Treatment of persons suspected to be members of the Mouvement pour le développement et la démocratie (MDD) and their family members [TCD29959.E]

A Paris-based Amnesty International representative who specializes on Chad stated during a 9 September 1998 telephone interview that the Mouvement pour le développement et la démocratie (MDD) is divided into at least two factions : one which made peace with the government in Chad and whose members are not at risk, and the other still militarily active and operating from Niger. Individuals in Chad related to leaders and active members of the latter group would be at risk.

A professor who specializes on Tchad at the African Studies Centre at Leiden, The Netherlands, stated in a 14 September 1998 letter sent to the Research Directorate that the MDD has broken into several factions. Some of them rallied to the government but at least two were still militarily active by the end of 1997. One of the active factions is led by Moussa Medella and was involved in skirmishes with the Chadian army in the Lake Tchad region in December 1997. The leader of the other faction, Djiddi Hissein-Mi, was killed by Chadian security forces in June 1997 in Niger, or after his expulsion to Chad by the authorities of Niger. The professor also stated that persons suspected of being MDD members could expect to be killed, tortured or at least harrassed upon their return to Chad.

A representative of a French organization called Tchad-Solidarités-France referred to the Research Directorate by the above-mentioned professor, stated during a 22 September 1998 telephone interview that the MDD, originally led by Moussa Medella, is now divided into 6 or 7 rival splinter groups. He further stated that Chad is not a state-of-law country and that returning members of the MDD would be at risk.

Further information on the treatment of MDD leaders and members could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands. 14 September 1998. Letter sent to the research directorate by a professor.

Amnesty International, Paris. 9 September 1998. Telephone interview with representative.

Tchad-Solidarités-France, Bully-les-Mines, France. 22 September 1998. Telephone interview with representative.

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential [London]. 1997-1998

Africa Research Bulletin. 1997-1998.

Amnesty International On-line [Internet]. 1997-1998.

Electronic sources: LEXIS/NEXIS, WNC, Internet, IRB databases.

La Lettre du Continent [Paris]. 1997-1998.

La Lettre de la FIDH [Paris]. 1997-1998.

Four oral sources contacted did not provide the requested information.