1) Information on the penalties that a soldier would face when failing to report for military service during the Gulf War or in general; 2) Information on the situation of Assyrians (Christians), Kurds, Shi'a, Turcomans, and the al-Dawa organization [IRQ10536]

1) A representative of the Middle East Desk at the Amnesty International Office in London, England, stated that according to Iraqi law, the penalty for a draftee who refuses to join the army is imprisonment (27 Mar. 1992). The representative added that in practice, however, the sentence is sometimes death (Ibid.). For deserters, the Law states that for the first attempt at desertion the penalty is imprisonment and for the second attempt, it is death (ibid.). The representative further reported that in practice the punishment is often death (Ibid.).

2) The representative at Amnesty International stated that membership in al-Dawa is punishable by death and that sentence is also applied retroactively (Ibid.).

Additional and/or corroborating information on this subject is currently unavailable to the IRBDC in Ottawa.

For further information on the above-mentioned subjects please refer to the attached documents.


Amnesty International Office, London, England. 27 March 1992. Telephone Interview with Representative.


1) Amnesty International. 21 May 1987. The Death Penalty in Iraq: Legal Aspects. (AI Index: MDE 14/03/87). London: Amnesty International Publications.

. 2 November 1989. (MDE/LJ/IRQ). "Iraq: Comments From the Middle East Research Team on Students and Military Deserters/Draft Evaders."

. 29 January 1990. Urgent Action. "Iraq: Many Killed by Government Forces in Southern Iraq."

The Associated Press. 1 November 1990. "Kurds Rebels Claim Thousands of Iraqi Army Men Deserting." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 24 February 1992. "RCC Changes Rules for Compulsory Military Service." (NEXIS)

Gannett News Service. 3 April 1991. Jack Kelley. "Iraqis Executing Deserters, Students, U.S. Officials Say." (NEXIS)

Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre (IRBDC), Ottawa. 28 February 1989. Response to Information Request IRQ0311.

. 24 April 1989. Response to Information Request IRQ0705.

. 10 November 1989. Response to Information Request IRQ2809.

. 16 August 1991. Response to Information Request IRQ9305.

. 8 October 1991. Response to Information Request IRQ9488.

The Independent [London]. 22 July 1991. "Winning the Peace in Iraq," p. 16. (NEXIS)

. 22 July 1991. Patrick Cockburn. "Richter Could Be Released in Mass Iraqi Amnesty," p. 1. (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 5 August 1990. Nick Williams. "What Do Iraqis Think? In Climate of Fear, Few Clues," p. 1. (NEXIS)

The Telgraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS). 28 September 1990. Mikhail Krutikhin. "Iraqi Executes Deserters, Bans Contacts With Countries." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 6 October 1991. Caryle Murphy. "Papers Left in Kuwait Offer Glimpse of Iraqi Occupiers," p.A29. (NEXIS)

2) Agence France Presse. 27 December 1991. "Iraq Frees Hundreds of Kurds: Talibani." (NEXIS)

. 2 February 1992. "Iraqi Catholics Seek Asylum." (NEXIS)

. 23 February 1992. "Riyadh Being Given Plans for Saddam's Overthrow, Opposition Leader Says." (NEXIS)

. 19 February 1992. "Hussein Aides Threatens Assassination of Exiles." (NEXIS)

. 2 March 1992. "Fighting Reported Between Iraqi Troops, Kurds in Northern Iraq." (NEXIS)

. 20 February 1992. "Iraq UN." (NEXIS)

Amnesty International. 1991. Amnesty International Report 1991. New York: Amnesty International Publications, pp. 122-124.

. July 1991. Iraq: Human Rights Violations Since the Uprising. (AI Index: MDE 14/05/91). London: Amnesty International Publications.

. 16 February 1990. Iraq: Response to Information Request. "Situation of Assyrian Christians."

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 6 March 1992. "Iranian Report Says Forces Deployed in Najaf; Religious Gathering Banned," p. 1. (NEXIS)

. 13 January 1992. "Rebel Radio Alledges Government Troops in Kirkuk Trained to Use Chemical Weapons." (NEXIS)

. 10 December 1991. "Iraqi National Denies European Parliament's `Claims' About North Iraq." (NEXIS)

Committee Against Repression and For Democratic Rights in Iraq (CARDI). 1986. Saddam's Iraq: Revolution or Reaction?. ToTowa, N.J.: Zed Books Ltd, pp. 138-223.

Degenhardt, Henry. 1988. Revolutionary and Dissident Movements. London: Burnt Mill, Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd., pp. 171-175.

Delury, George. 1987. World Encyclopedia of Political Systems & Parties. Vol. 1. New York: Facts On File Publications, pp. 542-544.

The Economist [London]. 19 Juillet 1991. "Iraq's Atomic Enigma." 28 July 1991. "Supping With the Devil."

Federal Information Systems Corporation; Federal News Service. 26 September 1991. John Kidner. "Special Conference or Speech About the Middle East." (NEXIS)

. 17 January 1992. "Iraqi Opposition Committee in the US and Canada Press Conference." (NEXIS)

Human Rights Watch. 1992. Human Rights Watch World Report 1992. New York: Human Rights Watch Publications. pp. 657-692.

The Independent. 13 January 1992. "Iraq Steps Up Raids on Dissidents," p. 9. (NEXIS)

. 11 January 1992. Gwynne Roberts. "Silent Holocaust of the Kurds," p. 9. (NEXIS)

. 31 January 1992. Patrick Cockburn. "Images of Terror From the Marshlands of Iraq," p. 11. (NEXIS)

. 4 July 1991. Doyle, Leonard. "Iraqi Forces Shell Shi'a Refugees," p. 12. (NEXIS)

. 22 July 1991. Phil Davidson. "Destruction of Iraqi Archeological Site at Kirkuk." p. 8. (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 3 January 1992. John Roberts. "Kurdistan: Grim Pall of Death Hangs Over Hussein's Torture Palace." (NEXIS)

. 5 March 1992. "Human Rights: U.N. Condemns Iraq for `Massive' Violations." (NEXIS)

The Jerusalem Post. 23 February 1992. David Mack. "Iraqi's Woes are Saddam's Fault." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 15 October 1991. Hugh Hope. "Residents Battle Time to Reconstruct Qala Diza," p. 2. (NEXIS)

The Middle East. November 1991. Chris Kutschera. "On the Brink of War," pp. 13-15.

. January 1992. Andrew Apostolou. "Vanishing Christians," pp. 24-25.

Middle East International. 24 January 1992. Eric Hoskins. "Pity the Children of Iraq."

Middle East Watch. 1990. Human Rights in Iraq. Human Rights Watch Books Series. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 22-96.

Minority Rights Group. 1989. World Directory of Minorities. London: Longman International Reference, pp. 195-202.

The New York Times. 12 July 1991. Paul Lewis. "Iraq Lets Shiite Refugees Quit Swamp," p. A3. (NEXIS)

. 15 August 1991. "Peace-Weary Iraqis Flee for Jordan, to Rest or to Head West," p. A12. (NEXIS)

Reuters. 27 January 1992. Andrew Hill. "Saddam Warns on Gulf War Anniversary." (NEXIS)

. 4 March 1992. "Saudis to Help Topple Saddam, Iraqi Opposition Says." (NEXIS)

. 15 December 1991. "Iraqi Says More Than 6,000 Kurds to Kirkuk." (NEXIS)

United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees (UNHCR). 20 January 1992. "Letter to Chairman, IRB, on the Situation of Iraqi Asylum Seekers."

U.S. Department of State. February 1992. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices For 1991. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 1419-1429.

The Washington Post. 23 January 1992. Caryle Murphy. "War Refugees Remain in Saudi Camps," p. A17. (NEXIS)

. 2 March 1992. Jeane Kirkpatrick. "The Iraqi Government Horrific Violations of Human Rights," p. A17. (NEXIS)