Iran: Exit and entry procedures at airports and land borders for women, including required documentation; mechanisms for a male spouse or relative to control and/or prohibit international travel of female spouse or relative and children, including access to identity documents; treatment of women and children who attempt to leave Iran without prior permission (2020–February 2022) [IRN200942.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Entry and Exit Procedures for Women, Including Required Documentation and Access to Passports

According to sources, Iranian law and all requirements related to the entry and exit of Iran, including for women and children, are the same if one travels by land or by air (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

For information on entry and exit procedures at airports and land borders in general, including bribery of border officials, see Response to Information Request IRN200128 of March 2020.

1.1 Women Married to Men, Including Couples with and Without Children

Article 18 of Iran's Passport Law, adopted in 1973, provides the following:

[translation]

In accordance with the requirements outlined in this article, regular passports will be issued to the following persons:

1 – Individuals under 18 years of age and those who are under guardianship and/or custody, with the written permission of their guardian or custodian;

3 – Married women, even under the age of 18, with a written consent of their husbands, and in emergency cases, the permission of the prosecutor of the city in which the passport application was made – who is obliged to provide his/her opinion either to accept or reject it within three days – would be sufficient. Women who reside abroad with their husbands and women who married a foreign husband and remain Iranian citizens are exempted from the requirement of this paragraph. (Iran 1973)

Sources report that Iranian women who are married to men require their husband's permission in order to obtain a passport (Australia 14 Apr. 2020, para. 3.122; Norway 5 Jan. 2021, Sec. 4.2.2). In an interview with the Research Directorate, a professor at a university in the US who is an expert in Iranian law and women's rights, indicated that a married woman "generally" requires her husband's permission to obtain a passport or travel document (Professor 17 Feb. 2022). According to sources, a married woman requires her husband's permission to obtain a passport regardless of whether or not the couple have any children (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

A report on Iranian passports by Landinfo, the government of Norway's country of origin information centre, citing information received in 2019 from correspondence with the Norwegian Embassy in Tehran, adds that for a woman to be issued a passport, her husband's "written consent" must be submitted by filling out "the same form" as the one used for children receiving their own passports (Norway 5 Jan. 2021, 29). In an interview with the Research Directorate, an adjunct professor at Carleton University, who is also an Iranian human rights lawyer, stated that the husband must "go to a public notary to sign an application" indicating his "full consent" in issuing a passport to his wife (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The same source added that a man's permission for a woman or child can now "be done online" using an official website "recently" created, to facilitate "signing permissions online," by submitting "accompanying documents" online, filling out a form, and receiving a subsequent "Skype" [internet videoconference] call from Iranian authorities to verify his identity (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Sources indicated that married women require new permission from their husband each time they renew or replace their passport (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, Leila Alikarami, a lawyer, academic, and the author of Women and Equality in Iran: Law, Society and Activism (Nobel Women's Initiative n.d.), added that it is possible to "challenge this practice" (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022). The same source noted a successful case in which the "immigration and passport office" reviewed the file (upon Alikarami's request) and "accepted the old permission" of a woman who had previously received her husband's permission "to travel several times" but who was not able to acquire an updated permission from him (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022).

The Landinfo report states that according to the 2019 correspondence with the Norwegian Embassy in Tehran, married women living abroad whose foreign address is registered with Iranian authorities are not required to present their husband's permission to obtain a passport, while those registered as a resident at an Iranian address do require their husband's permission to obtain a passport, specifying that the husband must "sign" a form on which he must also "tick for one or two foreign journeys or permanent consent" (Norway 5 Jan. 2021, Sec. 4.4.9). In an interview with the Research Directorate, an associate professor at Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia, who researches women's political representation in Iran, indicated that if both the husband and wife live outside of Iran, the wife does not require her husband's permission to obtain a passport (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

1.1.1 Marriage Contracts

Sources stated that a couple can include in their marriage contract a specification permitting the wife to obtain a passport and travel abroad without requiring the husband's permission for the duration of their marriage (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022). According to sources, however, a marriage contract specification is "not enough" to allow the woman to obtain a passport or travel abroad as she wishes (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Sources indicated that a married woman can also seek "a power of attorney" (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022) or "an irrevocable power of attorney" (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022) or a "non-revocable power of attorney" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022), and Alikarami added that the husband "should waive his right to dismiss the power of attorney" as well (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022). The same source noted that the "power of attorney" should occur in "a notary office" (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022), while the Adjunct Professor stated that the couple must go to a "Public Prosecutor's Office" to sign the document (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The Associate Professor noted that an "irrevocable power of attorney" should be "registered" at a passport office once completed (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

The Associate Professor indicated that although "in theory" the marriage contract "should be enough" to allow the wife to freely travel abroad, but "more force" is placed on it when it is coupled with an irrevocable power of attorney (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The same source added that because passports need to be renewed every five years, however, some Iranian legal websites they have examined now encourage women to "update" their "irrevocable power of attorney" every five years as well (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). According to the Adjunct Professor, however, marriage contract stipulations and a "non-revocable power of attorney" "would still not be enough … to evade a travel ban if a husband sought to impose one" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). In contrast, when asked if they were familiar with cases in which specified marriage contract terms and a "power of attorney" (which the husband cannot "dismiss") resulted in a wife exiting Iran without requiring her husband's permission, Alikarami expressed knowledge of "several cases" in which "this procedure" was "effective" (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022).

1.2 Unmarried Women

Sources report that all people under the age of 18 require permission from their guardian to obtain a passport (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Australia 14 Apr. 2020, para. 5.23). Sources indicated that unmarried women under the age of 18 require the consent of their father (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022) or a "legal male guardian" (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022) to obtain a passport, and the Associate Professor added there is a "strong preference" for a "male figure" to serve as "legal guardian" (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor added that mothers cannot submit passport applications for children under the age of 18 (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). In follow-up correspondence, Alikarami stated that a mother applying for her child's passport would require permission from the child's father, which is "a separate permission" from that which the husband might have provided to his wife for her own passport (Alikarami 15 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor also noted that the father can give "this authority" to someone else using a "public notary" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The same source noted that if the father dies, the paternal grandfather becomes the guardian, it then falls to the mother, but a mother would also need "permission of guardianship" from the Public Prosecutor's Office (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Sources state that unmarried women aged 18 and over do not require permission to obtain a passport or to travel abroad (Norway 5 Jan. 2021, Sec. 4.2.2; Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022; Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022). A country information report on Iran by Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), however, indicates that unmarried women "under the age of 40" require the permission of their father or another "male relativ[e]" to obtain a passport and travel abroad (Australia 14 Apr. 2020, para. 3.122). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of the Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI), a US-based NGO focused on human rights conditions in Iran (CHRI n.d.), stated that unmarried women between ages 18 and 40 can obtain passports without permission, but require their father's permission to travel abroad (CHRI 20 Feb. 2022).

The Landinfo report, however, indicates that according to the 2019 correspondence with the Norwegian Embassy in Tehran, in 2012 the Iranian Parliament considered, but did not adopt, a bill that "would imply" that "unmarried, adult women" must obtain a male guardian's permission to be issued a passport or travel abroad; though not adopted, the bill has led to a "misunderstanding" amongst "some sources" regarding the prevailing regulations (Norway 5 Jan. 2021, Sec. 4.2.2). According to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), a "private, nonprofit" news agency which is "funded by a grant from the U.S. Congress" (RFE/RL n.d.), before it was ultimately "canceled" the proposed amendment would have required "single women up to the age of 40" to receive permission from their "father or male guardian" to "acquire foreign travel documents" (RFE/RL 22 Feb. 2013).

In follow-up correspondence, the Adjunct Professor stated that women who were previously married but are now divorced would need to provide a copy of the divorce certificate along with her passport application (Adjunct Professor 23 Feb. 2022). The Executive Director of CHRI, in follow-up correspondence, indicated that women aged 40 or older who have been "issued a formal divorce" can obtain a passport and travel abroad "without restriction," while those under age 40 would require permission from their "father, grandfather, or a court" (CHRI 7 Mar. 2022).

2. Mechanisms for a Male Spouse or Male Guardian to Control and/or Prohibit International Travel of Women and Children
2.1 Women

According to sources, a woman in possession of a valid passport can exit the country without requiring express permission for each trip (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). In contrast, an article published by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), a nonpartisan and independent research institute founded by the US Congress that engages in "research, policy, training, [and] analysis" to "support those working to build a more peaceful, inclusive world" (USIP n.d.), states that a husband could provide their wife with "blanket permission" to travel abroad, or require her to obtain individual permission for each trip (Hanna 8 Dec. 2020)

Alikarami stated that article 19 of the Passport Law permits a husband to "withdraw this permission at any time" and "ban" his wife's exit from the country (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022). Article 19 of the Passport Law provides the following:

[translation]

If the impediments of issuing a passport occur after its issuance, or according to Article 18, if those whose permission is required for the issuance of a passport withdraw their permission, passport holders will be prevented from leaving and the passport will be confiscated until the impediment is removed. (Iran 1973)

Sources stated that a husband can change his mind, withdraw his permission, and prevent his wife from exiting the country at any time during their marriage (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). Sources indicated that a husband can request that the passport office initiate a travel ban against his wife (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022; CHRI 20 Feb. 2022), and the CHRI Executive Director added that in such cases a husband would ask the passport office to "confiscate his wife's passport" (CHRI 20 Feb. 2022).

The Adjunct Professor noted that a father can enact a travel ban against his children (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The DFAT report states that husbands of married women and fathers of unmarried women and "underage" children can "request travel bans against their dependents" (Australia 14 Apr. 2020, para. 5.24). The Professor indicated that there is no mechanism for anyone to enact a travel ban against an unmarried woman aged 18 or older (Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

Sources stated that a husband seeking to impose a travel ban on his wife would submit his request to an immigration officer at an Immigration and Passport Police Office (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). According to sources, the husband would need to present their marriage certificate (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022; Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022), and "an identity card and a national card" (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022) or a copy of his birth certificate (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The Associate Professor added that the husband would also need to fill out a "withdrawal of permission" form which must be "notarized" (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor indicated that the husband would need to "officially" submit his request "on paper" in a "small paragraph," and that he "cannot phone in his withdrawal" but also does not need to "go in person" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Alikarami noted that the process for a man to initiate a travel ban against a woman is the same for a married couple with children, and for a male guardian to an unmarried woman (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022).

According to Alikarami, once a travel ban has been initiated against someone it remains in place until it is removed (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor indicated that it prevents all travel while in place and not just a specific trip (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

The Adjunct Professor indicated that because Iran's Immigration and Passport Police Offices use a "computerized system" that is "connected with" the country's airports, a travel ban can be implemented quickly after a request is made (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). A joint report by the Danish Immigration Service (DIS) and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) on their September 2017 mission to Tehran, Ankara, and London provides the following information based on interviews in Tehran with "an anonymous analyst," "an anonymous legal source," and the "Director General of the Judiciary for International Affairs, Iran" (DRC and DIS of Denmark Feb. 2018, 3, 14, 17, 19):

There is a database at the Prosecutor's office containing people enlisted on the travel ban list. The database is connected to the border authorities.

… [W]hen judges issue travel bans, these are received by other authorities without delays/in "real time". Furthermore, exiting the country legally when a travel ban has been issued is next to impossible. … [T]he security at the border is very strict; additionally, the borders are highly controlled by the military. At the same time, it would be very costly to arrange an illegal departure, as it would require a high degree of complicity. (DRC and DIS of Denmark Feb. 2018, 8–9, footnotes omitted)

The USIP article indicates that women "sometimes" arrive at the airport and "find their permission to travel abroad had been revoked by their husband or male guardian," at which point they are "prevented from boarding [their] fligh[t]" (Hanna 8 Dec. 2020).

2.2 Children

Sources stated that the father's permission is required for a child to exit Iran (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022; Professor 17 Feb. 2022; US 2 Aug. 2021). In contrast, the Associate Professor indicated that permission from both parents is required for a child to exit the country (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor added that for children, permission to exit the country is "not fixed to the passport" as it is for women, and is instead "good for four years," after which time it "needs to be renewed," as renewal is not automatic (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Sources stated that even in cases where a mother has custody over a couple's children, the father's permission is required for the child to leave Iran (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022; Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022). The Adjunct Professor indicated that a father can "pass guardianship" to the children's mother at a public notary, but he could still "at any time revoke his consent of guardianship" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). According to the US Department of State's travel information webpage on Iran, "[e]ven if" a mother has "'custody/guardianship'" over a child, "all legal decisions (e.g., application for a passport, permission to exit Iran, etc.) still require the consent of the father" (US 2 Aug. 2021).

3. Cases of a Male Spouse or Male Guardian Controlling and/or Prohibiting Women and/or Children from Exiting Iran

Sources report that in 2015, the husband of a futsal (AP 17 Feb. 2021; Al-Monitor 8 Mar. 2021) or football (The Guardian 18 Feb. 2021) player, prevented her from leaving Iran to participate in the Asia games (The Guardian 18 Feb. 2021) or Asian cup (Al-Monitor 8 Mar. 2021; AP 17 Feb. 2021) in Malaysia (The Guardian 18 Feb. 2021).

According to sources, in February 2021 a female ski coach was prevented by her husband from exiting Iran to attend an international competition in Italy (The Washington Post 18 Feb. 2021; The Guardian 18 Feb. 2021; AP 17 Feb. 2021). According to an article by Alikarami in Al-Monitor, a news agency with a focus on the Middle East (Al-Monitor n.d.), "the team's efforts to challenge" the husband's "decision," and attempts by "[o]fficials involved" who "sought his permission," were unable to permit the head coach to leave Iran (Al-Monitor 8 Mar. 2021).

3.1 State Intervention or Travel Ban Exemption

In follow-up correspondence, Alikarami noted that paragraph 3 of article 18 of the Passport Law allows for women "[i]n specific and emergency circumstances" to request "permission" from "the prosecutor's office" to exit the country (Alikarami 15 Feb. 2022). The Associate Professor noted that a woman can seek approval from the "local city prosecutor" to travel abroad "in cases of emergency," "even if her husband has already prevented her" from leaving (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The same source added that in such cases the wife would "need to be able to prove" the emergency circumstances of the trip (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The vice president of Iran for Women and Family Affairs, who is a cabinet member in the Iranian government (The New York Times 27 Feb. 2020), indicated, in a tweet cited in an ABC News article, that "in an emergency" women "can ask the court to revise a husband's decision" prohibiting their foreign travel, but ultimately a judge must be "convinced" that travel is "necessary" before granting an exemption to travel (ABC News 27 Feb. 2021).

The Adjunct Professor indicated that Iranian state authorities intervening to overrule a husband's denial of permission for his wife to travel abroad "can happen" if the woman is a member of a "professional work team or a national sports team" or if they are "involved in politics," but they "have not seen" such intervention "ever used for ordinary people" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The same source added that it is a "measure" "reserved" for "supporting people in very specific groups or jobs," including to "travel to serve the government's interest" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

According to the Adjunct Professor, a wealthy woman seeking to travel to Mecca and Medina for a pilgrimage can seek a "one time travel permit exempting her" from an existing travel ban from the Public Prosecutor's Office, of which there is "one in every city" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The same source indicated that this exemption could also be requested in "urgent medical" cases, though this is now "less common" as Iran's access to medical technology has improved (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

A joint country information report on criminal procedures and documents in Iran by Norway's Landinfo, Belgium's Office of the Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons (Commissariat général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides, CGRS), and Switzerland's State Secretariat for Migration (SEM) cites email correspondence with Alikarami, who provided the following information regarding the mechanism for appealing a travel ban, including for women and children:

An accused person against whom the Prosecutor's Office has issued a travel ban can appeal it within 10 days from the date of issuance, at the competent court. Persons in debt – as well as women and children – who have a travel ban against them can request a permission from the attorney-general to travel abroad. He can grant them such an exception against the provision of necessary guarantees. (Landinfo of Norway, et al. Dec. 2021, 72, footnotes omitted)

3.1.1 Cases of State Intervention or Travel Ban Exemption

Sources report that following her husband's 2015 refusal to permit her to exit the country, the Iran judiciary permitted the football [or futsal] player to leave Iran to compete abroad (The Guardian 18 Feb. 2021; AFP 23 Nov. 2015; CHRI 24 Nov. 2015). According to sources, Iran's judiciary granted the athlete a "single exit visa" to attend a futsal competition in Guatemala (AFP 23 Nov. 2015; CHRI 24 Nov. 2015). A 2015 CHRI article reports that Mizan, the Iranian Judiciary's news agency, stated that the athlete exited Iran "'with the approval of the [futsal] federation and a number of supervisory agencies, without the consent of her husband'" (CHRI 24 Nov. 2015, brackets in original).

According to a 2017 article by the CHRI, a Paralympic archer was twice "allowed" by Iranian authorities to travel abroad for athletic competitions "despite her estranged husband's attempts" to block her exit from Iran (CHRI 10 May 2017). The same source, citing an interview with the archer's husband conducted by "the semi-official" Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA), indicates that he "asked the Passport Office not to issue an exit visa to [her] after she asked [him] for a divorce" (CHRI 10 May 2017).

4. Treatment of Women and Children Who Attempt to Leave Iran Without Prior Permission

The Professor indicated that a woman who attempted to exit Iran without the required permission would not face any criminal penalty and would be directed by the customs immigration officer to report to the passport office to discuss her case (Professor 17 Feb. 2022). According to the Adjunct Professor, to exit Iran without required permissions is to commit the crime of travelling "illegally" under the Passport Law (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022). The same source noted that if a woman attempted to exit Iran with her children without the required permissions, the mother would be deemed to have committed the crime of "illegal exit" (Adjunct Professor 9 Feb. 2022).

Article 34 (amended in 1988) of the Passport Law provides the following:

[translation]

Any Iranian who leaves the country without a passport or any travel document considered as a passport shall be sentenced to 1 to 2 years of imprisonment or a fine of one hundred thousand to five hundred thousand rials [C$3–15]. (Iran 1988)

A country information report on Iran by the UK Home Office, citing a 2014 report by Mohammad M.H. Kakhki, a special adviser to the Centre for Criminal Law and Justice and associate of the Centre for Iranian Studies at Durham University, indicates that a 2010 amendment to article 34 of Iran's Passport Law states that "any Iranian who leaves the country illegally, without a valid passport or similar travel documents, will be sentenced to between one and three years imprisonment" or could receive a fine of between 500,000 and 3 million Tomans [C$151–907] [1] (UK Feb. 2019, 16). A copy of the 2010 amendment to article 34 of the Passport Law could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to Alikarami, it is considered a crime to leave Iran without a "valid passport," and if a woman or child is deemed to have left Iran without a "valid passport," the punishment "could be 2 to 6 months imprisonment or a fine or both" (Alikarami 1 Feb. 2022). In follow-up correspondence, the same source added that an unsuccessful attempt by a mother and child to exit Iran without a valid passport could result in her being "charged with attempted illegal exit" (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022).

Alikarami stated that if a mother seeks to leave Iran with her children with a "valid passport" but without the father's permission for the children to exit Iran, she can be "charged with illegal prevention of visitation as well as kidnapping" (Alikarami 2 Feb. 2022).

The Associate Professor stated that if a travel ban is in place against a woman, she will have her passport "confiscated" from her at the airport or border when she attempts to exit, and she would need to report to the passport office to seek to learn about the specifics of her travel ban and case (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022). The same source added that beyond having her passport taken away, "no other action" would be taken against her (Associate Professor 17 Feb. 2022).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Note

[1] Iranians commonly refer to figures in toman "in daily conversation and business dealings," where the rial is "used only in official documents" (FT 4 May 2020). One toman is equivalent to 10 Iranian Rials (IRR) (FP 29 Jan. 2019). While the rial has been Iran's official currency since 1930, in 2020 Iran's government and parliament agreed the rial will be "renamed the toman, with one toman equal to 10,000 rials"; and according to the governor of Iran's central bank, the rial and the "new currency" the toman would "overlap for between two to five years" (FT 4 May 2020). Corresponding Canadian dollar (CAD) figures were calculated by converting tomans into IRR, then IRR into CAD.

References

ABC News. 27 February 2021. Jon Haworth. "Social Media Fight Spreads in Iran as Women Seek to Regain International Travel Rights." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Adjunct Professor, Carleton University. 23 February 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Adjunct Professor, Carleton University. 9 February 2022. Interview with the Research Directorate.

Agence France-Presse (AFP). 23 November 2015. "Female Footballer Leaves Iran, Husband Overruled." [Accessed 17 Feb. 2022]

Alikarami, Leila. 15 February 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Alikarami, Leila. 2 February 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Alikarami, Leila. 1 February 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Al-Monitor. 8 March 2021. Leila Alikarami. "Barred From Traveling by Their Husbands, Iranian Women Suffer Under Unjust Laws." [Accessed 26 Jan. 2022]

Al-Monitor. N.d. "Al-Monitor Mission Statement." [Accessed 26 Jan. 2022]

Associated Press (AP). 17 February 2021. "Husband of Iran’s Ski Coach Bars Her from Leaving Country." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Associate Professor, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia. 17 February 2022. Interview with the Research Directorate.

Australia. 14 April 2020. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). DFAT Country Information Report: Iran. [Accessed 27 Jan. 2022]

Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI). 7 March 2022. Correspondence from the Executive Director to the Research Directorate.

Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI). 20 February 2022. Correspondence from the Executive Director to the Research Directorate.

Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI). 10 May 2017. "Iranian Authorities Block Attempts by Gold Medalist's Husband to Stop Her from Competing Abroad." [Accessed 18 Feb. 2022]

Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI). 24 November 2015. "Women's Futsal Team Captain Allowed to Travel to World Championship Only After Judiciary Gives Consent." [Accessed 17 Feb. 2022]

Center for Human Rights in Iran (CHRI). N.d. "Who We Are." [Accessed 18 Feb. 2022]

Danish Refugee Council (DRC) and Danish Immigration Service (DIS), Denmark. February 2018. Iran: Judicial Issues. [Accessed 22 Feb. 2022]

Financial Times (FT). 4 May 2020. Najmeh Bozorgmehr. "Iran's Parliament Backs Move to Cut 4 Zeros from Its Currency." [Accessed 22 Feb. 2022]

Foreign Policy (FP). 29 January 2019. Maziar Motamedi. "Can a New Currency End Tehran's Economic Woes?" [Accessed 22 Feb. 2022]

The Guardian. 18 February 2021. Angela Giuffrida. "Iranian Women's Ski Coach Barred from Going to World Championships by Husband." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Hanna, Andrew. 8 December 2020. "Part 3: Iranian Laws on Women." United States Institute of Peace (USIP). The Iran Primer. [Accessed 8 Feb. 2022]

Iran 1988. Law Regarding the Punishment of Smugglers of Illegal People from the Borders of the Country and Amendment of Some Articles of the Passport Law and the Law of Entry and Residence of Foreign Nationals in Iran. Excerpt translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 22 Feb. 2022]

Iran. 1973. Passport Law. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Landinfo of Norway, Commissariat général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides (CGRS) of Belgium, and State Secretariat for Migration (SEM) of Switzerland. December 2021. Iran: Criminal Procedures and Documents. [Accessed 15 Feb. 2022]

The New York Times. 27 February 2020 (updated 4 March 2020). Farnaz Fassihi and Rick Gladstone. "Iran Vice President Is One of 7 Officials to Contract Coronavirus." [Accessed 3 Mar. 2022]

Nobel Women's Initiative. N.d. "Meet Leila Alikarami, Iran." [Accessed 26 Jan. 2022]

Norway. 5 January 2021. Landinfo: Country of Origin Information Centre. Iran: Passports, ID and Civil Status Documents. [Accessed 1 Feb. 2022]

Professor, a university in the United States (US). 17 February 2022. Interview with the Research Directorate.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 22 February 2013. Golnaz Esfandiari. "Proposed Bill to Limit Iranian Women's Travel Reportedly Canceled." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

United Kingdom (UK). February 2019. Home Office. Country Policy and Information Note. Iran: Illegal Exit. [Accessed 26 Jan. 2022]

United States (US). 2 August 2021. Department of State. "Iran International Travel Information." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

United States Institute of Peace (USIP). N.d. "About USIP." [Accessed 18 Feb. 2022]

The Washington Post. 18 February 2021. Cindy Boren. "Iranian Skier Appeals for Women's Rights After Her Coach Is Kept from Traveling by Her Husband." [Accessed 16 Feb. 2022]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Alliance of Iranian Women; Foundation for Iranian Studies; Human Rights Watch; lawyer in Canada specializing in Iranian family law; lawyer in Iran specializing in Iranian family law; Middle East Institute; professor at a Canadian university specializing in women's legal rights in Iran; professor at a German university specializing in women's legal rights in Iran; professor at an American university specializing in women's legal rights in Iran (2); professor at a university in the UK specializing in women's legal rights in Iran; Women Living Under Muslim Laws; Women's Organization of Iran; Wilson Center.

Internet sites, including: Alliance of Iranian Women; BNN Bloomberg; CityNews; Factiva; Foundation for Iranian Studies; The Huffington Post; Human Rights Activists News Agency; Human Rights Watch; International Crisis Group; Iran – Department of Women and Family Affairs; Justice for Iran; Middle East Institute; National Council of Resistance of Iran – Women's Committee; National Post; NBC Sports; The Telegraph; UN – Refworld; Women Living Under Muslim Laws; Women's Organization of Iran; Yahoo Sports.