Brazil and Haiti: Requirements and procedures for Haitians to reacquire permanent residence and/or citizenship in Brazil; instances of successful reapplications for permanent residence and/or citizenship (2019–February 2022) [ZZZ200574.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Loss of Permanent Residence Permit

Sources report that Law No. 13,445 of 24 May 2017 (Lei nº 13.445, de 24 maio de 2017), Brazil's immigration legislation, came into force on 21 November 2017 (US 8 June 2017; Soter and Lessa 7 June 2021). According to sources, the concept of a "permanent visa" [1] was abolished under Law No. 13,445 (Brazil Feb. 2020, 40; Soter and Lessa 7 June 2021) and was replaced by that of a residence permit "for either a definite or indefinite term, depending on the basis on which it is granted," or a temporary visa (Soter and Lessa 7 June 2021). According to a migration governance overview from July 2018 by the International Organization for Migration (IOM),

[i]mmigrants who have been living in the country on a temporary visa are free to apply for an indefinite residence permit. Immigrants can apply for citizenship after four years of residence in the country, provided they fulfil certain requirements (civil capacity, knowledge of Portuguese and a clean criminal record). (UN July 2018, 3)

Sources indicate that Decree No. 9,199 of 20 November 2017 (Decreto no 9.199, de 20 de novembro de 2017) regulates the implementation of Law No. 13,445 (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022; Soter and Lessa 7 June 2021). Article 135 of Decree No. 9,199 provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 135. A residence permit will be revoked in the following circumstances:

  1. The original basis for the residence permit ceases to exist;
  2. A residence permit has been obtained on different grounds; and
  3. Absence from the country for a period of more than two years without presentation of a justification.

Paragraph 1 - The immigrant must notify the Federal Police whenever he or she ceases to meet the conditions of his or her residence permit during its validity period.

Paragraph 2 – The provision in item I of the introduction does not prevent the immigrant from applying for a residence permit on other grounds. (Brazil 2017)

1.1 Basis for Issuance of Residence Permit No Longer Exists

Given the provisions of Law No. 13,445, Brazil adopted Interministerial Order No. 10 of 6 April 2018 (Portaria Interministerial nº 10, de 6 de abril de 2018), which [translation] "[p]rovides that temporary visas and residence permits shall be granted for humanitarian reasons to Haitian nationals and stateless persons residing in the Republic of Haiti" (Brazil 2018). Under Article 13, the Interministerial Order came into effect on the day it was published, on 9 April 2018 (Brazil 2018). Article 11 of Interministerial Order No. 10 of 2018 provides the following:

[translation]

Article 11. The basis for the humanitarian acceptance provided for in this Order will be considered null and void if the immigrant leaves Brazil permanently when there is information showing that the immigrant attempted to reside in another country. (Brazil 2018)

Brazil adopted Interministerial Order No. 27 of the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Ministério da Justiça e Segurança Pública, MJSP) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministério das Relações Exteriores, MRE) (Portaria interministerial do MJSP e o MRE nº 27, de 30 de dezembro de 2021) on 30 December 2021, on the [translation] "[g]ranting of temporary visas and authorization of residency for humanitarian reasons to nationals of Haiti and stateless persons affected by major calamities or environmental disasters in the Republic of Haiti" (Brazil 2021a). Effective on the day of its publication, the Order provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 12. The basis for the humanitarian admission established by this Order is considered null and void in cases when the immigrant leaves Brazil with the intent of doing so permanently or does so without migratory control if it gets proven, by means of information, that he or she has made an attempt to reside in another country. (Brazil 2021a)

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a representative of the Embassy of Brazil in Ottawa stated based on item I of article 135 of Decree 9,199, and article 12 of Interministerial Order MJSP/MRE No. 27 that a Haitian national who had Brazilian residency on the basis of humanitarian asylum but has moved abroad with "definitive will" shall not be returned to Brazil and must instead submit an application for a new visa (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022). Similarly, according to a chapter on corporate immigration to Brazil authored by Maria Luisa Soter and Gabriela Lessa of Veirano Advogados, a Brazilian business law firm that advises multinational companies on operating in the Brazilian economy (The Law Reviews n.d.), the residence permit "ceases once the establishing conditions" (which depend on the grounds upon which it was granted) "no longer exist," following which the individual may apply for "a different type" of residence permit (Soter and Lessa 7 June 2021).

1.2 Absence from Brazil for Period Exceeding Two Years

When asked by the Research Directorate whether Haitians who lost their permanent resident status due to an absence of over two years are able to recover that status through an expedited or automatic process, a lawyer and partner at a law firm in Brazil, whose practice areas include immigration law, responded in correspondence that they [translation] "must submit an application for a new visa" in order to return (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022). The embassy representative indicated that a Haitian with a temporary visa and residence permit issued on any basis other than that of humanitarian asylum who has been absent from Brazil for over two years may "apply for a visitor visa (VIVIS) [for stays up to 90 days (Brazil n.d.)] [if] they want to restart the regularization of their immigration status in Brazil," a request which requires "consult[ing]" the Federal Police before the visa can be granted (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022). The same source noted that loss of residence permit following an absence of over two years from Brazil "is not automatic"; rather, the permit holder, "upon re-entering Brazil, will be notified by the Federal Police and allowed to present justification" to keep their permit (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022). The FAQ webpage of Brazil's Federal Police (Polícia Federal) states that [translation] "immigrants" who remain outside of the country "without justification" for more than two years "may lose their residency authorization," following which they "will be notified to present justification, and, should it be rejected, a proceeding relating to the loss of residency authorization will be established based on Decree 9,199/2017, Art. 135, Item III, subject to the due process of law" (Brazil 15 March 2021).

According to the lawyer, justification for absence from the country for over two years can include border closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022). In response to a query from a Brazilian resident visa holder on whether COVID-19 travel restrictions changed the requirement to re-enter Brazil within two years, M.W. Consultoria para Migrações (MW), the business arm of Mawon [2] (Mawon n.d.), indicates that [translation] "to maintain residency, travel to Brazil is required every two years; however, the period from March to November 2020 is not being considered for the purposes of loss of residency" (Mawon [2020]). According to the FAQ webpage of the Federal Police, the deadline for immigrants to regularize their immigration status in the country has been extended to 15 March 2022 (Brazil 15 Mar. 2021). Brazil adopted Order No. 25/2021 of 17 August 2021 (Portaria nº 25/2021-DIREX/PF, de 17 de agosto de 2021), regarding [translation] "the extension of the deadline to regularize immigration status with the Federal Police," which provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 1. The deadline for foreigners whose immigration documents are expired as of 16 March 2020 and who need to obtain or register authorizations of residency and obtain temporary visas is extended to 15 March 2022.

§ 1. An immigrant who regularizes his or her immigration status within the established timeframe will not be penalized for delays in registration or overstay within this period.

§ 3. This article is applicable to immigrants and visitors who are holders of applications for residency authorization and necessary documents, but who have failed to obtain an appointment due to local restrictions at service offices.

Art. 2. Service protocols referring to immigration regularization and applications for recognition of refugee status, national immigration registration cards (carteiras de registro nacional migratório, CRNM) and provisional national immigration registration (documentos provisórios de registro nacional migratório, DPRNM) documents that are expired as of 16 March 2020 shall be deemed extended and valid, and must be accepted for all purposes until 15 March 2022, including for admission, registration, renewal or changes to timelines.

Art. 3. For the purposes of the immigration regularization process, passports, identification documents and criminal record certificates issued abroad and expired as of 16 March 2020 will be accepted until 15 March 2022 if the immigrant has maintained residency in the national territory and seeks to regularize his or her status.

Sole Paragraph. The terms of this article will not apply in the case of foreign travel for periods in excess of thirty days.

Art. 4. This order will come into effect on 15 September 2021. (Brazil 2021b)

1.3 Requirements and Procedures to Appeal Loss

According to the lawyer, per item III of article 135 of Decree 9,199, it is [translation] "possible" for a holder of a residence permit to justify their absence of over 2 years from Brazil to prevent the loss of their status (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022). The lawyer provided an example of a client who studied abroad for over two years and was able to renew their visa and maintain their status after explaining to the authorities that they did not [translation] "intend to leave Brazil permanently" (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022).

Chapter VIII, Subsection II of Decree No. 9,199 on the "[n]egative concession, denial, loss, and cancellation of the residence permit" provides the following:

Art. 134. An immigrant may appeal a decision refusing permanent residence within 10 days following the date on which the immigrant is informed of the decision, ensuring the observance of the rights of the defence and of the adversarial nature of proceedings, and alternatively [application of] the provisions of Law No. 9,784 of 29 January 1999.

Art. 137. The decree of loss and the cancellation of the residence permit shall be preceded by an administrative procedure in which the adversarial procedure and full defense shall be observed.

Art. 138. The procedures for decreeing the loss and cancellation of the residence permit shall be instituted by an act of the Minister of State for Justice and Public Security or Labor, as the case may be, and instructed, immediately, with the term of notification of the immigrant.

Paragraph 1. The act referred to in the head provision shall contain a report of the reason for the decree of the loss or cancellation of the residence permit and its legal basis and shall determine that the immigrant is notified immediately, preferably, by electronic means.

Paragraph 2. In the event of loss or cancellation of the residence permit for work purposes, the employer may be notified, subject to the provisions of Paragraph 1.

Paragraph 3. If the immigrant is not found, the Federal Government shall advertise the establishment of the administrative procedure for decreeing the loss or cancellation of the residence permit on an electronic website, and such publication shall be considered as notification for all acts of the referred procedure.

Paragraph 4. The immigrant shall have ten days to present a defense in the administrative procedure.

Paragraph 5. An immigrant who, regularly notified, does not present a defense within the period referred to in Paragraph 4 shall be considered default.

Paragraph 6. By his/her own means or by legal representation, the immigrant may present defense within the period established in Paragraph 4 and make use of the means and resources admitted by law, including translator or interpreter.

Art. 139. The decision regarding the decree of the loss or cancellation of the residence permit shall be the responsibility of the agency that granted it.

Paragraph 1. The immigrant shall have ten days to appeal against the decision referred to in the head provision.

Paragraph 2. After the administrative procedure is closed and the loss or permanent cancellation of the residence permit is decreed, the immigrant shall be notified under the terms established in art. 176.

Art. 140. The documents and evidence used in procedures for decreeing the loss or cancellation of the residence permit may be used in the administrative procedure referred to in art. 177.

Art. 141. A joint act of the Ministers of State for Justice and Public Security and Labor shall provide for administrative procedures regarding the cancellation and loss of a residence permit and the appeal against the negative concession of a residence permit. (Brazil 2017)

In Chapter X of the same Decree, titled the "[r]egularization of the migratory situation," articles 176 and 177 provide the following:

176. The immigrant who is in an irregular migratory situation shall be personally notified so that, within sixty days counted from the notification date, he/she can regularize his/her migratory situation or leave the country voluntarily.

Paragraph 1. The migratory irregularity may occur due to:

  1. irregular entry;
  2. irregular stay; or
  3. the cancellation of the residence permit.

Paragraph 2. An act of the Federal Police's top officer shall provide for the personal notification by electronic means, publication by notice on its website, and the other procedures regarded in this Chapter.

Paragraph 3. The irregularities verified in the migratory situation shall expressly appear in the notification referred to in the head provision.

Paragraph 4. The term established in the head provision shall be extendable for up to sixty days, provided the notified immigrant appears at the Federal Police unit to justify the need for the extension and sign a term of commitment to maintain his/her personal information and address updated.

Paragraph 5. The notification referred to in the head provision shall not prevent the free movement within the national territory, in which case the immigrant must inform the Federal Police of his/her place of residence and the activities he/she performs in the country and abroad.

Paragraph 6. If the immigrant notified under the terms established in this article does not regularize his/her migratory situation and appear at the inspection point to leave the country after the term established in the head provision has ended, the term shall be drawn up, and the exit from national territory shall be registered as deportation.

Paragraph 7. The notification shall be waived when the irregularity is found when the immigrant leaves the national territory, and the term shall be drawn up, and the exit from the national territory shall be registered as deportation, without prejudice to the application of a fine, under the terms established in item II of the head provision of art. 307.

Paragraph 8. The period for migratory regularization referred to in the head provision shall be deducted from the stay period of the visit visa established in art. 20.

Art. 177. The administrative procedure for regularizing the migratory situation shall be instructed with:

  1. proof of notification of the immigrant to regularize his/her migratory condition or leave the country voluntarily; and
  2. the manifestation of the interested party, when presented. (Brazil 2017)

1.4 Requirements and Procedures to Reobtain

Information on the existence of an expedited procedure for reacquiring a permanent residence permit after it has been revoked due to the holder's absence from the country for a period exceeding two years could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to the embassy representative, Haitian nationals whose residence permit granted on humanitarian asylum grounds has been revoked due to evidence that they have moved to another country must apply for a new visa to re-enter Brazil (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022). The same source added that if a residence permit granted on grounds other than humanitarian asylum is lost due to extended absence, the Haitian permit holder may apply for a visitor visa in order to return to Brazil and regularize their immigration status (Brazil 26 Jan. 2022).

1.5 Instances of Successful Reacquisition

When asked whether they are aware of instances of Haitians, including those for whom permanent residence was granted on humanitarian grounds, successfully recovering their permanent resident status after losing it due to an absence of over two years, the lawyer responded that they were not [translation] "familiar" with any such cases (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

2. Family Reunification Visa and Residence Permit

According to J&D Immigration Advisers, an immigration consultation firm with offices in Brazil and Spain that provides advice on obtaining Brazilian nationality and residence permits (J&D Immigration Advisers n.d.a), the applicant for a family reunification visa need not be present in Brazil at the time of the application and may submit their request from a Brazilian consulate or embassy (J&D Immigration Advisers n.d.b). The same source states that the residence permit based on family reunification has the "same effec[t]" as the former "permanen[t]" visa for family reunification [4] (J&D Immigration Advisers n.d.c).

Regarding a language requirement for obtaining a visa or residence permit based on family reunification, the lawyer stated that no such requirement existed for the visa or permit, and that the applicant need not [translation] "speak or have a good command of Portuguese" to qualify (Lawyer 27 Jan. 2022).

For information on the requirements and procedures for obtaining a temporary visa, including for family reunification, by foreign national parents of a child with Brazilian citizenship, as well as the requirement to communicate in Portuguese to access Brazilian citizenship by naturalization, see Response to Information Request ZZZ201121 of July 2022.

3. Loss of Citizenship

According to the 1988 Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988), amended in 2021, the exceptions to the loss of nationality for Brazilians are as follows:

§ 4o. Loss of nationality shall be declared for a Brazilian:

  1. whose naturalization has been cancelled by judicial decision because of activity harmful to the national interest;
  2. who acquires another nationality, except in the cases:
    1. of recognition of original nationality by foreign law;
    2. of a foreign law's imposition of naturalization upon a Brazilian residing in a foreign country as a condition for remaining in its territory or for exercise of civil rights. (Brazil 1988, Art. 12, footnote omitted)

3.1 Requirements and Procedures to Revoke Loss

The Ministerial Order No. 623 of 13 November 2020 (Portaria nº 623, de 13 de novembro de 2020), administering the [translation] "procedures for naturalization, equal rights, loss of nationality, reacquisition of nationality, and the revocation of decision pertaining to the loss of Brazilian nationality," provides the following:

[translation]

Revocation of a decision of loss of Brazilian nationality

Art. 42. Revocation of a decision regarding loss of Brazilian nationality may be initiated at the request of the person concerned or ex officio, with adversarial procedure and ample defence assured.

Art. 43. The act that declared the loss of nationality may be revoked if one of the exceptions provided for in subparagraphs "a" and "b" of paragraph II of § 4 of Art. 12 of the Constitution is identified.

Art. 44. It is within the authority of the Coordinator of Immigration Processes to revoke the act that declared the loss of nationality.

Art. 45. The documents that are required for the administrative proceedings for revocation of a decision on loss of Brazilian nationality at the request of the person concerned are found in Appendix X to this Order.

Sole paragraph. Where deemed necessary, the Immigration Department (Departamento de Migrações) may request that the applicant provide information in addition to the documentation provided within thirty days; this period may be extended with justification.

Art. 46. Once the process to revoke the decision of loss of Brazilian nationality is triggered, the Immigration Department will forward the request to the Coordinator of Immigration Processes for a decision, along with a justified opinion on the request.

Art. 47. The decision shall be published in the Official Gazette of the Union (Diário Oficial da União).

Art. 48. A decision rejecting the application for reacquisition of Brazilian nationality may be appealed to the General Coordinator of Immigration Policy within 10 days counted from the date on which it is published.

Art. 49. The effects resulting from the loss of nationality will be included in the revocation decision. (Brazil 2020, bold in original)

Appendix X of the same Order provides the following:

[translation]

Procedure for Revocation of the Loss of Brazilian Nationality

Applications for revocation of loss of Brazilian nationality must be accompanied by the following documents:

  1. Application form duly completed and signed by the applicant addressed to the National Justice Secretariat (Secretaria Nacional de Justiça), Immigration Department, Office of the General Coordinator of Immigration Policy (Coordenação-Geral de Política Migratória), Office of the Coordinator of Immigration Processes (Coordenação de Processos Migratórios);
  2. Up-to-date birth certificate or marriage certificate;
  3. Proof of naturalization provided by a foreign State or proof of original foreign nationality
  4. E-mail address of the applicant. (Brazil 2020, bold in original)

3.2 Requirements and Procedures to Reobtain

Section I of Chapter V of Ministerial Order No. 623 of 13 November 2020 provides the following:

[translation]

Reacquisition of Brazilian Nationality

Art. 35. Applications to reacquire Brazilian nationality, as provided for in Art. 1, subsection VII, shall be sent to the Ministry of Justice and Public Safety (Ministério da Justiça e Segurança Pública) and may be submitted:

  1. Physically or electronically, directly to the Ministry of Justice and Public Safety; or
  2. At Brazilian consular offices abroad.

Art. 36. The documents that are required for the administrative proceedings for reacquiring Brazilian nationality are found in Appendix IX to this Order.

Art. 37. Where deemed necessary, the Immigration Department may request that the applicant provide information in addition to the documentation provided within thirty days; this period may be extended if valid reasons are provided.

Art. 38. Once the process of reacquisition of Brazilian nationality is triggered, the Immigration Department will forward the request to the Immigration Proceedings Coordinator for a decision, along with a justified opinion on the request.

Art. 39. To avoid statelessness, the application will be granted on a temporary basis, and the applicant will have 18 months to prove the loss of derived nationality in accordance with Art. 254 §, No. 3, of Decree No. 9,199 of 2017.

Sole paragraph. Where the period provided for in Art. 39 elapses without proof having been provided of the loss of derived nationality, the decision granting the reacquisition of nationality shall cease to have effect.

Art. 40. The decision will be published in the Official Gazette of the Union.

Art. 41. The decision to reject an application for reacquisition of Brazilian nationality may be appealed to the General Coordinator of Immigration Policy within 10 days counted from the date of publication. (Brazil 2020, bold in original)

Procedure for Reacquisition of Brazilian Nationality

Applications to reacquire Brazilian nationality must be accompanied by the following documents:

  1. Application form duly completed and signed by the applicant addressed to the National Justice Secretariat, Immigration Department, Office of the General Coordinator of Immigration Policy, Office of the Coordinator of Immigration Processes;
  2. Up-to-date birth certificate or marriage certificate;
  3. Proof that the cause of the loss of Brazilian nationality has ceased to exist, by means of a notary-certified application for renunciation of the foreign nationality;
  4. Proof of loss of derived nationality within eighteen months after the date of publication of the Order that granted it; and
  5. E-mail address of the applicant. (Brazil 2020, bold in original)

3.3 Instances of Successful Reacquisition

Information on the instances of successful reacquisition of lost Brazilian citizenship could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Notes

[1] Article 18 of Law No. 6,815 of 19 August 1980 (Lei nº 6.815, de 19 de agosto de 1980), [replaced by Law No. 13,445 of 24 May 2017 (Lei nº 13.445, de 24 maio de 2017)], provides the following: "[t]he award of a permanent visa may be conditional, for a period of no more than five (5) years at the most, unto the exercise of a determined activity and the taking of residence in a given region of the Brazilian territory" (Brazil 1980). For information on the differences between visas issued under Law No. 6,815 and Law No. 13,445, see Response to Information Request ZZZ201123 of July 2022.

[2] Mawon is a "social business" in Brazil providing "migration related documentation services" that also has an NGO branch supporting migrants in "vulnerable" situations (Mawon 21 Nov. 2018).

[3] Law No. 9,784 of 29 January 1999 (Lei nº 9.784, de 29 de janeiro de 1999) pertains to the administrative processes in place in the federal public service and, more specifically, the protection of users’ rights (Brazil 1999).

[4] In correspondence with the Research Directorate on 9 December 2020, the Deputy Consul General of the Consulate General in Toronto explained that the temporary visa for family reunification is the same as the permanent visa for family reunification, but the terminology has changed with the new immigration legislation [adopted in 2017] and there are no more "'permanent'" visas (Brazil 9 Dec. 2020). The same source added that "the visa in itself is temporary, even though its holder might live indefinitely in Brazil as long as they follow some procedures when they arrive in Brazil in order to [be] granted permanent resident status" (Brazil 9 Dec. 2020). According to the source, visas are temporary because they have an expiry date, but they provide the opportunity to apply for permanent residence in Brazil (Brazil 9 Dec. 2020).

References

Brazil. 26 January 2022. Embassy of Brazil in Ottawa. Correspondence with a representative.

Brazil. 2021a. Portaria interministerial MJSP/MRE nº 27, de 30 de dezembro de 2021. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 10 Jan. 2022]

Brazil. 2021b. Portaria nº 25/2021-DIREX/PF, de 17 de agosto de 2021. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Caanda. [Accessed 19 Jan. 2022]

Brazil. 15 March 2021. Ministério da Justiça e Segurança Pública, Polícia Federal. "FAQ (Perguntas Frequentes)." Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 30 Nov. 2021]

Brazil. 9 December 2020. Consulate General of Brazil in Toronto. Correspondence from the Deputy Consul General to the Research Directorate.

Brazil. 26 February 2020. Embassy of Brazil in Oslo. "Visa Categories Overview." [Accessed 21 Feb. 2022]

Brazil. 2020. Portaria nº 623, de 13 de novembro de 2020. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 11 Jan. 2022]

Brazil. 2018. Portaria interministerial nº 10, de 6 de abril de 2018. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 15 Nov. 2021]

Brazil. 2017. Decreto nº 9.199, de 20 de novembro de 2017. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement. [Accessed 25 Nov. 2021]

Brazil. 1999. Lei no 9.784, de 29 de janeiro de 1999. [Accessed 9 Feb. 2022]

Brazil. 1988 (amended 2021). Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988, as Amended to September 2021. Translated and annotated by Keith S. Rosenn. In World Constitution Illustrated. 2021. Edited by Jefri Jay Ruchti and Anna DeRosa. Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co., Inc. [Accessed 10 Feb. 2022]

Brazil. 1980. Law No. 6.815 of August 19, 1980. Translated by EMDOC. In The Foreign National in Brazil: Legislation and Comments. October 2009. 4th ed. Edited by João Marques da Fonseca Neto. [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Brazil. N.d. Consulate General of Brazil in Washington. "Visas." [Accessed 9 Feb. 2022]

J&D Immigration Advisers. N.d.a. "Contact Us." [Accessed 17 Jan. 2022]

J&D Immigration Advisers. N.d.b. "Visas for Family Reunion in Brazil." [Accessed 10 Feb. 2022]

J&D Immigration Advisers. N.d.c. "Brazil Visa for Family Reunion." [Accessed 17 Jan. 2022]

The Law Reviews. N.d. "Veirano Advogados." [Accessed 20 Jan. 2022]

Lawyer, law firm in Brazil. 27 January 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate. Translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada.

Mawon. [2020]. M.W. Consultoria para migrações (MW)."Visto e autorização de residencia, qual é a diferença?" Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 17 Jan. 2022]

Mawon. 21 November 2018. "About Mawon." Medium. [Accessed 9 Feb. 2022]

Mawon. N.d. M.W. Consultoria para migrações (MW). Homepage. [Accessed 9 Feb. 2022]

Soter, Maria Luisa and Gabriela Lessa. 7 June 2021. "Brazil." The Law Review: The Corporate Immigration Review. 11th ed. Edited by Chris Magrath. [Accessed 11 Jan. 2022]

United Nations (UN). July 2018. International Organization for Migration (IOM). Migration Governance Snapshot: The Federative Republic of Brazil. [Accessed 7 Feb. 2022]

United States (US). 8 June 2017. Library of Congress. "Brazil: New Immigration Law Enacted." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Brazil – consulates in Miami, New York City, Vancouver, and Washington, DC, Defensoria Pública da União, embassies in Paris and Port-au-Prince, Ministério das Relações Exteriores, Polícia Federal; Cáritas Brasileira; Centro de Direitos Humanos e Cidadania do Imigrante; Connectas; Fundação Getulio Vargas – Department of Public Policy Analysis; Global Asylum Governance and the European Union's Role; immigration law firms in Brazil (3); (In)movilidad en las Américas; Instituto Educacional Missão Paz; The Lambi Fund of Haiti; Migration Policy Institute; Pacto pelo Direito de Migrar; Rede Sem Fronteiras; The Refugee and Immigration Center for Education and Legal Services; Serviço Jesuíta a Migrantes e Refugiados; UN – International Organization for Migration, Brazil Visa Application Centre.

Internet sites, including: Agência Brasil; Al Jazeera; Amnesty International; Associated Press; Asylum Research Centre; BBC; Brazil – Consulate General in Toronto, Ministério das Relações Exteriores, Portal Consular; The Brazilian Report; Campos e Oliveira Advogados; Cáritas Brasileira; CNN; ecoi.net; Establish Brazil; EU – EU Agency for Asylum; Human Rights Watch; International Centre for Migration Policy Development; The LA Times; Migration Policy Institute; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Organization of American States – Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; Reuters; The Rio Times; UK – Home Office; UN – International Organization for Migration, OHCHR, Refworld, UNHCR; UOL; US – Department of State; Washington Office for Latin America; The Washington Post.