Haiti: Major criminal groups, including their areas of operation, their structure and their activities; state response (2016-May 2019) [HTI106293.FE]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. Overview

Sources point out that insecurity is reportedly on the rise in a number of regions of Haiti (Le National17 Apr. 2019; RNDDH 3 May 2019, 1-2; HaïtiLibre 3 May 2019). The same sources report that this situation is related to the activities of criminal groups that control a number of the country’s regions (Le National17 Apr. 2019; RNDDH 3 May 2019, 1-2; HaïtiLibre 3 May 2019). In an article published in May 2019, Le Nouvelliste, a Haitian daily newspaper, states that the National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (Commission nationale de désarmement, de démobilisation et de réinsertion, CNDDR) [1] has identified at least 76 [translation] “armed gangs” in Haiti (Le Nouvelliste6 May 2019). The source specifies that some gangs are made up of 10 to 15 members, while others have 60 or 80 (Le Nouvelliste6 May 2019). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints for this Response.

1.1 Geographic Presence

Sources indicate that criminal groups have clashed in various neighbourhoods of Port-au-Prince for control of turf (France 2017, 24; RNDDH 3 May 2019, 4). The report of a mission to Haiti in 2017 conducted by the French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons (Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides, OFPRA) with the participation of the National Court of Asylum (Cour nationale du droit d'asile, CNDA) states that residents fear going out in their neighbourhoods because they must go through [translation] “various internal areas held by rival gangs” (France 2017, 24). For instance, in a report published in May 2019, the National Human Rights Defense Network (Réseau national de défense des droits humains, RNDDH) [2] states that the clashing between the two groups in the area of Nan Tokyo between March and April 2019 resulted in the death of 11 people and that homes and vehicles were torched (RNDDH 3 May 2019, para. 15-16).

According to the Haiti 2019 Crime & Safety Reportfrom the US Department of State, some areas of Port-au-Prince, which are not “traditional tourist [or] business areas,” are mainly affected by gang-related violence, such as Cité Soleil, Carrefour and Martissant (US 29 Mar. 2019, 2). In addition, Le National, a Haitian daily newspaper, reports that in Port-au-Prince, there are [translation] “armed groups” or “armed gangs” in the neighbourhoods of Grand-Ravine, Cité de l'Éternel, Martissant, La Saline and Cité Soleil (Le National17 Apr. 2019). The source also indicates that a gang leader, Arnel Joseph, [translation] “has established his headquarters in Poste Pierrot” in the department of Artibonite, a department where there are also criminal organizations in Gonaïves [the department’s capital] (Le National17 Apr. 2019). In a report on various issues in Haiti, the Interuniversity Institute for Research and Development (INURED) [3] also notes the presence of gangs in Cité Soleil, as well as Raboteau, Gonaïves, Lafossette and surrounding areas (INURED Aug. 2017, 30). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a RNDDH representative stated that criminal gang activities had been noted in the following communities: Cité Soleil, Carrefour Feuilles, Cité Vincent, Tokyo, Corail-Cesselesse and Petite Rivière de l’Arbonite (RNDDH 17 May 2019).

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, an assistant professor of social work at the University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW), who has been studying criminal gangs in Haiti for several years, stated that some gangs had expanded their geographic territories out to rural areas, even though the gangs are not as active outside urban centres (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). According to the US Haiti 2019 Crime & Safety Report, criminal organizations have “expanded or shifted” their operations to “more affluent” areas, such as Pétionville, as well as to areas “outside of” Port-au-Prince; the source does not provide further details on the areas affected (US 29 Mar. 2019, 2). Similarly, in an article on insecurity and armed groups in Haiti, Le Nationalreports that the activities of these organizations have increasingly been observed beyond the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area, in [translation] “remote areas” (Le National17 Apr. 2019). The INURED report mentions that gangs are active in Cap Haïtien (INURED Aug. 2017, 30). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

1.2 Activities

A number of sources indicate that gangs have organized raids of vehicles transporting merchandise to provincial towns (RNDDH 3 May 2019, 2) or to the Grand Sud [Sud department] (Le National17 Apr. 2019). Similarly, in a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a representative of Défenseurs Plus, a non-profit organization working to defend human rights in Haiti (Défenseurs Plus n.d.), explained that trucks transporting merchandise, such as computers, are diverted by gang members to neighbourhoods or areas where they operate. (Défenseurs Plus 15 May 2019). The US Haiti 2019 Crime & Safety Reportemphasizes “the increased crime on major routes of travel” outside of Port-au-Prince and the use of barricades across roadways by “smaller groups of criminals,” to extort anyone trying to pass (US 29 Mar. 2019, 2). For instance, Haïti24, a Haitian news agency (Haïti24 n.d.), reports that in Gran Ravin, [translation] “heavily armed” youths extort motorists who drive there (Haïti24 16 Jan. 2019).

According to the RNDDH report on ties between the authorities and armed gangs, [translation] “armed criminals” control their areas and extort money from [translation] “small retailers and commercial enterprises” so that they can continue to conduct their business activities (RNDDH 3 May 2019, 2). Similarly, the OFPRA report indicates that the gangs carry out [translation] “abductions, armed robbery and [the] extortion of merchants” (France 2017, 25). The Assistant Professor also stated that criminal groups engage in “[p]rotection rackets” (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). Sources report that in September 2018, three or four Léogâne merchants were kidnapped; the sources explain that, in such situations, the kidnappers pass themselves off as police officers who make the victims believe that they are meeting as part of an investigation (Loop 27 Sept. 2018; Le Nouvelliste26 Sept. 2018). According to Le Nouvelliste, one of the merchants was released after a ransom was paid (Le Nouvelliste26 Sept. 2018), while according to Loop, a news site covering the Caribbean, Central America and the South Pacific (Loop n.d.), four business owners were reportedly released after a ransom was paid (Loop 27 Sept. 2018).

In a report published in December 2018 on the situation in the neighbourhood of La Saline, the RNDDH states that the neighbourhood gangs are fighting for control over the Croix-des-Bossales market, which has caused [translation] “hundreds” of deaths (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, paras. 16-17). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. The same source reports that, on the evening of 13 November 2018, during the [translation] “La Saline massacre,” members of the Base Nan Chabon organization, headed by Serge Alectis, also known as Ti Junior, “broke into at least [150] houses located in Projet La Saline, among others … [and] pulled men and women from their homes to execute them in the street” (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, para. 38-39). According to the same source, 59 people were killed, including six minors, while seven women were raped and five people sustained gunshot wounds (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, para. 43, 45). The source adds that 150 houses in Projet La Saline were [translation] “vandalized or riddled with bullets,” whereas “many houses in Nan Chabon [Nanchabon]” “were completely burnt” by the same culprits (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, para. 46). The Fondasyon Je Klere (FJKL), a citizen organization working for change in Haiti (FJKL n.d.), estimates that there were between 15 and 25 deaths, [translation] “at least” six women were raped and “more than 15 houses [were] looted” in the [translation] “La Saline massacre” (FJKL Nov. 2018, 3-5). The RNDDH also reports that witnesses and victims of the attacks on 13 November 2018, accused “some authorities” of orchestrating the attacks in La Saline in November 2018 (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, para. 53). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The Assistant Professor stated that in some working-class neighbourhoods, the gangs provide services that are usually provided by the municipalities (for instance, trash collection, road maintenance and watershed management) (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). The same source added that the mayors often use gangs to handle “difficult situations such as evictions, collecting payments to the mayor’s office for street advertising or building permits” (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). Similarly, the RNDDH report on the events in La Saline indicates that, in this neighbourhood, gang leaders are part of community-based organizations that [translation] “are working with” Haitian authorities and that “authorities provide these gang leaders the means to continue to help the needy, in exchange for the loyalty of gang leaders, soldiers and their community” (RNDDH 1 Dec. 2018, para. 14). INURED provides corroborating information, noting that, in Cité Soleil, gangs play a role in providing services traditionally offered by the state, which generates additional revenues for them, while expanding their sphere of influence in the neighbourhood (INURED Aug. 2017, 30).

2. Major Criminal Groups

The RNDDH representative reported that criminal organizations [translation] “identify themselves by their leader” (RNDDH 17 May 2019). According to sources, the main leaders of criminal groups are the following:

  • Arnel [Anel] Joseph, leader of the Village de Dieu gang [Bicentenaire zone] (RNDDH 17 May 2019; Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019), currently based in Marchand Dessalines (RNDDH 17 May 2019) or Petite Rivière de l'Artibonite (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019);
  • Serge Alectis also known as Ti Junior, leader of the Base Nan Chabon, from La Saline (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Jimmy Cherizier [Cherisier] also known as Barbecue, a former police officer (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; RNDDH 17 May 2019), in the Delmas 4 (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019) or Delmas 6 neighbourhood (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Black Satan and Valès, gang leaders in Canaan 50, Corail Cesselesse (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Iscar Andris (RNDDH 17 May 2019) or “‘Isca’” (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019), leader in the Belekou neighbourhood in Cité Soleil (RNDDH 17 May 2019; Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019);
  • “‘Ti Ougan’,” Boston neighbourhood in Cité Soleil (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019);
  • “‘Gabriel’” in the [translation] “lower city” in Cité Soleil (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019);
  • Jimmy Joseph [Jimmy Jean (RNDDH 1 Dec 2018)], leader of the armed gang Nan Bwadom [Nan Bwa Dòm], in Croix des Bossales (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Antoine Gregory [Grégory Antoine] also known as Ti Greg (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; RNDDH 17 May 2019; Loop 9 Jan. 2019), [a police officer (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; Loop 9 Jan. 2019)], leader of the Base Pilate [Baz Pilat] gang (RNDDH 17 May 2019; Loop 9 Jan. 2019), made up [translation] “a priori of police officers” (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • [Sony Jean (RNDDH 17 May 2019; AlterPresse 30 April 2019)] also known as Ti Je [Tije], a gang leader and his men in Savane [Savann] Pistache, in Carrefour-Feuilles, Port-au-Prince (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; RNDDH 17 May 2019). Sony Jean allegedly died on 29 April 2019 in a shootout with police (RNDDH 17 May 2019; AlterPresse 30 Apr. 2019);
  • Christ-Roi Chery also known as Chrislat (RNDDH 17 May 2019) or [translation ] “[t]he man named ‘Chrisla’” (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019), leader of the Ti Bwa [Tibwa] gang (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Félix Pyram also known as Toutou Number One, leader of the Kafou Labatwa gang in La Saline (RNDDH 17 May 2019);
  • Julio Pyram also known as Kiki, assisted by Hervé Bonnet Barthelemy also known as Bout Jeanjan and by Noël Joël, leader of the Base Projet La Saline (RNDDH 17 May 2019).

According to sources, in November 2018, the gang leader “‘Kiki’” was shot dead in a confrontation with the police; then, [his replacement (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019)] “‘Bout Jean Jean’” was arrested and imprisoned in the national penitentiary (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019; VBI 6 Nov. 2018). According to Haiti24, [translation] “the deadly shooting of police officer Grégory Antoine also known as ‘Ti Greg,’ by the [g]ang leader who controls the ‘Savann Pistach’ neighbourhood” occurred on 9 January 2019 in the Carrefour-Feuilles area (Haiti24 16 Jan. 2019). According to Loop, Grégory Antoine also known as “Ti Greg” was killed on 9 January 2019 in Savane Pistache by “‘Ti Je’” (Loop 9 Jan. 2019).

3. State Response
3.1 Response by the Haitian National Police (Police nationale d'Haïti, PNH)

Le Nouvellistereports statements made by Rosny Desroches, Executive Director of the Civil Society Initiative (Initiative de la société civile, ISC), a group of Haitian associations and organizations working to strengthen Haitian civil society (ISC n.d.), emphasizing the PNH’s [translation] “insignificant workforce,” which is made up of only 15,000 officers for a population of 12 million Haitians (Le Nouvelliste15 Apr. 2019). The OFPRA mission report explains that the PNH’s capacity is not sufficient, both with respect to the number of police officers that are mainly present in the capital and the equipment at the disposal of police officers, particularly the lack of fuel, cars and computers (France 2017, 30-31). Similarly, the US Haiti 2019 Crime & Safety Reportreports that the PNH has a “limited response capability” and it lacks resources to complete investigations, which hinders the deterrent effect on criminals, who operate without fear of police authorities (US 29 Mar. 2019, 6).

Sources report that during the weekend of 1-2 December 2018, anti-gang police operations resulted in 88 people being taken in for questioning, including three presumed gang leaders: Saint-Fort Pierre Richard [Pierre Richard Saint-Fort], Dossous Pollesse [Polès Dossous] [also known as “Mazora” (HaïtiLibre 4 Dec. 2018; VBI 4 Dec. 2018)] and Sadrac Brice (Le Nouvelliste 3 Dec. 2018; HaïtiLibre 4 Dec. 2018; VBI 4 Dec. 2018). According to the same sources, several firearms and ammunition were also seized during those operations (Le Nouvelliste 3 Dec. 2018; HaïtiLibre 4 Dec. 2018; VBI 4 Dec. 2018). Sources report that a police operation in Limbé, in the Nord department, led to the arrest, on 9 May 2019, of 53 presumed members of Arnel Joseph’s gang, which operates in (VBI May 2019) or whose members had taken refuge in the Artibonite department (AlterPresse 13 May 2019; Loop 13 May 2019). According to Le National, the PNH is overwhelmed by the actions of armed groups, and since late 2018, it has led [translation] “unsuccessful police operations” during which the targets of police managed to escape and police officers lost their lives (Le National17 Apr. 2019). Corroborating information on the outcome of those operations could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Haïti Progrès, a newspaper reporting Haitian news, writes that, according to the [National] Justice and Peace Episcopal Commission (Commission épiscopale [nationale] justice et paix, CE-JILAP), a pastoral institution of the Catholic Church in Haiti (CE-JILAP n.d.), armed groups operating nearby in the area of the southern entrance to Port-au-Prince [translation] “continue to challenge the [PNH], despite the various police operations conducted in the area” (Haïti Progrès29 Sept. 2018). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints for this Response.

According to the Assistant Professor, the PNH has an anti-gang unit (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). She added that this unit collects information on armed groups and their leaders, but that it lacks “basic investigatory capability” (Assistant Professor 20 May 2019). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints for this Response.

3.2 Protection of Criminal Groups by the Authorities

Sources report that criminal groups benefit from the support of various state or political actors (RNDDH 17 May 2019; Assistant Professor 20 May 2019; HaïtiLibre 3 May 2019). For example, according to sources, the senator for the Artibonite region, Garcia Delva, allegedly had regular telephone contact with the gang leader Joseph Arnel (Le Nouvelliste23 Apr. 2019; Loop 23 Apr. 2019). Other sources report that a PNH detective, Gabriel Faveur Désir [Désir Faveur Gabriel], allegedly contacted Arnel Joseph to provide him with information on the police operations that concerned him (Rezo Nódwes 11 May 2019; Loop 8 Apr. 2019). Loop reports that this detective had received threats against his family from the gang leader (Loop 8 Apr. 2019). According to sources, the detective’s family lives in Village de Dieu, the neighbourhood controlled by Arnel Joseph (Loop 8 Apr. 2019; Le Nouvelliste8 Apr. 2019).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Notes

[1] The National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (Commission nationale de désarmement, de démobilisation et de réinsertion, CNDDR) is [translation] “a structure to coordinate and implement the policy of the [Haitian] government on disarmament, disbandment of armed groups and reintegration of disarmed individuals” (UN 12 Mar. 2019).

[2] The National Human Rights Defense Network (Réseau national de défense des droits humains, RNDDH) is a Haitian NGO that works in the area of human rights education and heads monitoring programs with “key state institutions in respect to their obligations to protect [human] rights” (RNDDH n.d.).

[3] The Interuniversity Institute for Research and Development (INURED) is based on an international university and research centre network whose purpose is to “contribute to the development of high-level research and scientific training in Haiti with the aim of improving the educational, socio-economic and political condition of Haiti’s people” (INURED n.d.).

References

AlterPresse. 13 May 2019. “Haïti-Insécurité : Un important coup de filet de la police dans le Nord .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

AlterPresse. 30 April 2019. “Haïti-Insécurité : Le chef de gang Ti je (Sony Jean) abattu par la police .” [Accessed 31 May 2019]

Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW). 20 May 2019. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Commission épiscopale nationale justice et paix (CE-JILAP). N.d. Home page. [Accessed 31 May 2019]

Défenseurs Plus. 15 May 2019. Telephone interview with a representative.

Défenseurs Plus. N.d. Facebook. “À propos.” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Fondasyon Je Klere (FJKL). November 2018. Situation de terreur à La Saline : La Fondayson Je Klere (FJKL) déplore l'incapacité de l'État à garantir la sécurité des citoyens et des citoyennes . [Accessed 29 May 2019]

Fondasyon Je Klere (FJKL). N.d. Facebook. “À propos.” [Accessed 28 May 2019]

France. 2017. Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides (OFPRA) and Cour nationale du droit d'asile (CNDA). Rapport de mission en République d'Haïti du 26 mars au 7 avril 2017 . [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Haïti24. 16 January 2019. Luckson Saint-Vil. “Port-au-Prince ou port aux gangs ? ” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Haïti24. N.d. Facebook. “À propos.” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

HaïtiLibre. 3 May 2019. “Haiti - Security: The Civil Society Initiative Denounces the Situation of Insecurity in the Country .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

HaïtiLibre. 4 December 2018. “Haïti - Sécurité : dernier bilan de la vaste opération anti-gang de la PNH .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Haïti Progrès. 29 September 2018. Altidor Jean Hervé. “Un bilan de la CE/JILAP, met à nu l’état de la sécurité nationale .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Initiative de la société civile (ISC). N.d. “Accueil.” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Interuniversity Institute for Research and Development (INURED). August 2017. Republic of Haiti: Country of Origin Information Paper . [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Interuniversity Institute for Research and Development (INURED). N.d. “Mission.” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Loop. 13 May 2019. Jésula Simon. “La police arrête 53 personnes soupçonnées d'être des soldats d'Arnel .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Loop. 23 April 2019. Jésula Simon. “Garcia Delva et Arnel se sont parlé 24 fois en février, selon Sénatus .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Loop. 8 April 2019. “Cet inspecteur avoue avoir informé à Arnel des stratégies de la PNH .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Loop. 9 January 2019. Jésula Simon. “Des tirs nourris à Carrefour-Feuilles .” [Accessed 31 May 2019]

Loop. 27 September 2018. “4 commerçants kidnappés à Léogâne libérés après avoir payé une rançon .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Loop. N.d. “À propos de nous.” [Accessed 30 May 2019]

Le National. 17 April 2019. Woovins St Phard. “L'État haïtien, ébranlé par l'insécurité, perd le contrôle du territoire .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 6 May 2019. Danio Darius. “76 gangs armés répertoriés en Haïti par la Commission de désarmement .”[Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 23 April 2019. Roberson Alphonse. “Communications téléphoniques fréquentes entre le chef de gang Arnel Joseph et le sénateur Garcia Delva .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 15 April 2019. Michelson Césaire. “Des groupes armés déjouent le plan sécuritaire de la PNH, la société civile préoccupée .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 8 April 2019. Jean Daniel Sénat. “L'inspecteur principal Gabriel Faveur Désir arrêté pour avoir été en contact avec le chef de gang Arnel Joseph .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 3 December 2018. Ricardo Lambert. “Saisie d'armes et de munitions par la PNH, 88 personnes arrêtées .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Le Nouvelliste. 26 September 2018. Diery Marcelin. “Des cas de kidnapping sur des commerçants léogânais, des magasins ferment leurs portes en guise de protestation .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Réseau national de défense des droits humains (RNDDH). 17 May 2019. Correspondence from a representative to the Research Directorate.

Réseau national de défense des droits humains (RNDDH). 3 May 2019. Situation chaotique des droits humains en Haïti et banditisme d’État : Le RNDDH dénonce l’inertie des autorités et la protection des gangs armés . (Rapport/A2019/No3) [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Réseau national de défense des droits humains (RNDDH). 1 December 2018. “Les événements survenus à La Saline : de la lutte hégémonique entre gangs armés au massacre d'État .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Réseau national de défense des droits humains (RNDDH). N.d. “Vision & Mission .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Rezo Nòdwès. 11 May 2019. Rezo Nòdwès. “Révocation pour un inspecteur de police complice du chef de gang Arnel Joseph .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

United Nations (UN). 12 March 2019. Mission des Nations Unies pour l'appui à la justice en Haïti (MINUJUSTH). “Rétablissement d'un Comité national de désarmement, de démantèlement et de réinsertion .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

United States (US). 29 March 2019. Department of State, Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC). Haiti 2019 Crime & Safety Report . [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Vant bèf info (VBI). May 2019. “Haïti/Sécurité : Arrestation de 53 présumés bandits qui opèrent dans l'Artibonite .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Vant bèf info (VBI). 4 December 2018. “Sécurité : 88 personnes interpellées par la PNH le weekend écoulé dont 3 chefs de gang .” [Accessed 22 May 2019]

Vant bèf info (VBI). 6 November 2018. “Sécurité : le présumé chef de gang ‘bout jeanjean’ écroué au pénitencier national .” [Accessed 30 May 2019]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources:Assistant professor in political science; associate professor of globalization studies working on reconciliation processes in post-conflict situations; associate professor of globalization studies working on security sector reforms, peacebuilding and peacekeeping processes; associate professor of sociology studying social inequalities, poverty and violence in Haiti; associate professor of anthropology studying the role of power, violence and marginalization in Haiti; Haiti – Police nationale d'Haïti.

Internet sites, including:Amnesty International; EU – European Asylum Support Office; Factiva; Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; Human Rights Watch.