COUNCIL OF EUROPE – GROUP OF STATES AGAINST CORRUPTION (COE – GRECO)
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/default_en.asp
 
Source description last updated: 18 December 2014
 
In brief:
“The Group of States against Corruption (CoE-GRECO) is the Council of Europe’s tool for monitoring the member states’ compliance with agreed upon anti-corruption standards.” (CoE-website: What is GRECO?, undated)
 
Coverage on ecoi.net:
Covered weekly on ecoi.net for countries of priorities A-C.
 
Mission/Mandate/Objectives:
“GRECO’s objective is to improve the capacity of its members to fight corruption by monitoring their compliance with Council of Europe anti-corruption standards through a dynamic process of mutual evaluation and peer pressure. It helps to identify deficiencies in national anti-corruption policies, prompting the necessary legislative, institutional and practical reforms. GRECO also provides a platform for the sharing of best practice in the prevention and detection of corruption.” (CoE-GRECO-website: What is GRECO?, undated)
 
Funding:
Council of Europe funds.
 
Scope of reporting:
Geographic focus: CoE member states and states joining GRECO or adhering to the Civil Law Convention on Corruption. Currently 48 European states and the USA.
Thematic focus: Corruption and anti-corruption standards.
 
Methodology:
GRECO monitoring is comprised of the “evaluation procedure (all members are evaluated within an Evaluation Round) leading to recommendations aimed at furthering the necessary legislative, institutional and practical reforms” and the “compliance procedure designed to assess the measures taken by its members to implement the recommendations.” (CoE-GRECO-website: How does GRECO work?, undated)”
 
“GRECO works in cycles: evaluation rounds, each covering specific themes. GRECO’s first evaluation round (2000–2002) dealt with the independence, specialisation and means of national bodies engaged in the prevention and fight against corruption. It also dealt with the extent and scope of immunities of public officials from arrest, prosecution, etc. The second evaluation round (2003–2006) focused on the identification, seizure and confiscation of corruption proceeds, the prevention and detection of corruption in public administration and the prevention of legal persons (corporations, etc) from being used as shields for corruption. The third evaluation round (launched in January 2007) addresses (a) the incriminations provided for in the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption and (b) the transparency of party funding.” (CoE-GRECO-website: How does GRECO work?, undated)
 
Fourth evaluation round reports (launched in 2012) focus on corruption of members of parliament, judges and prosecutors.
“The evaluation process follows a well-defined procedure, where a team of experts is appointed by GRECO for the evaluation of a particular member. The analysis of the situation in each country is carried out on the basis of written replies to a questionnaire and information gathered in meetings with public officials and representatives of civil society during an on-site visit to the country. Following the on-site visit, the team of experts drafts a report which is communicated to the country under scrutiny for comments before it is finally submitted to GRECO for examination and adoption. The conclusions of evaluation reports may state that legislation and practice comply - or do not comply - with the provisions under scrutiny. The conclusions may lead to recommendations which require action within 18 months or to observations which members are supposed to take into account but are not formally required to report on in the subsequent compliance procedure.” (CoE-GRECO-website: How does GRECO work?, undated)
 
“One of the strengths of GRECO’s monitoring is that the implementation of recommendations is examined in the compliance procedure. The assessment of whether a recommendation has been implemented satisfactorily, partly or has not been implemented is based on a situation report, accompanied by supporting documents submitted by the member under scrutiny 18 months after the adoption of the evaluation report. In cases where not all recommendations have been complied with, GRECO will re-examine outstanding recommendations within another 18 months. Compliance reports and the addenda thereto adopted by GRECO also contain an overall conclusion on the implementation of all the recommendations, the purpose of which is to decide whether to terminate the compliance procedure in respect of a particular member. Finally, the Rules of Procedure of GRECO foresee a special procedure, based on a graduated approach, for dealing with members whose response to GRECO’s recommendations has been found to be globally unsatisfactory.” (CoE-GRECO-Website: How does GRECO work?, undated)
 
Languages of publication:

English and French. Some reports are available in local languages.
 
Further reading:
Civil Law Convention on Corruption.
 
All documents available on ecoi.net from this source: http://www.ecoi.net/en/source/277
 
All links accessed 24 November 2014.
 
ecoi.net summary:
Database of reports on corruption in Council of Europe's member sates and their compliance with Council of Europe's guiding principles in the fight against corruption. Language: English
Homepage:
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/default_en.asp
Search:
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