Egypt: Passports, including their appearance and security features; requirements and procedures to obtain a passport, including whether documents required to apply for a passport can be obtained by a proxy (2019–October 2021) [EGY200535.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Overview

According to sources, the current Egyptian passport was first issued in January 2008 and has a validity period of seven years (EU 1 July 2021; Keesing Technologies n.d.).

1.1 Appearance and Format

Sources report that an Egyptian passport is a 52-page booklet measuring 125 x 88 mm (EU 1 July 2021; Keesing Technologies n.d.). According to the US Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs Egypt Reciprocity Schedule, Egyptian passports issued in 2015 and since are the same size as US passports, while passports issued prior to 2015 are larger (US n.d.). Sources further state that the Egyptian passport has a green (US n.d.) or a grey/green cover (EU 1 July 2021). Keesing Documentchecker specifies that it also contains the following features:

  • Laminate: front endpaper, clear holographic laminate, not sewn in, does not cover the whole page;
  • Photo: integrated, repeated in smaller size;
  • Numbering: 8 digits, preceded by a letter; front endpaper, inkjet printing; page 1 - back cover, laser perforated;
  • Observations: pages 1 – 52: security thread with microtext; bearer's signature on page 3 (Keesing Technologies n.d.).

According to sources, the passport's biographical data (biodata) page includes the following information fields: passport number, full name, date of birth, place of birth, nationality, sex, date of issue, date of expiry, issuing office, and profession (Keesing Technologies n.d.; EU 1 July 2021). The US Reciprocity Schedule for Egypt adds that "[c]urrent" Egyptian passports do not differentiate between given names and surnames (US n.d.). A sample of an Egyptian passport is available on the EU's Public Register of Authentic Identity and Travel Documents Online (PRADO) website (EU 1 July 2021).

1.2 Security Features

According to sources, the background of the Egyptian passport's biodata page includes multiple images (EU 1 July 2021; US n.d.). The PRADO specifies that the security features on the biodata page of the passport include the following:

  • Laminate "featuring holographic motifs relating to ancient Egypt (scarab beetles, [the] Eye of Horus (Rah)) and present-day Egypt ([the] national coat-of-arms, microprint in Arabic script, 'ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT')";
  • three pyramids of Giza "whose colours are reversed if the angle of view changes";
  • an optically variable device (OVD) depicting the image of a "vulture (goddess Nekhbet)" and "ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT" printed in both Arabic and Latin scripts in metallic pigment;
  • a UV security feature with an image of the national coat-of-arms and "EGYPT" spelled in Latin and Arabic script that can be seen under UV light (EU 1 July 2021).

The PRADO further indicates that the security features on the inner page(s) from pages 2 to 52 of the passport are as follows:

  • a watermark security feature viewed through transmitted light;
  • "guilloches / fine line patterns" offset printing technique (EU 1 July 2021).

2. Requirements and Procedures to Obtain
2.1 Within Egypt

In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a consular officer of the Embassy of Egypt in Washington, DC, stated that passport applications must be done in the location of the applicant, whether in Egypt or abroad (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). Sources indicate that the Passports, Immigration, and Nationality Department (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.51) or the Ministry of Interior (US n.d.) [the ministry which supervises the Passports, Immigration, and Nationality Administration (US 30 Mar. 2021, 1)] is the issuing authority for passports to Egyptians applying from within Egypt (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.51; US n.d.). According to Al-Masry Al-Youm, an Egyptian daily newspaper (Egypt Independent n.d.), the passport issuance fee within Egypt is 385 Egyptian pounds (LE) [C$30.30] and 375 LE [C$29.50] for first-time issuance (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021). The US Reciprocity Schedule reports that the passport application form may be obtained free of charge at the Egyptian Immigration Office (US n.d.). The same source notes that only fathers may obtain a passport for their children; however, "[i]n some limited instances," mothers can obtain a passport for their children if they receive "permission" from the father or can produce court records verifying a divorce (US n.d.).

According to sources, passport applicants are required to present the following documentation:

  • Valid national identity card ["or within the three-month grace period" (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021)] (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021; Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50; US n.d.);
  • Digital birth certificate for applicants under 16 (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021; Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50) or "an original birth certificate" (US n.d.);
  • Three recent coloured photographs with a white background measuring 4 x 6 inches (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021) or four photographs (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50);
  • For eligible male applicants [adult males born after March 1941 (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50)] "[d]ocument on military recruitment" (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021) or "proof of completion of military service, a military service exemption certificate, an expired passport with a recorded exemption from military service or a permission to travel obtained from the Conscription Department" (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50);
  • Academic qualification if it is not stated on the national identification card (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021) or educational enrolment certificate for children aged 12 to 16 (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.50).

The US Reciprocity Schedule adds that applicants must also provide applicable original documents to confirm the biographical information found on the Egyptian passport's biodata page, for example documentation verifying the applicant's occupation or their marital status (US n.d.).

According to the Consular Officer at the Egyptian Embassy in Washington, DC, passports can also be obtained in person within Egypt by a family relative of the first degree (a parent, spouse, or child) of the applicant, on the condition that both the applicant and their first-degree relative are in the same location and submit their application in that same location for example, "a relative of the first degree in Egypt cannot apply for an Egyptian who is living abroad, and vice versa" (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The same source added that in the "very rarely accepted" case where a notarized Power of Attorney (POA) might be acceptable for a passport application by proxy, the POA must first be "legalized" by an Egyptian authority such as an embassy or consulate, and must be justified by circumstances such as mobility limitations or another type of limitation that restricts an individual from being able to apply in person or by mail, and the absence of a family member of the first degree in their location (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021).

In contrast, in an interview with the Research Directorate, a representative of the Egyptian Human Rights Forum (EHRF), an international NGO established in 2019 as a hub supporting Egyptian human rights defenders living in Europe and the US in their pursuit of their human rights in Egypt (EHRF n.d.), stated that "[g]enerally" an applicant must always present themselves in person at the embassy or appropriate office in Egypt to renew their passport, and that no family members may renew a passport on their behalf, with a caveat, that "in Egypt, with the right connections, anything can happen" (EHRF 8 Oct. 2021).

2.1.1 Individuals and Groups Prohibited from Obtaining a Passport

According to the Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), the national issuing authority of passports has access to a "travel warning list" that includes information on an applicant's travel ban status and if an individual "is on the list, they would not be issued a passport" (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.51). The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2020 further indicates that an individual designated by an Egyptian court as a terrorist, whether criminally convicted or not, will have their passport cancelled (US 30 Mar. 2021, 16). The same source notes that travel bans are also imposed on human rights defenders and political activists, who are under investigation or have been formally charged, and that a 2018 court ruling found that such bans do not "'require the investigation of certain facts and their certainty'" should there be "'serious'" evidence that state security and interests are at play (US 30 Mar. 2021, 39).

2.2 From Abroad

The US Reciprocity Schedule indicates that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the issuing authority for passports for Egyptians applying from abroad (US n.d.). According to Al-Masry Al-Youm, passport issuance from abroad can take up to six weeks (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021). Sources note that Egyptians may submit their passport applications at an Egyptian embassy and they are then processed by the Immigration Office (US n.d.) or the Immigration, Passports, and Nationality Authority (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021) in Cairo (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021; US n.d.), which then verifies the application and issues a new passport by mailing it back to the concerned Embassy for delivery to the applicant (US n.d.).

According to Al-Masry Al-Youm, the passport issuance fee for applicants in the US is US$110 (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021). The Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal states that the fee for the issuance or renewal of a passport is C$290 (Egypt n.d.a). The General Consulate of Egypt in London states that 150 British pounds (GBP) [C$255] is charged for a new passport (Egypt n.d.b). Sources further note that the following documentation is required for passport renewals from abroad:

  • Original and a copy of the national identity card for applicants aged 16 and older;
  • Original and a copy of the birth certificate for applicants under 16;
  • Original passport and a copy of pages 2 to 9 of the expired passport or page 1 of the expired passport for electronic passports;
  • recent photographs of the applicant measuring 4 x 6 cm with a white background (Egypt n.d.a).

According to the General Consulate of Egypt in London, individuals who apply for a new passport with a valid national identity card are issued a passport valid for seven years, while those over 16 who apply using a digital birth certificate or an expired national identity card, are issued a passport valid for one year (Egypt n.d.b). The same source notes that children under 16 are eligible for a seven-year passport (Egypt n.d.b). Al-Masry Al-Youm indicates that individuals who do not have a national identity card can obtain a passport using a digital birth certificate, "provided that the citizen holds a previous passport showing their identity and the origin of the birth certificate in which the national number is recorded," and the period of validity is restricted to one year (Al-Masry Al-Youm 6 July 2021). The Egyptian Consulate General in Montreal adds that female applicants over 60 can present a digital birth certificate if they do not have a valid national identity card and a marriage certificate, should their previous passport not contain their marital status information (Egypt n.d.a). The same source further indicates that male applicants born after March 1941 and 19 years or older must additionally present original records of their status of military service (Egypt n.d.a). The source goes on to state that for applicants seeking to replace a lost or stolen passport, an original police report must also be included in the documentation (Egypt n.d.a).

2.2.1 Individuals and Groups Prohibited from Obtaining or Holding a Passport

Articles 15 and 16 of Egyptian Law No. 26 of 1975 Concerning Egyptian Nationality provide the following:

Article 15:

An Egyptian nationality may, by a justified decree of the Council of Ministers, be withdrawn from whoever has acquired it by forged means or false statements, within ten years from the date he acquired the Egyptian nationality.

The Egyptian nationality may also be withdrawn from whoever has obtained it by naturalization or through marriage, within five years following the date he obtained it, in any of the following cases:

  1. If a sentence was passed against him in a criminal offense, or a penalty restricting his freedom in a crime against honor.
  2. If a court-ruling has been passed against him in a crime against the safety of the state, either from outside or within the country.
  3. If he has failed to reside in Egypt for two consecutive years, and his absence has been without a reason acceptable by the Minister of Interior.

Article 16:

The Ministers Council may issue a decree stripping the Egyptian Nationality off anyone enjoying it, in any of the following cases:

  1. If he enters a foreign nationality, in a manner other than what is set forth sub article 10.
  2. If he accepts to join military service in a foreign country without a prior license from the Minister of War.
  3. If his normal residence is abroad, and a court ruling is issued condemning him in a crime harmful to the State security from abroad.
  4. If he accepts a post abroad with a foreign government or a foreign of international body and remains in that post despite the issuance of a justifier reason by the Ministers Council ordering him to quit that post, should his stay in such a post constitute a threat to the supreme interests of the country, and that is if he continues in such a post more than six months from the date he is notified of the aforementioned order, at his post abroad.
  5. If his normal stay is abroad, and he joins a foreign body whose purposes include working for the undermining of the social or economic order of the State, by the use of force or any other illegal means.
  6. If he works for a foreign state or government which is in a state of war with Egypt, or with whom diplomatic relations have been severed, and his continuation in work for such a state or government would constitute a harm to Egypt's military, diplomatic or economic situation, or would adversely affect any other national interest.
  7. If at any time he has been qualified as zionist. (Egypt 1975)

Human Rights Watch (HRW) reports that the law is "subject to abuse," as authorities are given "great" discretion to strip Egyptians of their nationality "without legal oversight or court review" (HRW 11 Feb. 2021). The same source further states that article 16 gives power to the prime minister to strip born or naturalized Egyptians of their nationality for a variety of reasons, including being convicted of "'a felony that harms state security from abroad'," while article 15 gives "even wider" authority to the government to strip naturalized citizens (HRW 11 Feb. 2021). According to US Country Reports 2020, in June 2020 the Supreme Administrative Court ruled that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was not obligated to issue or renew the passport of the president of the New Ghad Party, an opposition party, who was applying from abroad (US 30 Mar. 2021, 39).

The information in the following paragraph was provided by the EHRF representative:

Human rights defenders, political activists, and opposition members living abroad, whether convicted of a crime or not, and whether placed on a "no-travel" list or not, face a "more complex" situation and are subject to the "mood" or "discretion" of state security when trying to obtain an Egyptian passport. The situation for human rights defenders and activists living abroad is not the same for every individual as "it is very discretionary," "as not all human rights defenders are refused their passports; many do have access." "[S]ometimes it can be more about the location of the embassy than anything else, like in Turkey, where it is almost impossible for Egyptian activists to renew their passports because of the presence of the Muslim Brotherhood in [the country]." Passport renewal for Egyptian human rights defenders and activists in Tunisia and "generally all" Middle Eastern and North African countries it is "more difficult," while "it is usually easier" to do so at embassies located in Europe, North America, as Egyptian authorities "feel more obliged diplomatically towards those countries and have more incentive to cooperate" and want to avoid diplomatic issues (EHRF 8 Oct. 2021). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

In a case reported by sources, an Egyptian activist based in Turkey was stripped of her Egyptian nationality in December 2020 (Amnesty International 5 Mar. 2021; HRW 11 Feb. 2021); the "decision was justified on the grounds" that "she was convicted of crimes 'endangering national security from abroad'" following a conviction by a special court "for her peaceful activism" (Amnesty International 5 Mar. 2021). According to Amnesty International, the Egyptian consulate in Istanbul has refused to renew the passport of her husband, an Egyptian actor and TV host, since 2017 as "'security approval'" from Egypt has yet to be received (Amnesty International 5 Mar. 2021, 2). HRW reports that article 16 of Law 26 of 1975 was cited in the Egyptian government's ruling to strip the activist of her nationality (HRW 11 Feb. 2021).

2.3 New Online Platform

According to media sources, the Ministry of Interior's Administration of Passports, Emigration, and Nationality launched a website in December 2019 offering a variety of online services related to nationality, passport, and immigration services (Ahram Online 2 Dec. 2019; Al-Masry Al-Youm 2 Dec. 2019). Without providing further details, sources report that the eservices provided by the online platform include obtaining proof of Egyptian nationality (Ahram Online 2 Dec. 2019; Al-Masry Al-Youm 2 Dec. 2019).

3. Supporting Documents Obtained by a Proxy

Sources stated that all official supporting documentation for an Egyptian passport, such as military records, marriage certificates, and birth certificates, can be obtained with the assistance of a proxy in Egypt, but this is not the case for the national identity card and the passport itself (EHRF 8 Oct. 2021; Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). According to the Consular Officer at the Egyptian Embassy in Washington, DC, a family member of the first degree may also obtain birth and marriage certificates for a passport application on behalf of an Egyptian applicant living abroad (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal further indicates that a notarized power of attorney can be legalized from abroad for use in Egypt by mailing it to the Consulate General with a valid Egyptian passport or national identity card along with a copy, and can be used to obtain, among other documents, the following documentation pertaining to passport applications:

  • Military service;
  • Matrimonial matters;
  • Marriage;
  • Police certificate issuance (Egypt n.d.c).

3.1 National Identity Card

Sources report that Egyptians can obtain a national identity card from the age of 16 (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 3.7; US n.d.), through a Ministry of Interior's Civil Status Organization (CSO) office (US n.d.). Sources note that you cannot apply for an Egyptian passport without a national identity card (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.46; EHRF 8 Oct. 2021). According to the Consular Officer, a national identity card "can never be issued for the first time by proxy" because photographs and fingerprints of the applicant are required, processes which can only be completed in person by the applicant in Egypt (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The EHRF representative stated that national identity cards cannot be renewed from abroad and that the only exception is if there is an official Egyptian committee delegation deployed to renew the national identity cards of Egyptian citizens living abroad, which occurs once every year or two, does not take place in every country, and has not taken place "in a long time" due to COVID-19 restrictions (EHRF 8 Oct. 2021).

Sources further state that the national identity card indicates completion of military service and that eligible Egyptian men cannot travel abroad or emigrate without completing military service or obtaining an exemption (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 3.98; US 30 Mar. 2021, 39). According to sources, the national identity card, in turn, can be obtained upon presentation of the following requirements:

  • Birth certificate (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.47; US n.d.);
  • Certificate of current education status or enrolment for students (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.47) or certification of the application with a stamp from the Ministry of Education (US n.d.).

DFAT indicates that a parent declaring in-person that the applicant is their child, and a current digital photograph of the applicant are also required (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.47). The US Reciprocity Schedule notes that a Social Security Office stamp of certification on the application is additionally required (US n.d.). The same source further specifies a national identity card can only be obtained at a CSO office in Egypt and cannot be issued by Egyptian embassies abroad (US n.d.). Similarly, the website of the Egyptian Embassy in Washington, DC, states that issuance of the national identity card for the first time cannot be completed from abroad, except for the case of an applicant renewing their existing card (Egypt n.d.d). The same source notes that a proxy or a family member cannot renew a national identity card from abroad on behalf of an applicant (Egypt n.d.d).

In contrast, the Consular Officer of the Egyptian Embassy in Washington, DC, indicated that while a proxy cannot obtain a national identity card on behalf of an Egyptian citizen, the only exception is in the case of an individual over 60 who can have their child renew their national identity card in Egypt (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The EHRF representative stated that through "connections and bribes" of officials within the Ministry of the Interior in Egypt, national identity cards are "commonly" renewed by Egyptians living abroad who are not able to renew their passports at the embassy due to the expiration of their national identity card (EHRF 8 Oct. 2021). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

For more information on the requirements and procedures for obtaining a national identity card from within Egypt and from abroad, including information regarding military service indicated on the card, and whether a proxy can obtain the card on behalf of the applicant, see Response to Information Request EGY105529 of May 2016.

3.2 Birth Certificate

According to the US Reciprocity Schedule, Egyptian birth certificates are issued by both the ministries of Municipal and Rural Affairs and of Health and Population and can be obtained from the local Public Health Office of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs with jurisdiction in the location of the birth (US n.d.). According to the Egyptian Consulate General in Montreal, birth certificates can be obtained from the Consulate by applying in person or by mail, with the following required documents:

  • Canadian birth certificate;
  • Translation of the Canadian birth certificate;
  • Father's Egyptian passport;
  • Mother's passport;
  • Parents' marriage certificate with a certified translation if the certificate is not in Arabic translation. (Egypt n.d.e)

According to the Consular Officer, Egyptians living abroad can also register and obtain a birth certificate by using a family member from the first degree or a paternal grandfather or uncle in Egypt to obtain the birth certificate on their behalf through a local CSO office by presenting the foreign birth certificate (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). However, the same source notes that only the applicants themselves can register a birth and obtain a birth certificate abroad at an embassy (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The Consular Officer noted that for Egyptians living in Egypt, neither a family member of the first degree nor a proxy may be used to register a birth for the first time (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021).

3.3 Military Service Documents

According to the US Reciprocity Schedule, Egypt's Ministry of Defense is the issuing authority for military service records and military service exemption records (US n.d.). According to the Egyptian Consulate General in Montreal, obtaining a military service exemption can be done from abroad, including applying for exemption from military service for dual citizens, a caretaker of a single mother, an only son of a father, and/or a student (Egypt n.d.f). The Consular Officer stated that military documents indicating military service status, whether it is completion, exemption, exclusion, or payment of a penalty for absence, can be obtained in person at an Egyptian embassy or within Egypt at the local authority's office, and through a proxy or family member of the first degree located in Egypt, should the applicant reside abroad and the nearest embassy or consulate is not able to provide the required services; however, "it is unlikely that in practice that would be accepted because the authority in Egypt will likely rule that the applicant can present themselves at an embassy or consulate abroad that does provide these services" (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The same source indicated that military service documents cannot be obtained through a proxy at an embassy (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The source noted that should the military service status of the applicant be documented on their previous passport, it is considered adequate proof for a passport application (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021).

For information on whether a citizen of Egypt who is living abroad can obtain a student deferment from military service without a national identity card, including required documents, see Response to Information Request EGY105396 of January 2016.

3.4 Marriage Certificate

According to sources, obtention of a marriage certificate is done through the local offices of the CSO upon presentation of a registration documentation from a religious official (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.41, 5.43; US n.d.), and the presentation of witnesses, the presentation of identification of both married parties, and the payment of fees (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.43). DFAT notes that non-recognized religions, such as non-Muslims, non-Christians, non-Jewish individuals "may have difficulty having their marriages recognised and recorded" by the state (Australia 17 June 2019, para. 5.43).

According to the Egyptian Consulate General in Montreal, marriage certificates may also be obtained at the Consulate General, upon payment of C$370 and presentation in person along with two witnesses and the following documentation:

  • Valid passports or national identity cards for the couple and the two witnesses;
  • Five recent photographs of both the husband and the wife, sized 4 x 6 inches;
  • For couples who are already married, an original Canadian marriage certificate with a certified translation is required;
  • If the wife is not an Egyptian national, a "'non-objection'" certificate from the Embassy or consulate concerned (Egypt n.d.g).

According to the Consular Officer, only the applicants themselves can obtain a marriage certificate at an embassy (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The same source indicated that Egyptians living abroad can also register and obtain a marriage certificate by the intermediary of a family member of the first degree or a paternal grandfather or uncle in Egypt who can obtain the marriage certificate on their behalf (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021). The source noted that for Egyptians living in Egypt, neither a family member of the first degree nor a proxy may register a marriage on the applicant's behalf (Egypt 7 Oct. 2021).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Ahram Online. 2 December 2019. Sama Osama. "Interior Ministry Launches Online Passports, Immigration and Nationality Services." [Accessed 29 Sept. 2021]

Al-Masry Al-Youm [in Arabic]. 6 July 2021. "Egypt Announces Regulations for Issuance of New Passports and Renewal Passports of Egyptians Abroad." English translation available on the website of Egypt Independent. [Accessed 29 Sept. 2021]

Al-Masry Al-Youm [in Arabic]. 2 December 2019. "Egypt Launches New Website for Passports and Emigration Administration." English translation available on the website of Egypt Independent. [Accessed 29 Sept. 2021]

Amnesty International. 5 March 2021. "Egypt: Activist Arbitrarily Deprived of Nationality, Made Stateless." [Accessed 5 Oct. 2021]

Australia. 17 June 2019. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). DFAT Country Information Report: Egypt. [Accessed 20 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. 7 October 2021. Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt in Washington, DC. Telephone interview with a consular officer.

Egypt. 1975. Law No. 26 of 1975 Concerning Egyptian Nationality. Unofficial translation. [Accessed 8 Oct. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.a. Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal. "Egyptian Passport Renewal." [Accessed 21 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.b. General Consulate of the Arab Republic of Egypt in London. "Egyptian Passport." [Accessed 21 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.c. Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal. "Regular Legalization and Power of Attorney." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.d. Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Washington, DC. "Egyptian National ID Card." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.e. Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal. "Birth Certificates." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.f. Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal. "Exemption from Military." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egypt. N.d.g. Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal. "Marriage Certificates." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egyptian Human Rights Forum (EHRF). 8 October 2021. Interview with a representative.

Egyptian Human Rights Forum (EHRF). N.d. "About EHRF." [Accessed 22 Sept. 2021]

Egypt Independent. N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 14 Oct. 2021]

European Union (EU). 1 July 2021. Public Register of Authentic Identity and Travel Documents Online (PRADO). "Document: EGY-AO-01001." [Accessed 16 Sept. 2021]

Human Rights Watch (HRW). 11 February 2021. "Egypt: Activist Stripped of Citizenship." [Accessed 5 Oct. 2021]

Keesing Technologies. N.d. Keesing Documentchecker. "Egypt – Ordinary Passport 2008." [Accessed 16 Sept. 2021]

United States (US). 30 March 2021. Department of State. "Egypt." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2020. [Accessed 21 Sept. 2021]

United States (US). N.d. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. "Egypt Reciprocity Schedule." [Accessed 21 Sept. 2021]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Egypt – Consulate General of Egypt in London, Consulate General of Egypt in Montreal, Embassy of Egypt in Ottawa, Ministry of Interior; Egyptian Foundation for Refugee Rights; Egyptian Front for Human Rights; law firm based in Egypt and Switzerland.

Internet sites, including: Amnesty International; Belgium – Commissariat général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides, Centre de documentation et de recherches; BiometricUpdate.com; Denmark – Danish National ID Centre; ecoi.net; EdisonTD; EEMA; Egypt – Ministry of Interior; EU – European Asylum Support Office; France – Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides; Global Citizenship Observatory; Henley Passport Index; International Air Transport Association; Netherlands – Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Norway – Landinfo; Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; Passport-collector.com; Refugees International; Identity Week – Security Document World; Thales; UK – Home Office; UN – International Civil Aviation Organization; World Bank.