a-7088 (ACC-SOM-7088)

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.
Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar.
Wir empfehlen, die verwendeten Materialien im Original durchzusehen.
1) Clan namens Reer Barawa
Ist er ein Sub-Clan der Tuni und lebt er in Brawa, Marka, Kosmayo?
Laut einem Finding-Mission-Bericht der norwegischen staatliche Herkunftsinformationsstelle Landinfo vom November 2007 die aus der Stadt Brava stammenden Mitglieder der Benadiri als Barawas oder Rer Barawa bezeichnet würden. Benadir-Mtglider aus Merka würden Rer Merka genannt:
“Benadir members from Merka are called Rer Merka, and Benadir members from the city of Brava are referred to as Barawas or Rer Barawa.” (Landinfo, November 2007, S. 26/Fußnote 29)
Das Institute for Cultural Partnerships (ICP), eine US-amerikanische NGO, die für interkulturelles Verständnis einsetzt, schreibt in einem älteren Bericht aus dem Jahr 1997, dass die Rer Brava eine distinkte ethnisch somalische Minderheit aus der Stadt Brava darstellen würden. Die Leute in Rer Brava würden manchmal als Bravan oder Barawan bezeichnet. Ethnisch seien die Rer Brava Teil des größeren somalischen Clans der Tunni, weiters würden sie auch zu den kollektiv als Benadir-Gesellschaften beschriebenen Gruppen zählen:
“Rer Brava are a distinct ethnic Somali minority from Brava Town which is located along the southern coast of Somalia. Like many communities of the East African coast, Rer Brava are a complex population blending African and non-African origins. Rer Brava people are sometimes referred to as Bravan or Barawan. Ethnically, the Rer Brava are part of the greater Somali clan of Tunni. Rer Brava are also part of what is collectively known and described as the Benadir communities.” (ICP, 1997)
Ein vom irischen Refugee Documentation Centre (RDC) und UNHCR herausgegebener Bericht vom August 2007 erwähnt, dass beispielsweise die Rer Barawa, Rer Hamar und Rer Marka zur Gruppe Gibil Cad innerhalb der kollektiven Benadiri-Identität gehören würden:
“Many individuals from minority groups have fled Somalia, but there are nevertheless always exceptions. It is also important to consider who has the means to flee and when and how it is accessed. For example, many of the ‘higher caste/class and educated’ gibil cad (white-skinned clans and lineages) of the collective Benadiri identity, e.g. Rer Hamar, Rer Marka and Rer Barawa, who tended to be wealthier and better connected - not least with international refugee agencies - left earlier and in larger numbers.“ (RDC/UNHCR, 9. August 2007, S. 26)
Das Danish Immigration Service (DIS) schreibt in einem Bericht zu Mindertheitengruppen in Somalia vom November 2000, der auf einer (zusammen mit Großbritannien durchgeführten) Fact-Finding-Mission basiert, dass eine Gruppe von Benadiri aus Brava „Bravanese“ genannt werde. Die Bezeichnung Rer Brava bedeute soviel wie „Leute aus Brava” und werde generell nur für Personen aus Brava, die gemischt-ethnischer Herkunft seien, verwendet:
“The delegation met in Nairobi with three groups of Benadiri: a group of Benadiri elders from Mogadishu and Merka (belonging to the Ashraf, Duruqbe and Morshe sub-clans), a group of Ashraf elders from Mogadishu, Merka and Qorioley, and a group of Benadiri from Brava, the so-called Bravanese (or Barawan). From discussions with these groups it transpired that the term Benadiri is used by these groups to indicate the coastal population of Somalia roughly between Mogadishu and Kismayo, who share an urban culture and who are of mixed origin (Persian/Portuguese/Arabian/Swahili/Somali), separate from the major Somali clans. […] According to Perouse de Montclos, the name Benadiri does not correspond to any well defined sociological reality. In the context of resettlement programmes for Somali refugees in Kenya, the Somali refugee traders of the coastal ports decided to regroup under the generic term 'Benadir', which designates greater Mogadishu. Those indigenous to this area succeeded in calling themselves 'Benadiri'. Perouse de Montclos adds that the term Benadiri, as a community, did not fully appear before the 1990 civil war (N.B. This is also in accordance with other, UN, sources). […] In the strictest sense of the word it applies to the traders who were the first inhabitants of Mogadishu but have always been seen as foreigners by the Somalis: the Bandhabow, the Morshe-Iskashato, the Abdisamad, the Sadiq Gedi, the Bafadal, the Amudi, the Duruqo, the rer Shikh, the rer Manyo, the Gudmane in Hamar Weyne district and the rer Faqi in Shingani district. Other sources use the names Reer Hamar or Reer Brava. Reer Hamar means people from Mogadishu (Hamar Weyne), but some sources (such as the elders interviewed by the delegation) use it to include the whole coastal population of mixed origin. Reer Brava means people from Brava, and is generally used only to indicate people from Brava of mixed origin.” (DIS, November 2000, S. 38-39)
Weiters schreibt das DIS unter Berufung auf ein Werk von Perouse de Montclos Folgendes über die „Reer Brava“, die eine territoriale Gemeinschaft seien und sich teilweise aus Somali aus der Umgebung von Brava zusammensetzen würden, die zu der Tunni-Lineage des Digil-Clans gehören würden:
“According to Perouse de Montclos, 'Reer Brava' designates a territorial community. The confusion between territory and clan or ancestral identity brought about the grouping of a much larger body of people than one would have expected from a minority group of traders of foreign origin. Historically, in Brava (like in Merka) the Arabs from Zanzibar allied with the Tunni, a Digil clan, in order to counter the Hawiye from the hinterland. Brava was the scene of numerous battles, against the Portuguese, Omanis, British, Egyptians, Italians and Somali of the interior (Rahanweyn and Dir), many of them establishing lineage. As a consequence, the races in the city were completely 'mixed up'. Although the common hardships and tragedies experienced during and after the 1990 civil war certainly reinforced the sentiment of an identity and uniqueness, on closer inspection we discover communities with very diverse backgrounds despite numerous instances of intermarriage. On the one hand there are immigrants of Arab origin, while on the other hand there are the Somali of the Brava surroundings, whose minority status is more doubtful because they are part of the Tunni lineage of the Digil.” (DIS, November 2000,    S. 41-42)
Unterdrückung durch die Habagidir (bereits seit 1997)?
Laut dem soeben zitierten Bericht von RDC / UNHCR vom August 2007 würden in Mogadischu die konkurrierenden territorialen Herrschaftsansprüche, die zwischen Abgal und ähnlichen Clans aus der „Mudulod“-Allianz einerseits und den Habr Gedir andererseits beständen, unter anderem auf dem Rücken von Gruppen mit wenig militärischer oder politischer Macht ausgetragen. Diese seien unter anderem Benadiri-Gruppen, darunter den Gibil Cad, zu denen die „Barawans“ gehören, sowie verschiedene Digil- und Mirifle (Rahanweyn)-Gruppen wie unter anderem die Tunni:
„The Benadir (Greater Mogadishu) and Lower Shabelle regions are good examples of this dynamic. In Mogadishu another Hawiye clan, the Abgal and related clans of the ‘Mudulod’ alliance, have held out against the Habr Gedir. In Lower Shabelle, the Habr Gedir clan rivals the (Dir) Bimaal. The competing claims of territorial ownership between ‘Mudulod’ and Habr Gedir over Mogadishu, and Bimaal and Habr Gedir over the Lower Shabelle, are played out over significant populations who have stronger claims to ‘autochthony’ but little military or political might. These include earlier and smaller Hawiye groups, any number of small ‘Benadiri’ groups including the Gibil Cad (Rer Hamar, Rer Marka, Barawans), Bantu groups, and various Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) groups such as the Geledi, Tunni, and Ba Gedi. There are similar examples of throughout southern Somalia; Kismayo and Jubba-land being one of the most complex and intractable mosaics of clans and ethnicities fighting over ownership and political influence.“ (RDC/UNHCR, 9. August 2007, S. 11)
Das Danish Immigration Service (DIS) schreibt in einem älteren Fact-Finding-Mission Bericht vom Juli 2002, dass laut Angaben eines Beraters von UNDP Somalia in Nairobi (‚Ali Doy’) der größte Teil der „Bravanese“ aus der Stadt Brava geflohen seien, einige von ihnen würden jedoch noch immer dort leben. Brava werde durch die Habr Gedir kontrolliert. Diejenigen Bravanese, die in Brava geblieben seien und überlebt hätten, hätten gelernt, die Misshandllungen zu bewältigen:
„'Ali Doy' explained that the vast majority of the Bravanese have fled the coastal town of Brava, although some are still living in the town. Brava is controlled by the Habr Gedir, but there is nothing left there for them to ‘loot or to rape’. Those Bravanese who stayed and survived are those who have learned to cope with the abuses. This situation is similar to that of other minority groups in the area. Members of minority groups are still victims of abuses like forced labour, sexual slavery and general intimidation. 'Ali Doy' added that members of minor Somali clans can also be victims of such abuses” (DIS, 25. Juli 2002,    S. 57)
Das Danish Immigration Service (DIS) berichtet in seinem Fact-Finding-Mission-Bericht zu Mindertheitengruppen in Somalia vom November 2000, dass die Bravanese mit dem Zerfall des Staates im Jahr 1991 ihren „Schutz” durch die Zentralregierung verloren hätten, und bald zu Angriffszielen verschiedener Milizen geworden seien, die durch die Küstengebiete Zentral- und Südsomalias zogen. Weiters schreibt das DIS, dass laut Angaben von Ältesten der Bravanese und der Tunni, dass die 70 Prozent der Bravanesen noch in Brava unter der Besatzung der Habr Gedir-Fraktion der USC leben würden. Ihre Häuser seien von den Milizangehörigen besetzt worden und die Bravanese könnten ihr Eigentum nicht zurückfordern, ohne dabei zu riskieren, getötet zu werden:
„When the state collapsed in 1991 and the Bravanese lost their "protection" from the central government they soon became targets for various militias that raged through the coastal areas of central and southern Somalia. The militias especially targeted Bravanese women and many were raped or forced into marriage with non-Bravanese Somalis. The Bravanese women were seen as ‘attractive’ to the Somali militias in the sense that before the collapse of government they were ‘inaccessible’ but when the government fell they were easy victims.” (DIS, 1. November 2000, S. 22)
“The Bravanese and Tunni elders said that although in the civil war Brava was most affected, the majority of Bravanese remained in the town. They stated that today about 70% of the Bravanese still live in Brava, living under the occupation of Aideed's Habr Gedir USC faction. They described how, although their houses have generally been occupied by militias members, some Bravanese have been allowed to remain living in one room of their house. The Bravanese could not claim back their properties without the risk of being killed.” (DIS, 1. November 2000, S. 45)
Das Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) geht in einer Anfragebeantwortung vom Juli 2001 zur damaligen Situation der Bravanese (Bravan, Barawan) ein:  
·       IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: Somalia: Current situation of the Bravan people in Somalia, particularly regarding their location, customs, traditions, and language, 12 July 2001, SOM37308.E (veröffentlicht auf Refworld)
In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen konnten im Rahmen der zeitlich begrenzten Recherche keine weiteren Informationen zu Reer Barawa gefunden werden.
2) Krankenhaus Madina in Mogadischu
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) berichtet im Oktober 2009 wie folgt:
„Doctors and civil society groups have condemned anonymous threats made against personnel in Madina Hospital, the main health facility in Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.” (IRIN, 8. Oktober 2009)
In einem Artikel der britischen Tageszeitung The Independent findet sich folgende Beschreibung zu einer Abbildung:
“A wounded student is helped into Medina hospital in Mogadishu after a suicide bomb attack killed three Cabinet ministers and graduating doctors” (Independent, 4. Dezember 2009)
 Quellen:(Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 27. Jänner 2010)
DIS - Danish Immigration Service: Report on minority groups in Somalia; Joint British, Danish and Dutch fact-finding mission to Nairobi, Kenya; 17 - 24 September 2000, 1. November 2000
DIS - Danish Immigration Service: Report on political, security and human rights developments in southern and central Somalia, including South West State of Somalia, and Puntland State of Somalia: Joint British - Danish fact-finding mission to Nairobi (Kenya) and Baidoa and Belet Weyne (Somalia) (20 May to 1 June 2002) , 25 Juli 2002 (veröffentlicht auf  Refworld)
ICP – Institute for Cultural Partnerships: A profile of new refugee arrivals: the Rer Brava and Shangamas Tunnis from Somalia, 1997
The Independent: Somalian ministers killed in hotel bomb attack, 4. Dezember 2009
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN): SOMALIA - Mogadishu hospital threats condemned, 8. Oktober 2009
IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: Somalia: Current situation of the Bravan people in Somalia, particularly regarding their location, customs, traditions, and language, 12 July 2001, SOM37308.E
Landinfo: Report – Security and human rights conditions in southern Somalia [07an1370bEN], November 2007
RDC / UNHCR – Refugee Documentation Centre / United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Country Report – Somalia, 9. August 2007 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)