Chad: The Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic (Cadre d'action populaire pour la solidarité et l'unité de la République, CAP-SUR) political party, including the treatment of its members by the authorities since the presidential elections on April 10, 2016 (2015-January 2017) [TCD105719.FE]

Chad: The Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic (Cadre d'action populaire pour la solidarité et l'unité de la République, CAP-SUR) political party, including the treatment of its members by the authorities since the presidential elections on April 10, 2016 (2015-January 2017)

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. CAP-SUR

In correspondence sent to the Research Directorate, a representative of Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) - Africa, a Chadian legal organization whose objectives are to promote and to protect human rights (HRWF - Africa n.d.), stated the following:

[Translation]

The Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic (CAP-SUR) political party is an opposition party. The party’s president, [Joseph] Dadnadji Djimrangar [was] an activist of the party in power (Patriotic Salvation Movement [Mouvement patriotique du salut, MPS]). He served as minister several times under the regime of President [Idriss] Déby. He was prime minister from February to November 2013, when he resigned. He was a candidate in the presidential elections of April 10, 2016. (24 Dec. 2016)

Sources report that Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji resigned from the MPS in January 2015 (Topona 19 Jan. 2015; RFI 24 Apr. 2015). According to RFI, he created his political party, the CAP-SUR, on 15 April 2015 (ibid.).

In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a Chadian journalist-blogger, who is a human rights activist, explained that a number of current CAPSUR members are former senior officials who worked with Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji when he was prime minister and that they left the party in power at the same time as he did (3 Jan. 2017). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources indicate that political opposition parties founded the New Opposition Front for Alternation and Change (Front de l'opposition nouvelle pour l'alternance et le changement, Fonac) (DW 26 July 2016; Xinhua 7 Aug. 2016). Sources specify that Fonac was established on 26 July 2016 (Tchadinfos.com 26 July 2016; Tchadactuel 27 July 2016). The journalist-blogger indicated that CAP-SUR had been part of Fonac (journalist-blogger 3 Jan. 2017). The same source added that a new platform, called the Citizen Awakening Movement (Mouvement pour l'éveil Citoyen, MECI) and consisting of political parties and members of civil society, was recently created and that CAPSUR was part of it (ibid.). According to a document prepared in N'Djamena on 9 December 2016 and posted on the independent news site Makaila.fr, J. Djimrangar Dadnadji of CAP-SUR is a signatory of that platform (Makaila.fr 30 Dec. 2016). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

1.1 The Authorities’ Treatment of CAP-SUR Members

The journalist-blogger indicated that Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji had been prevented from travelling (3 Jan. 2017). Other sources report that the authorities prevented him from travelling on 18 December 2016, when he had to go to Cameroon to attend a scientific conference (VOA - Africa 18 Dec. 2016; DW 19 Dec. 2016).

The journalist-blogger indicated that Abdoulaye Adoudou, a member of CAPSUR, had also been prevented from travelling (journalist-blogger 3 Jan. 2017). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The journalist-blogger reported that CAP-SUR members who had worked with Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji when he was prime minister were [translation] “ostracized” by the regime in power, which was “very repressive” (ibid.). According to that same source, the entourage of CAP-SUR members is subjected to [translation] “acts of reprisal” by the regime in power (ibid.). As examples of this, the journalist-blogger mentioned that children of CAP-SUR members who attend public schools have been unable to obtain scholarships to study abroad and that the spouses of CAP-SUR members have lost their jobs in the public service (ibid.). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Further information on the authorities’ treatment of CAP-SUR members could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. However, the information that follows might prove useful.

2. Authorities’ Treatment of Opposition Members

According to Deutsche Welle (DW), a German international broadcaster (DW n.d.), “[t]he April elections took place amid a climate of repression. Opponents of the regime were jailed for organizing peaceful protests” (8 August 2016a). In addition, according to the French daily Libération, [translation] “opponents who were planning to organize demonstrations against [Idriss Déby’s] fifth presidential term were jailed before the vote…” (30 Apr. 2016).

Sources indicate that on 6 August 2016, Chadian police used tear gas to break up a Fonac rally [CAP-SUR was a member of Fonac, according to the journalist-blogger (3 Jan. 2017)] that had been prohibited by the Chadian authorities (Xinhua 7 Aug. 2016; BBC 6 Aug. 2016). With respect to that rally, the Chinese news agency Xinhua reports that Chadian police [translation] “arrested many demonstrators” (7 Aug. 2016).

A number of sources indicate that Fonac organized a march on 7 August 2016 that had been prohibited by the Chadian authorities (Xinhua 7 Aug. 2016; BBC 6 Aug. 2016). According to DW, [translation] “the dissenters were violently dispersed by defence and security forces” (8 Aug. 2016b). RFI also notes that the rally was broken up by security forces (7 Aug. 2016). Sources specify that one demonstrator was killed and that another was in serious condition (DW 8 Aug. 2016b; RFI 7 Aug. 2016). Based on information it was provided by opposition activists, RFI reports that [translation] “several of the injured were also struck with clubs” (7 Aug. 2016). Tchadinfos.com, an information portal on Chadian current affairs (Tchadinfos.com n.d.), reports that the intervention of law enforcement officials on 7 August 2016 resulted in [translation] “a few arrests” and “minor casualties and the death of a university graduate from Sarh” (ibid. 15 Nov. 2016).

Sources report that on 17 November 2016, law enforcement officials used tear gas at a Fonac rally that had been prohibited by the Chadian authorities (Tchadinfos 23 Nov. 2016; VOA - Africa 18 Nov. 2016). Sources report that activists were arrested at that rally (DW 8 Dec. 2016; TchadConvergence 6 Dec. 2016). Sources add that they were then judicially released (DW 8 Dec. 2016; RFI 8 Dec. 2016). TchadConvergence specifies that [translation] “some 30 opponents were questioned before being released, except for two party leaders, the activist Kally Mahamat and eight other activists” (TchadConvergence 24 Nov. 2016). The same source reports that a lawyer stated that [translation] “some claim to have been beaten” and that [translation] “the detention conditions at the jail [where the 11 opponents were taken] are not very good” (ibid.).

La Croix reports that [translation] “Laoukein Kourayo Médard, Mayor of Moundou, who was third in the presidential elections, denounces the harassment of his activists” (2 May 2016). An article published by Voice of America (VOA) - Africa also specifies that Laoukein Kourayo, leader of the Chadian Convention for Peace and Development (Convention tchadienne pour la paix et le développement, CTPD), [translation] “reported the arrest of his supporters, namely, Idriss Ramadan of the CTPD’s youth league and Dionadji Dionheur, the party’s departmental campaign manager,” who stated that they had been tortured by the National Security Agency (13 May 2016).

2.1 The Authorities’ Treatment of Opposition Leaders

Sources report the disappearance of Mahamat Ahmat Lazina, leader of the National Movement for Change in Chad (Mouvement national pour le changement au Tchad) (La Croix 2 May 2016; VOA - Africa 24 Apr. 2016). According to an article published by Jeune Afrique, a weekly African newspaper (Jeune Afrique 15 Oct. 2016), Mahamat Ahmat Lazina [translation] “stated that he was incarcerated for 10 days before leaving the country” (ibid. 13 May 2016).

According to an article published by the Xinhua News Agency, law enforcement officials [translation] “surrounded the residence of opposition leader Saleh Kebzabo [on 6 August 2016]…” (7 Aug. 2016). An article published by DW also reports that [translation] “the residences of opponents Saleh Kebzabo, Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji and Mahamat Ahamat Alhabo were besieged by the presidential guard” (DW 8 Aug. 2016b).

Sources mention that Dinamou Daram, president of the Socialist Party without Borders (Parti socialiste sans frontière), an opposition party that is part of Fonac, was arrested in October 2016 (TchadConvergence 6 Dec. 2016; RFI 10 Oct. 2016). The alleged reason for his arrest was a memo sent to a radio station (TchadConvergence 6 Dec. 2016; PLD 31 Oct. 2016). According to a press release prepared by the Party for Liberty and Development (Parti pour les libertés et le développement, PLD), a Chadian political party (PHW 2015), [translation] “when arrested, [Dinamou Daram] was struck, tortured and thrown in a local jail” (PLD 31 Oct. 2016). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources indicate that two opposition party presidents, Mahamat Bahr Béchir [Kindji] and Gapili [Gondebné], were arrested by Chadian police on 17 November 2016, at a Fonac rally that had been prohibited by the authorities (Tchadinfos 23 Nov. 2016; VOA - Africa 18 Nov. 2016).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

BBC. 6 August 2016. “Tchad : manifestation d'opposants dispersée.” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Chadian journalist-blogger, human rights activist. 3 January 2017. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.

La Croix. 2 May 2016. “Les disparitions se multiplient au Tchad.” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 19 December 2016. “Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji empêché de voyager.” [Accessed 22 Dec. 2016]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 8 December 2016. “Tchad : des militants de l'opposition relaxés.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 8 August 2016a. “Growing dissent in Chad as Deby embarks on fifth term.” [Accessed 9 Jan. 2016]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 8 August 2016b. “En route pour un cinquième mandat.” [Accessed 28 Dec. 2016]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 26 July 2016. “Où en est le dialogue au Tchad?” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Deutsche Welle (DW). N.d. “Deutsche Welle at a glance.” [Accessed 22 Dec. 2016]

Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) - Africa. 24 December 2016. Correspondence sent to the Research Directorate by a representative of HRWF - Africa.

Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) - Africa. N.d. “À propos.” [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017]

Jeune Afrique. 15 October 2016. “Qui sommes-nous?” [Accessed 9 Jan. 2017]

Jeune Afrique. 13 May 2016. “Tchad : après avoir été porté disparu, l'opposant Mahamat Ahmat Lazina est arrivé en France.” [Accessed 6 Jan. 2017]

Libération. 30 April 2016. “Tchad : une vague de disparitions entache la réélection de Déby.” [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017]

Makaila.fr. 30 December 2016. “Une robuste robuste coalition crée au Tchad pour balayer Idriss Deby en 2017.” [Accessed 4 Jan. 2017]

Parti pour les libertés et le développement (PLD). 31 October 2016. “Communiqué de presse.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Political Handbook of the World (PHW). 2015. “Chad.” Edited by Thomas Lansford. Wahsington, DC: CQ Press. [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017]

Radio France Internationale (RFI). 8 December 2016. “Tchad : une dizaine de militants de l'opposition libérés.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Radio France Internationale (RFI). 10 October 2016. “Tchad : un opposant, membre du FONAC, arrêté.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Radio France Internationale (RFI). 7 August 2016. “Tchad : violentes manifestations à la veille de l'investiture d'Idriss Déby.” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Radio France Internationale (RFI). 24 April 2015. “Tchad : un nouveau parti politique pour l'ex-Premier ministre Dadnadji.” [Accessed 22 Dec. 2016]

Tchadactuel. 27 July 2016. “Les partis de l'opposition démocratique ont convenu de créer un regroupement dénommé Front de l'Opposition Nouvelle pour l'Alternance et le Changement.” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

TchadConvergence. 6 December 2016. “L'ordre règne au Tchad: le Président Idriss Déby est au Palais rose, les opposants pourchassés, torturés et jetés à la sinistre prise d'Am-Sinéné.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

TchadConvergence. 24 November 2016. With the BBC and the African News Agency. “Tchad : 11 opposants dont 2 chefs de partis écroués à la sinistre prison d'Am-Sinéné dans une cellule de 4m carrés où se trouvent déjà 100 de personnes.” [Accessed 9 Jan. 2017]

Tchadinfos.com. 23 November 2016. “Deux chefs des partis et des militants de l'opposition inculpés pour attroupement non armé.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Tchadinfos.com. 15 November 2016. “Tchad : le meeting du FONAC prévu pour demain est interdit par les autorités.” [Accessed 28 Nov. 2016]

Tchadinfos.com. 26 July 2016. “Politique : le G6 maintient sa position pas d'investiture.” [Accessed 28 Dec. 2016]

Tchadinfos.com. N.d. “À propos.” [Accessed 6 Jan. 2016]

Topona, Eric. 19 January 2016. “Dadnadji quitte le navire MPS avec fracas.” Eric Topona Blog. [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Voice of America (VOA) - Africa. 18 December 2016. “Un ancien premier ministre tchadien interdit de quitter le pays.” [Accessed 29 Dec. 2016]

Voice of America (VOA) - Africa. 18 November 2016. With Agence France-Presse. “Le FONAC exige la libération de deux leaders de l'opposition au Tchad.” [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]

Voice of America (VOA) - Africa. 13 May 2016. “Tchad : une victime présumée de l'Agence nationale de sécurité témoigne.” [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017]

Voice of America (VOA) - Africa. 24 April 2016. “Un parti de l'opposition tchadienne n'a pas de nouvelles de son président depuis une semaine.” [Accessed 6 Jan. 2017]

Xinhua News Agency. 7 August 2016. “Tchad : la police disperse un meeting de l'opposition.” (Factiva)

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Association tchadienne pour la non-violence; Association tchadienne pour la promotion et la défense des droits de l’homme; Ligue tchadienne des droits de l'homme.

Internet sites, including: Africa Confidential; AfricaNews; Africa News Hub; Africa Research Bulletin; African News Agency; Afrik.com; Afriques en lutte; Agence Afrique; Amnesty International; Courrier des Afriques; Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; Freedom House; Human Rights Watch; IRIN; Jane's Intelligence Review; Journal du Tchad; Le Monde; Le Pays; United States – Department of State.