeitsmarkt in dem von UNHCR finanzierten Center in Banja Koviljaca leben. Serbien würde ausschließlich Flüchtlinge in Sammelzentren aus dem ehemaligen Jugoslawien finanziell unterstützen. Die serbische Regierung lasse Flüchtlingen aus dem ehemaligen Jugoslawien denselben Zugang zu medizinischen Leistungen wie StaatsbürgerInnen zukommen. UNHCR stelle medizinische Leistungen und anderweitige Unterstützung für AsylwerberInnen und anerkannte Flüchtlinge zur Verfügung. Das Asylgesetz räume AsylwerberInnen und Flüchtlingen im selben Ausmaß wie StaatsbürgerInnen Anspruch auf Sozialhilfe ein, wenn dies notwendig sei. AsylwerberInnen und Flüchtlinge hätten denselben unentgeltlichen Zugang zu primärer und sekundärer Bildung wie StaatsbürgerInnen:
Serbia is party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol with no reservations, by succession from the former Serbia and Montenegro. The 2006 Constitution includes a right to asylum and protection against refoulement and provided that foreigners should enjoy all rights within except those expressly reserved to citizens. In April, Serbia implemented its 2007 asylum law whereby an Asylum Office, which is a part of the Ministry of Interior (MOI) – Border Police Department makes refugee status determinations in the first instance with appeal to an Asylum Commission. Administrative review before the Supreme Court is also available but the Constitutional Court may also intervene through constitutional appeal. The Law includes most of the restrictions allowed the EU asylum system on persons who pass through or come from countries authorities predetermine to be safe or may have internal flight alternative but it does not include the accelerated procedure. The Government recognizes refugees from former Yugoslav republics, generally ethnic Serbs, prima facie under the 1992 Refugee Law.
Detention/Access to Courts
Serbia administratively detains asylum seekers from countries other than the former Yugoslavia for 30 days for entry without proper documents or whose identity is unclear under the 1980 Yugoslav Law on the Movement and Stay of Foreigners. After 30 days, authorities transfer those who seek asylum to the Padinska Skela Center for Aliens in the Belgrade county prison and detain them indefinitely without judicial review until they establish their identity for repatriation or their asylum cases are resolved. UNHCR monitors the center and has access to asylum seekers detained there. Legal aid providers also have access to them with the Ministry of Interior’s approval. Although there is no legal remedy, monitoring contributes to asylum seekers release. As of April, UNHCR no longer issues identity cards to refugees and asylum seekers but the Asylum Office does. The police respect UNHCR documents even if they did not formally regularize the bearers’ stay. MOI issues cards to refugees from the former Yugoslavia if they still lack not have permanent status. The 1992 Refugee Law requires the Government to grant refugees from the former Yugoslavia access to courts to vindicate their rights ‘in the manner set for its own citizens.’ In Kosovo, UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) provides legal assistance to refugees. The Constitution extends provisions against arbitrary deprivation of liberty, and the rights to humane treatment in detention and judicial protection to all, but reserves to citizens the right to address international bodies for their protection. The 1980 Law on the Movement and Stay of Foreigners mandates a 30-day sentence for illegal entry, with no exception for refugees and asylum seekers.
Freedom of Movement and Residence
Refugees recognized by UNHCR and asylum seekers that register with the Government are free to choose their places of residence. Asylum seekers must notify the Asylum Office in writing of any change of address within three days but work restrictions compel most to live in the UNHCR-funded center in Banja Koviljaca. Refugees from the former Yugoslavia have unrestricted freedom of movement and choice of residence. As of June, Serbia had 77 collective centers where some families had lived for over a decade. Serbia provides material assistance only to those refugees from the former Yugoslavia living in the collective centers.
The Government does not yet issue international travel documents to any refugees, but the new asylum law provides for it. Those from the former Yugoslavia can travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina with their refugee cards and many have Croatian or Bosnian passports.
The Constitution extends the right to freedom of movement to all but expressly notes that the law limits the entry and stay of foreigners and allows restrictions on movement for the purposes of conducting criminal proceedings, protecting public order and peace, preventing the spread of disease, and defending the country. […]
Public Relief and Education
The Government grants former Yugoslavian refugees medical services on par with Serbian nationals. UNHCR provided medical services and other assistance to asylum seekers and the refugees it recognized. The new Asylum Law entitles asylum seekers and refugees to social assistance on par with nationals and accommodation in the Asylum Center, if necessary.
While refugees from the former Yugoslavia are eligible for unemployment insurance, local bureaucracies sometimes make it difficult to obtain. Out of seven basic forms of aid available at social work centers, refugees from the former Yugoslavia could receive institutional accommodation, foster care, and professional/advisory assistance, but not allowances for children or parents, financial aid, and care for other persons.”
Serbia offers all refugees and asylum seekers free primary and secondary education on par with nationals.
The Constitution extends to all its rights to health services, compensation for temporary unemployment and disability, retirement, free primary and secondary education, and general public relief.” (USCRI, Juni 2006)
Das Asylum Protection Center (APC) stellt in einem Artikel vom August 2010 Bilder des Asylzentrums in Banja Koviljaca zur Verfügung:
· APC – Asylum Protection Center: A Visit to the Asylum Center of the Republic of Serbia, 10. August 2010
Die serbische NGO Group 484 geht in einem Artikel vom Juni 2011 auf das serbische Asylwesen ein und gibt die Anzahl der registrierten Flüchtlinge für das Jahr 2010 an:
“Within the European integrations and according to the Law on Asylum, in 2008 the Serbian authorities completely took over from the UNHCR the procedure for determining the refugee status of people outside the former Yugoslavia. In 2010, a total of 522 people expressed an intention to seek asylum in Serbia, mostly Afghan nationals (311). Often they are people who are caught while attempting to reach Western Europe illegally via Serbia. An asylum policy is a new experience for Serbia, and the necessary institutions have yet to be built.” (Group 484, 14. Juni 2011)
Die International Organization for Migration (IOM) veröffentlicht in einem Leitfaden zu Serbien vom April 2011 einen groben Überblick zur Zuständigkeit im Asylverfahren in Serbien. Die zuständigen Akteure seien das serbische Innenministerium – Abteilung Grenzpolizei in Asylangelegenheiten - und UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Seit April 2008 sei ausschließlich das Innenministerium zuständig:
“6. Asylum Procedure
A person has a right to apply for asylum in the Republic of Serbia. The issues of asylum are resolved in cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs – Department of Border Police’s Office for Asylum Issues and the UN High Commission for Refugees Mission (UNHCR) in Serbia. From mid-April 2008, asylum applications are determined only by the Department of Border Police’s Office for Asylum. The process of resolving asylum issues does not take longer than two weeks, but may take longer due to some asylum seekers’ demands.” (IOM, April 2011, S. 5)
Im Länderprofil Serbien 2011 berichtet UNHCR (ohne Datumsangabe) über die schwierige Situation der Flüchtlinge in Serbien. Des Weiteren finden sich Statistiken zur Anzahl der Flüchtlinge und AsylwerberInnen in Serbien:
“Among the neediest persons of concern to UNHCR are approximately 4,100 individuals (900 refugees from Croatia and Bosnia and 3,200 persons displaced from Kosovo) who still live in 42 collective centres. Tens of thousands of other refugees and IDPs live in substandard temporary housing or in illegal settlements, with little more than basic shelter, often without access to water and electricity. Durable housing solutions are necessary in order to close the existing collective centres and significantly improve the marginal living conditions of this vulnerable population. […]
In view of the increasing number of asylum-seekers entering Serbia, the country will need to bolster its reception capacity. The existing asylum centre can accommodate only 80 persons, but some 300 persons have sought asylum in Serbia in 2010. Although many intend only to transit through Serbia to other European countries, efforts need to continue to strengthen Serbia's asylum system, and in particular the refugee status determination process.” (UNHCR, ohne Datum)
In einem kurzen Bericht von UNHCR ohne Datumsangabe werden Schwächen des serbischen Asylverfahrens erwähnt. Die Qualität des Asylverfahrens sei mangelhaft und die Länge der Verfahren sei besorgniserregend. Die Zahl der Asylanträge sei seit 2009 massiv gestiegen. Infolgedessen würde das Asylsystem stark belastet:
“UNHCR remained concerned about the access of asylum-seekers to the territory (particularly at international airports) and the need for fair and efficient refugee status determination (RSD) procedures. Several cases of were reported during the year. UNHCR made substantial efforts to strengthen the capacity of the border police. Although Serbia has long considered itself a transit country, responses to mixed-migration flows need strengthening. Some 520 requests for asylum were lodged, an increase of 52 per cent from 2009, stretching the capacity of the asylum system. Serbia was unable to find a suitable location for facilities to increase reception capacity. The quality of RSD decisions was not adequate, and the length of the procedure was a concern. Legal assistance was provided to asylum-seekers at all stages of the procedure, as well as to over 4,800 refugees from countries of the former Yugoslavia, enabling them to avail themselves of their rights in Serbia or, if intending to return, in their country of origin.” (UNHCR, ohne Datum, S. 328-329)
Im selben Bericht von UNHCR wird erwähnt, dass Serbien auf die steigende Anzahl von AsylwerberInnen nicht entsprechend reagiert hätte und eine Gesetzesreform notwendig sei:
“The absence of a response to the growing number of asylum-seekers remained a concern. Legislative reform is needed in the area of civil registration and to promote the social inclusion of the RAE community. The lack of dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina continued to hinder the search for durable solutions for IDPs in Serbia. In addition, the weak economic situation had negative implications for UNHCR’s people of concern, particularly those seeking employment.” (UNHCR, ohne Datum, S. 331)
In einem ausführlichen Bericht der European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) vom Mai 2011 wird in Abschnitt VII des Berichts auf die Situation von AsylwerberInnen und Flüchtlinge eingegangen. Der Bericht bietet einen kurzen Überblick zu den aktuellen Rechtsgrundlagen des Asylsystems und den zuständigen Organen im Asylverfahren in Serbien. Es fehle eine Integrationsstrategie in Serbien. In der Nähe der Stadt Banja Koviljaca gebe es ein Asylzentrum, in dem 80 Personen untergebracht werden könnten. Im Berichtszeitraum seien dort 67 Personen, darunter 62 AsylwerberInnen, 3 Flüchtlinge und 2 subsidiär Schutzberechtigte, untergebracht gewesen:
“Asylum seekers and refugees
126. In its first report, ECRI strongly recommended that the Serbian authorities ensure that the Law on Asylum does not create different categories of refugees. It also recommended that they ensure that this law complies with their international obligations and Article 54 of the Constitution which concerns the right to asylum.
127. The Law on Asylum, which was adopted by the Parliament in November 2007, came into force in Serbia on 1 April 2008. The law provides for refugee status to be determined by the Asylum Office which is within the Ministry of Interior. As of April 2008, UNHCR no longer issues identity cards to refugees and asylum seekers as that is within the purview of the Asylum Office. Under the Law on Asylum, an appeal against a negative decision is to be made to an Asylum Commission. ECRI has been informed that there is no government budget for interpretation or free legal assistance and that the UNHCR is still covering those expenses.
128. According to information provided to ECRI, 215 persons applied for asylum in 2010, 280 in 2009 and the number was approximately 100 in 2008. ECRI has been informed that there is as yet no recognised refugee among these applicants. ECRI has been informed that many of the applicants disappear before being interviewed by the Asylum Office. ECRI has further been informed that very few people have gone through the interview process, so it is difficult to assess the refugee status determination procedure in Serbia as it has not been tested yet. The lack of an integration strategy has been cited to ECRI as being one of the reasons why asylum seekers do not stay long enough to go through the refugee status determination procedure.
129. There is an asylum centre, located in the town of Banja Koviljaca, which has a capacity of 80 people, is currently accommodating 67 persons – 62 asylum seekers, 3 refugees under UNHCR protection and 2 persons who have been granted subsidiary protection.
130. In its first report, ECRI recommended that the Serbian authorities ensure that border police as well as immigration staff receive initial and on-going training in issues relating to asylum seekers and refugees, as well as in combating racism and racial discrimination.
131. ECRI has been informed that the police and immigration officials receive training on issues concerning asylum, but that they do not have much opportunity to put it into practice as there are not many asylum seekers in Serbia.
132. ECRI recommends that the Serbian authorities establish a strategy for the integration of asylum seekers and refugees by, inter alia, proving for language lessons and access to employment. (ECRI, 31. Mai 2011, S. 30-31)
[Passage aus dem Bericht des deutschen Auswärtigen Amtes entfernt]
Quellen:(Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 26. August 2011)
· AA – Auswärtiges Amt: Bericht über die asyl- und abschiebungsrelevante Lage in der Republik Serbien, 14. Juni 2010
· APC – Asylum Protection Center: A Visit to the Asylum Center of the Republic of Serbia, 10. August 2010
· ECRI - European Commission against Racism and Intolerance: ECRI Report on Serbia (fourth monitoring cycle), 31. Mai 2011 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)
· Group 484: Challenges of Forced Migration in Serbia: Position of Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, Returnees and Asylum Seekers, 14. Juni 2011 (verfügbar auf reliefweb)
· IOM – International Organization for Migration: Serbia Destination Guide, April 2011
· UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: 2011 UNHCR country operations profile – Serbia, ohne Datum
· UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: Serbia – Operational Highlights, ohne Datum
· USCRI - US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants: World Refugee Survey: World Refugee Survey 2009: Serbia, Juni 2010
· USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2010 - Serbia, 8. April 2011 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)