Anfragebeantwortung zu Syrien: Sicherheitslage und Gebietskontrolle zwischen Kafr Nabil und Maarat al-Numan ; Gebietskontrolle in Kafr Rumah im August 2019 und Sicherheitslage aktuell; Gebietskontrolle im Ort Hass im Dezember 2020 und Sicherheitslage aktuell [a-11909]

24. Juni 2022

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Lage des Gebiets und Stand der Gebietskontrolle 2019 und 2022

Quelle: Liveuamap, Stand vom 21. Juni 2022

Ein aktueller Kartenausschnitt von Liveuamap[1] zeigt, dass sich der in der Anfrage genannte Gebietsstreifen im Süden der Provinz Idlib befindet und sich westlich der Autobahn M5 von Maarat al-Numan Richtung Westen über Kafr Rumah und Hass nach Kafr Nabil (in der Karte: Kafranbel) erstreckt. Das gesamte Gebiet ist am 21. Juni 2022 als unter Kontrolle der syrischen Regierung stehend markiert (rot), wenige Kilometer nördlich davon sind die unter Kontrolle der Rebellen stehenden Gebiete der Provinz Idlib (grün) eingezeichnet (Liveuamap, Stand vom 21. Juni 2022).

Quelle: Liveuamap, Stand vom 31. August 2019Dasselbe Gebiet ist am 31. August 2019 noch als unter Kontrolle der Rebellen markiert, wobei die unter Kontrolle der Regierung stehenden Gebiete rund fünfzehn Kilometer östlich, südlich und westlich davon eingezeichnet sind. In der Region sind an diesem Tag einige Luftangriffe seitens der Regierung von Liveuamap dokumentiert (Liveuamap, Stand vom 31. August 2019).

Kämpfe und Wechsel der Gebietskontrolle zwischen August 2019 und März 2020

Der Guardian berichtet am 28. Jänner 2020, dass Maarat al-Numan von Regierungstruppen nach monatelangen Bombardements zurückerobert worden sei. Die Stadt sei vollkommen zerstört und die ursprünglich 110.000 Bewohner·innen[2] über die letzten Monate vertrieben worden (The Guardian, 28. Jänner 2020). Auch Kafr Rumah sei laut der oppositionellen Syrischen Beobachtungsstelle für Menschenrechte (Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, SOHR am (bzw. um den) 28. Jänner 2020 von Regierungskräften eingenommen worden (SOHR, 28. Jänner 2020). Kafr Nabil sei laut auf SOHR zurückgehenden Berichten rund einen Monat später, am 25. Februar 2020, von der Regierung zurückerobert worden, 18 Orte in der Umgebung seien in den 48 Stunden zuvor ebenfalls eingenommen worden (France 24, 25. Februar 2020; SOHR, 25. Februar 2020). Neben Kafr Nabil sei auch die Ortschaft Hass am 25. Februar eingenommen worden, berichten sowohl Regierungs- als auch Oppositionsquellen (SOHR, 25. Februar 2020; SANA, 26. Februar 2020).

Quelle: REACH Initiative, 16. März 2020, S. 2In einer Situationsübersicht von REACH Initiative wird eine auf Informationen von Liveuamap basierende Karte gezeigt, die die Veränderung der Gebietskontrolle in Idlib zeigt. Maarat al-Numan und Kafr Nabil (in der Karte: Kafr Nobol) werden in einem Gebietsabschnitt dargestellt, der laut Legende zwischen Dezember 2019 und 10. März 2020 von der Regierung zurückerobert worden sei (REACH Initiative, 16. März 2020, S. 2). Im März 2020 sei ein Waffenstillstand zwischen Russland, das auf der Seite der syrischen Regierung steht, und der Türkei, die die Rebellen unterstützt, vereinbart worden (The Guardian, 5. März 2020; Reuters, 5. März 2020). Diese Vereinbarung festige die von der syrischen Regierung mit Hilfe Russlands im Rahmen der dreimonatigen Offensive in Idlib errungenen Gebietsgewinne (The Guardian, 5. März 2020).

Quelle: HRW, 15. Oktober 2020Human Rights Watch (HRW) berichtet im Oktober 2020 ausführlich über die syrisch-russischen Luftangriffe auf zivile Infrastruktur in Idlib zwischen März 2019 und März 2020. Unter anderem sei das Gebiet um das 30 Kilometer südlich der Provinzhauptstadt Idlib gelegene Maarat al-Numan, das bis Jänner 2020 unter Kontrolle der bewaffneten Gruppe Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) stand, betroffen gewesen. Im Mai 2019 sei ein Spital in Kafr Nabil und eines in Hass zerstört worden. Am 16. August 2019 seien bei einem Luftangriff auf ein Vertriebenenlager außerhalb von Hass 20 Zivilpersonen getötet und 52 verletzt worden (HRW, 15. Oktober 2020; siehe auch HRW, 3. Dezember 2019; NYT, 1. Dezember 2019; HRC, 28. Jänner 2020, S. 6). Auf einer Karte von Human Rights Watch (HRW) werden die Gebietsgewinne der syrischen Regierungsarmee dargestellt, Kafr Nabil, Hass und Maarat al-Numan sind hier in einem Gebiet eingezeichnet, das zwischen 12. Jänner und 6. März 2020 von der Regierung eingenommen worden sei (HRW, 15. Oktober 2020).

Gebietskontrolle von Kafr Rumah seit August 2019

In einem Bericht des UN-Generalsekretärs an den UN-Sicherheitsrat wird erwähnt, dass es am 21. und 25. Juli 2019 Todesopfer nach Luftangriffen auf Kafr Ruma gegeben habe (UN Security Council, 21. August 2019). SOHR berichtet im September 2019 davon, dass Kräfte der syrischen Regierung Kafr Nabil im südlichen Idlib bombardiert hätten sowie Raketenangriffe auf Maarat al-Numan und unter anderem Kafr Rumah und Hass durchgeführt hätten (SOHR, 15. September 2019). ACLED verzeichnet in seinen Daten insgesamt 21 Fälle von Luftangriffen auf bzw. Beschuss von Kafr Rumah durch Regierungskräfte zwischen Juli und September 2019 (ACLED, Datensatz vom 17. Juni 2022).

Am 28. Jänner 2020 wird schließlich berichtet, dass Kafr Rumah von Regierungskräften eingenommen worden sei (SOHR, 28. Jänner 2020), zuvor habe es heftige Kämpfe um die Stadt gegeben (Baladi News, 28. Jänner 2020). ACLED verzeichnet nach der Einnahme von Kafr Rumah im Jänner 2020 noch einen und im Februar 2020 noch vier Vorfälle von Angriffen durch Rebellen oder türkische Kräfte auf Regierungsziele in Kafr Rumah. Danach verzeichnet ACLED erst wieder Rebellenangriffe auf Regierungsziele zwischen Ende Oktober und November 2020 (5 Vorfälle), sowie je einen Angriff im Juni 2021, im Oktober 2021, im März 2022 und im Mai 2022 (ACLED, Datensatz vom 17. Juni 2022).

Gebietskontrolle im Ort Hass seit Dezember 2020

Der Ort Hass sei laut Regierungs- und Oppositionsquellen am 25. Februar 2020 von der Regierung eingenommen worden (SOHR, 25. Februar 2020; SANA, 26. Februar 2020). North Press Agency berichtet am 7. Dezember 2020, dass die bewaffnete Gruppe Al-Fateh al-Mubin Operations Room laut eigenen Angaben mehrere Regierungskräfte im Ort Hass getötet habe (North Press Agency, 7. Dezember 2020). Dieselbe Gruppe habe auch im Juli und August 2021 Regierungspositionen bei Hass angegriffen (North Press Agency, 29. Juli 2021; North Press Agency, 21. August 2021). ACLED verzeichnet je einen Rebellenangriff auf Regierungsziele in Hass im Juli und im Oktober 2020, sowie zwei solche Vorfälle im November 2020, je ein Angriff wird im Juni und im Juli 2021 angeführt (ACLED, Datensatz vom 17. Juni 2022).

Aktuelle Gebietskontrolle und Sicherheitslage zwischen Kafr Nabil und Maarat an-Numan

Neben den oben genannten Konfliktvorfällen in Hass und Kafr Rumah verzeichnet ACLED im Jahr 2021 insgesamt 29 Vorfälle, bei denen Rebellen Regierungsziele in Kafr Nabil beschossen oder angegriffen haben, weitere 18 solche Vorfälle wurden für Maarat al-Numan 2021 verzeichnet. Zwischen Jänner und Mai 2022 wurden 10 solche Vorfälle in Kafr Nabil und 6 Vorfälle im in Maarat al-Numan verzeichnet (ACLED, Datensatz vom 17. Juni 2022).

Laut dem in der Türkei ansässigen Thinktank Jusoor for Studies habe es mit Stand Ende 2021 keine Veränderungen der militärischen Einflussgebiete in Syrien gegeben. Die Aufteilung der Gebietskontrolle sei gegenüber Ende Februar 2020 nahezu unverändert geblieben. Das Waffenstillstandsabkommen zwischen der Türkei und Russland vom 5. März 2020 habe somit zur Stabilität beigetragen (Jusoor for Studies, 24. Dezember 2021). Auch eine im Jänner 2021 veröffentlichte Karte von Jusoor for Studies zeigt das Gebiet um Maarat al-Numan weiterhin unter Kontrolle der Regierung (Jusoor for Studies, 6. Jänner 2021). Auch der UN-Generalsekretär spricht in seinem Bericht vom April 2021 von einer relativ ruhigen Situation im Nordwesten Syriens, nachdem im März 2020 das Abkommen zwischen Russland und der Türkei vereinbart wurde. Es gebe weiterhin eine Million Vertriebene in der Region (UN Security Council, 23. April 2021, S. 3).

Quellen: (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 24. Juni 2022)

·      ACLED – Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Middle East, Datensatz vom 17. Juni 2022
https://www.acleddata.com/download/2915/

·      Baladi News: Street war in Kafr Roma causes regime forces dozens of casualties, 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.baladi-news.com/en/articles/56354/street-war-in-kafr-roma-causes-regime-forces-dozens-of-casualties

·      France 24: Syrian regime retakes symbolic town of Kafranbel: monitor (Quelle: AFP), 25. Februar 2020
https://www.france24.com/en/20200225-syrian-regime-retakes-symbolic-town-of-kafranbel-monitor

·      HRC – UN Human Rights Council: Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic [A/HRC/43/57], 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2025856/a_hrc_43_57_E.pdf

·      HRW – Human Rights Watch: Russia Should Be Held Accountable for Any War Crimes in Syria, 3. Dezember 2019
https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/2021066.html

·      HRW - Human Rights Watch: Targeting Life in Idlib, 15. Oktober 2020
https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/10/15/targeting-life-idlib/syrian-and-russian-strikes-civilian-infrastructure

·      Jusoor for Studies: Map of the military bases and posts of foreign forces in Syria, 6. Jänner 2021
https://jusoor.co/details/Map-of-the-military-bases-and-posts-of-foreign-forces-in-Syria/826/en

·      Jusoor for Studies: Map of Military Control in Syria End of 2021 and Beginning of 2022, 24. Dezember 2021
https://jusoor.co/details/Map-of-Military-Control-in-Syria--End-of-2021-and-Beginning-of-2022/998/en

·      Liveuamap: Syria, Stand vom 31. August 2019 (verfügbar auf Archive.org)
https://web.archive.org/web/*/https://syria.liveuamap.com/en/time/31.08.2019

·      Liveuamap: Syria, Stand vom 21. Juni 2022
https://syria.liveuamap.com/en/time/21.06.2022

·      North Press Agency: Members Of Syrian Government Forces Killed In Syria’s Idlib, 7. Dezember 2020
https://npasyria.com/en/50916/

·      North Press Agency: Shelling Escalates Between Government And Opposition In Syria’s Idlib, 29. Juli 2021
https://npasyria.com/en/62825/

·      North Press Agency: Mutual Bombardment Renews In Syria’s Northwest, 21. August 2021
https://npasyria.com/en/63856/

·      NYT - New York Times: A Civilian Camp in Syria Was Bombed. Here’s How We Traced the Culprit, 1. Dezember 2019
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/01/reader-center/syria-russia-bombing-video-investigation.html

·      REACH Initiative: Northwest Syria: Situation Overview - 16 March 2020, 16. März 2020 (veröffentlicht von ReliefWeb)
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/REACH_SYR_Situation-Overview_Northwest-Syria_16-March-2020-1.pdf

·      Reuters: Russia, Turkey agree ceasefire deal for Syria's Idlib, 5. März 2020
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-security-idUSKBN20S161

·      SANA – Syrian Arab News Agency: The army liberates 15 villages from terrorism in idleb southern countryside, 26. Februar 2020
http://www.sana.sy/en/?p=186683

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: The regime forces continue their rocket shelling on areas in Maarrat Al-Nu’man countryside and Jabal Al-Akrad north of Latakia, 15. September 2019
https://www.syriahr.com/en/140767/

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: Regime forces storm Maarrat Al-Nu’man from three sides under a cover of intense aerial firepower, 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.syriahr.com/en/153927/

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: Ongoing looting and vandalism of civilian properties | Regime forces destroy roofs of houses in southern Idlib to take steel and iron, 25. Februar 2020
https://www.syriahr.com/en/240952/

·      The Guardian: Assad regime captures town in Syria's last rebel-held territory, 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/28/syrian-regime-captures-maarat-al-numan-in-idlib

·      The Guardian: Russia and Turkey agree ceasefire in Syria's Idlib province, 5. März 2020
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/05/russia-and-turkey-agree-ceasefire-in-syrias-idlib-province

·      UN Security Council: Implementation of Security Council resolutions 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2191 (2014), 2258 (2015), 2332 (2016), 2393 (2017), 2401 (2018) and 2449 (2018); Report of the Secretary-General [S/2019/674], 21. August 2019
https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2015614.html

·      UN Security Council: Children and armed conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic Report of the Secretary-General, 23. April 2021
https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2052397/N2110167.pdf


 

Anhang: Quellenbeschreibungen und Informationen aus ausgewählten Quellen

·      France 24: Syrian regime retakes symbolic town of Kafranbel: monitor (Quelle: AFP), 25. Februar 2020
https://www.france24.com/en/20200225-syrian-regime-retakes-symbolic-town-of-kafranbel-monitor

Syrian regime forces recaptured Kafranbel in Idlib province on Tuesday, a war monitor said, a symbolic victory in a town that was among the first to rebel against Damascus. Supported by Russian air strikes, pro-regime forces advancing on the last major rebel-held bastion in northwest Syria captured Kafranbel and 18 nearby towns and villages over the past 48 hours, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Earlier on Thursday, the Observatory said regime air strikes and artillery fire had killed 19 civilians in Idlib, in towns north of Kafranbel. From the first days of the peaceful uprising against the rule of President Bashar Al-Assad in 2011, Kafranbel gained worldwide renown as a bastion of protest. […] In recent weeks, Damascus has pressed a major offensive against the remaining territory still held by jihadists and Turkish-backed rebels, which has shrunk to an area roughly the size of Majorca.“ (France 24, 25. Februar 2020)

·      HRW – Human Rights Watch: Russia Should Be Held Accountable for Any War Crimes in Syria, 3. Dezember 2019
https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/2021066.html

„A December 1 New York Times investigation found that Russian aircraft were responsible for an August strike in the last anti-government held area in Syria. Two months ago, my colleague and I investigated the same attack, finding that it amounted to an apparent war crime. On the evening of August 16, an aircraft bombed a displacement compound run by a Syrian aid organization just outside Hass, a town in Idlib governorate. The attack killed 20 people, mostly women and children and injured 52, according to the head of the displacement center, and took the center out of commission. Human Rights Watch spoke to 24 witnesses and reviewed open source and satellite imagery relating to the attack. We found that there was no apparent military target in the vicinity, and only Syrian-Russian aircraft were operating in that area. The displacement center had been attacked previously. Under international law, deliberate or reckless attacks against civilians and civilian objects committed with criminal intent are war crimes. This seemed to fit the bill. The NYT investigation agreed with our findings but adds a crucial piece to the puzzle. Relying on a cache of recordings from Russian pilots operating in Syria, the Times investigative team said that Russian aircraft were in the area at the time of the strike. The substance of a time-stamped Russian pilot recording, which human rights watch also listened to in the video, showed that the aircraft had executed an attack that same minute.” (HRW, 3. Dezember 2019)

·      HRW - Human Rights Watch: Targeting Life in Idlib, 15. Oktober 2020
https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/10/15/targeting-life-idlib/syrian-and-russian-strikes-civilian-infrastructure

„In April 2019, the Syrian government and its ally, Russia, launched a major military offensive to retake Idlib governorate and surrounding areas in northwest Syria— one of the last areas controlled by anti-government armed groups. […] The attacks killed at least 1,600 civilians, destroyed and damaged civilian infrastructure, and forced the displacement of an estimated 1.4 million people. A ceasefire negotiated by Russia and Turkey halted the fighting in March 2020. […] Most of the air and ground attacks that Human Rights Watch documented were in and around four main population centers: Ariha, Idlib city, Jisr al-Shughour, and Maarat al-Nu`man. […] One of the deadliest attacks documented by Human Rights Watch occurred on July 22, 2019 in Maarat al-Nu`man. The first munition, probably from an airstrike, hit a four-story apartment building and nearby shops and damaged a small market. Shortly thereafter, a second munition hit, collapsing two three-story buildings. An SCD [Syrian Civil Defense] worker at the scene was killed and another was wounded. […]

Maarat al-Nu`man, 72 kilometers southwest of Aleppo and 30 kilometers south of Idlib city, had been under the control of HTS until the Syrian government took control in January 2020. In 2018, despite the Astana ceasefire agreement, shelling in the area never stopped. Prior to the 2019 Syrian-Russian offensive, the town’s population was around 50,000. In May 2019, the Syrian-Russian alliance damaged two hospitals in the nearby towns of Kafr Nabl (8 kilometers to the west) and Hass (10 kilometers to the west). Ongoing attacks in the area continued to trigger displacement towards Maarat al-Nu`man, bringing the population to around 63,000 by July. […] By the end of January, Maarat al-Nu`man was mostly empty of inhabitants, and Syrian forces took control of the area on January 28. With the exception of a few individuals, the town remained empty as of early September 2020.

[…] Human Rights Watch documented 46 ground and air attacks by the Syrian-Russian military alliance that directly or indirectly hit or damaged civilian objects and infrastructure in Idlib between March 2019 and March 2020. The attacks were in and around four main population centers – Ariha, Jisr al-Shughour, Idlib city, and Maarat al-Nu`man – and four camps for displaced people in the towns of Dana, Hass, and Sarmada. All of the areas were under the control of the armed group Hay’et Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) at the time of the attacks.

[…] At about 7:30 p.m. on August 16, 2019, an aerial bomb hit a compound run by a local organization housing displaced people just outside Hass, a town about 35 kilometers south of Idlib city, according to witnesses who saw an aircraft overhead right before the attack. The attack killed 20 civilians and wounded 52 others, according to the head of the compound. The bomb landed in a square between residential buildings and shops in the compound. Dozens of families usually congregated there in the evening and, at the time of the attack, witnesses estimated 20 to 30 people were in the square.” (HRW, 15. Oktober 2020)

Jusoor for Studies ist ein Thinktank mit Sitz in Istanbul und Gaziantep in der Türkei.

·      Jusoor for Studies: Map of Military Control in Syria End of 2021 and Beginning of 2022, 24. Dezember 2021
https://jusoor.co/details/Map-of-Military-Control-in-Syria--End-of-2021-and-Beginning-of-2022/998/en

By the end of 2021, no changes appeared in the areas of military influence across Syria regarding the front lines between local conflicting forces on the ground. Also, the territories occupied by the parties to the conflict in Syria remained almost the same, according to was reported at the end of February 2020. As such, the ceasefire agreement between Turkey and Russia on March 5, 2020, achieved stability as the longest period in which Syria relatively experienced a kind of stagnant conflict among local actors. This stability, which continued for 22 months by the end of December, 2021, during which the points of influence on the map remained intact. […] Actually, the lack of change in the areas of control is due to the commitment of the regime and the opposition factions to a cease-fire under the Moscow memorandum that was signed by both Turkey and Russia on March 5, 2020, despite the extensive violations witnessed by this memorandum along the front lines in Idlib and of Tal Rifaat in the northern countryside of Aleppo, as well as the continuing tension on the fighting fronts in Ain Issa of Raqqa. Meanwhile, the region of Idlib, specifically south of the M4 international highway, experienced a Russian escalation from March 2021 until the end of April 2021. Since that time, the Idlib region has not witnessed a strong escalation as before, especially in attempts to infiltrate and direct ground clashes, with continued artillery shelling and raids by warplanes and drones in the region.“ (Jusoor for Studies, 24. Dezember 2021)

·      North Press Agency: Members Of Syrian Government Forces Killed In Syria’s Idlib, 7. Dezember 2020
https://npasyria.com/en/50916/

Turkish-backed armed opposition groups announced on Monday the killing of members of Syrian government forces in the southern countryside of Idlib. A military source told North Press that a group from the armed opposition targeted government forces with an anti-armor missile and machine gun near the village of Kawkabah, south of Idlib Governorate. The source added that the targeting resulted in the death of several members of the Syrian government forces. Earlier, the sniper company in the Al-Fateh al-Mubin operations room announced the killing of several government forces in the town of Hass, south of Idlib.” (North Press Agency, 7. Dezember 2020)

·      North Press Agency: Shelling Escalates Between Government And Opposition In Syria’s Idlib, 29. Juli 2021
https://npasyria.com/en/62825/

’The al-Fateh al-Mubin Operations Room, which includes several armed factions, targeted the government forces’ positions near Miznaz, Urum al-Kubra and the 46th Regiment, west of the city of Aleppo, with heavy artillery shells and rockets,’ sources of the opposition factions told North Press. ‘The factions also targeted a position of the government forces near the town of Hass, south of Idlib, with a guided missile,’ the sources added.” (North Press Agency, 29. Juli 2021)

·      North Press Agency: Mutual Bombardment Renews In Syria’s Northwest, 21. August 2021
https://npasyria.com/en/63856/

A military source of the al-Fateh al-Mubin Operations Room told North Press that they bombed the positions of the government forces in the towns of Kafruma and Hass and the city of Kafr Nable, south of Idlib, with heavy artillery shells, Katyusha rockets and tank shells.” (North Press Agency, 21. August 2021).

·      SANA – Syrian Arab News Agency: The army liberates 15 villages from terrorism in idleb southern countryside, 26. Februar 2020
http://www.sana.sy/en/?p=186683

Idleb, SANA-The Syrian Arab Army units on Wednesday continued their advance in Idleb southern countryside and liberated Kafr Oued strategic area and 15 villages from terrorism, inflicting heavy losses upon terrorists in personnel and equipment. SANA reporter said that “After less than 24 hours from liberating Kafranbel strategic town, Army units carried out military operations against fortifications and supply routes of terrorists of Jabhat al-Nusra and liberated villages of Shinshrah, Tarmalah, Deir-Sonboul, Ma’aret al-Mikhes, Kherbet al-Luaibdeh, and Hassaneh in Idleb southern countryside and they are still hunting down the fleeing terrorists in the neighboring villages”. […] On Tuesday, Army units liberated Kafranbel strategic town and the villages of Hass, Ma’aretmater, Ma’artasin and Ba’rbou southwest of Ma’aret-al-Nu’aman in Idleb southern countryside after elimination of many terrorists of Jabhat al-Nusra and the affiliated terrorist groups.” (SANA, 26. Februar 2020)

Die Syrische Beobachtungsstelle für Menschenrechte (Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, SOHR) ist eine in Coventry ansässige unabhängige Menschenrechtsorganisation, die sich auf Angaben von Aktivisten und Sanitätspersonal in Syrien stützt.

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: The regime forces continue their rocket shelling on areas in Maarrat Al-Nu’man countryside and Jabal Al-Akrad north of Latakia, 15. September 2019
https://www.syriahr.com/en/140767/

The regime forces shelled Kafr Nubl town south of Idlib by high-explosive missiles, in conjunction with their targeting by rocket shells on areas in Maarrat Al-Nu’man city and the towns of Tell Mannas, Maarrat Hurma, Sheikh Mustafa, Hass and Kafrumah in the southern and south-eastern countryside of Idlib, […], while the regime forces renewed their rocket shelling on places in Kafr Nubl, Hass, Hish, Jbala, Maar Zita and Maarrat Hurmah in the southern countryside of Idlib, […], the regime forces renewed their targeting by shells to several places in the southern and south-eastern countryside of Idlib, and the SOHR monitored renewed rocket shelling after midnight of Saturday – Sunday and today morning carried out by the regime forces targeting areas in Kafr Nubl, the residential neighborhoods of Maarrat Al-Nu’man city, Kafr Sajna, Maar Zita, Al-Rakaya, Hass, Kafrumah, Al-Ameriyyeh, Muqqah, Jbala and Kansafrah in the southern and south-eastern countryside of Idlib, […].“ (SOHR, 15. September 2019)

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: Regime forces storm Maarrat Al-Nu’man from three sides under a cover of intense aerial firepower, 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.syriahr.com/en/153927/

„Regime forces seek to capture more territories after taking control of Kafruma town where they faced fierce resistance by rebels and people of the area.“ (SOHR, 28. Jänner 2020)

·      SOHR – Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: Ongoing looting and vandalism of civilian properties | Regime forces destroy roofs of houses in southern Idlib to take steel and iron, 25. Februar 2020
https://www.syriahr.com/en/240952/

„On February 25, 2020, regime forces and their proxies captured the entire town of Kafr Nebl, Hass town and Basqala village after fierce clashes with opposition factions and jihadist groups.“ (SOHR, 25. Februar 2020)

·      The Guardian: Assad regime captures town in Syria's last rebel-held territory, 28. Jänner 2020
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/28/syrian-regime-captures-maarat-al-numan-in-idlib

Bashar al-Assad has recaptured a significant town in Syria’s last rebel-held territory, in an offensive that has driven tens of thousands of people towards the border with Turkey. Government soldiers entered Maarat al-Numan in northwest Idlib province on Tuesday under the cover of heavy airstrikes, a war monitor and government media said. The town sits on the M5 highway, one of the country’s economic arteries, making it a strategic prize. Maarat al-Numan also has symbolic importance as one of the major centres for protest against Assad’s rule since the Syrian uprising began in 2011. It has been bombed by Assad and his Russian allies for months, emptying the town of its 110,000 residents. In recent days Assad’s troops have surged forward, capturing more than a dozen villages in the area and encircling the town on three sides. ‚Maarat al-Numan is completely destroyed and its population has been displaced and is living in uncertainty,‘ a rescue worker in the town said in a video posted to social media, which showed how barrel bombs, missiles and shelling destroyed scores of homes and buildings.“ (The Guardian, 28. Jänner 2020)

·      The Guardian: Russia and Turkey agree ceasefire in Syria's Idlib province, 5. März 2020
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/05/russia-and-turkey-agree-ceasefire-in-syrias-idlib-province

„Russia and Turkey have said they have agreed to a ceasefire in Syria’s Idlib province after clashes left scores of Turkish and Syrian soldiers dead in a dangerous escalation of violence. Speaking at the Kremlin, Russia’s Vladimir Putin and Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced that the ceasefire would begin at midnight on Thursday evening and that they hoped it would defuse tensions in the region. The three-point agreement, read out by the two countries’ foreign ministers, also stipulated the creation of a seven-mile (12km) ‚safety corridor‘ along the country’s crucial M4 highway, which Russian and Turkish forces would begin patrolling at the end of next week. The agreement would effectively preserve some of the territorial gains made by Russian-backed Syrian forces during a three-month offensive in Idlib, the country’s last remaining rebel stronghold, while preserving a Turkish foothold in the region. […] The two countries are on rival sides of Syria’s war, with Russia supporting the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad and Turkey backing anti-government fighters. Russia and Syria have accused Turkey of backing ‚terrorists‘. Turkey had sent thousands of troops into Syria to halt a Syrian offensive aimed at retaking territory in Idlib province. That led to direct clashes between the two regional powers. […] Erdoğan probably wanted to halt Assad’s offensive in Idlib and retain territory under its de facto control under a 2018 agreement brokered by Russia. Russia wants to restore an equilibrium in the region, probably reflecting territorial gains made by the Syrian army, without spoiling its relations with Turkey.“ (The Guardian, 5. März 2020)



[1] Liveuamap ist eine Medienplattform, die auf der Basis von öffentlichen Daten Karten generiert.

[2] Human Rights Watch (HRW) spricht von 50.000 Menschen, die zu Beginn der russisch-syrischen Offensive 2019 in der Stadt gelebt hätten, kurz vor der Einnahme durch die Regierung sei sie fast menschenleer gewesen und dies auch bis zu Redaktionsschluss des Berichts im September 2020 geblieben (HRW, 15. Oktober 2020).