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Aktivitäten der Taliban im Bezirk Gozara (alternativ: Gozare, Guzara)
1) Im Jahr 2010
Laut einem Bericht des Afghanistan NGO Safety Office (ANSO) von Anfang August 2010 zur Sicherheitslage (Berichtszeitraum: 16. - 31. Juli) hätten sich Aktivitäten bewaffneter Oppositionsgruppen in der Provinz Herat auf die Bezirke Shindand, Adraskan und Gozara (hier: Guzara) konzentriert:
“AOG related activities in Herat province focused on Shindand, Adraskan and Guzara districts during this reporting period, according to the incidents recorded.” (ANSO, 2. August 2010, S. 10)
Ein vom Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) im Juli 2010 veröffentlichter Bericht (Autor: Antonio Giustozzi) erwähnt, dass die Taliban in den vergangenen Jahren unter anderem Verbindungen zu tadschikischen Kommandanten in mehreren Bezirken der Provinz Herat, darunter Gozara, aufgebaut hätten. Einer von ihnen, der ehemalige Taliban-Gegner und Herater Bürgermeister Ghulam Yahya Akbari, sei zum führenden Akteur geworden und habe in den Nachbarbezirken seines Heimatgebietes Gozara bis 2009 sein eigenes Netzwerk errichtet. Die Tötung Akbaris bei einer ISAF-Operation im Oktober 2009 habe eine Störung der Taliban-Aktivitäten in dem Gebiet bewirkt, und einige seiner Anhänger seien wieder zur Regierung übergelaufen. Zum Berichtszeitpunkt sei es noch zu früh, Aussagen darüber zu treffen, ob die Taliban ihren Einfluss in Gozara wiedererlangen würden:
“For a while it seemed that the Taliban were striking their greatest successes among non-Pashtuns in Herat province. Apart from having infiltrated a number of Pashtun communities, mostly in Shindand district, the Taliban gradually established a connection with a number of disgruntled Tajik former Jamiati commanders in Enjil, Guzara, Pashtun Zarghun and Obeh. Among them, the former mayor of Herat city and adversary of the Taliban, Ghulam Yahya Abkari ‘Shiawshan,’ emerged as the leading player. Apart from attracting the largest number of armed men, by 2009 he was forming his own network in the districts neighbouring his home area of Guzara, earning the loyalty of local commanders. Indeed, to date, the Taliban infiltration of these areas remains the main example of success in mobilizing Tajiks to their side. […] In October 2009, Ghulam Yahya Akbari was killed in an ISAF operation in one of his bases, alongside several of his men and three foreign ‘volunteers’ (two Arabs and an Iranian). The killing certainly disrupted Taliban operations in the area; a number of his men, particularly former Jamiatis, defected back to the government. […] At the time of writing it was too early to say whether the Taliban would recover their influence in Guzara and in other Tajik areas of Herat.” (Giustozzi, Juli 2010, S. 7-8)
Die afghanische Nachrichtenagentur Afghan Islamic Press (AIP) berichtet im August 2010 über einen Selbstmordanschlag im Bezirk Gozara, bei dem zwei Polizeibeamte getötet worden seien und zu dem sich Taliban bekannt hätten:
“There was a suicide attack near police vehicles in Gozara District of Herat Province, 5 km away from Herat airport, which resulted in two police officers, including a female officer, being killed and five policemen as well as five civilians being wounded. […] The Taleban have claimed responsibility for the attack. A Taleban spokesman, Qari Yusof Ahmadi, told AIP that the attack has been carried out by Mohammad Nasim, a Taleban member and a resident of Herat Province using a Surf type vehicle. He said Nasim targeted joint coalition and Afghan forces convoy and killed 11 soldiers.” (AIP, 8. August 2010)
Das Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) beschreibt in einem Artikel vom April 2010 unter anderem die Situation im Bezirk Gozara sechs Monate nach der Tötung des lokalen aufständischen Kommandanten Ghulam Yahya Akbari, eines ehemaligen Bürgermeisters von Herat, der Verbindungen zu extremistischen Gruppen wie Hezb-e-Islami und Taliban unterhalten habe und in den vergangenen Jahren für einen Anstieg an Fällen von Entführung, Erpressung und Gewalt in Herat verantwortlich gemacht worden sei. Unter Akbari sei insbesondere der Bezirk Gozara praktisch zu einer No-Go-Area geworden, die von Leuten aus Herat aus Angst vor Entführung durch Akbaris Männer nur selten besucht worden sei. Es bestehe weiterhin eine fest verwurzelte Furcht vor Fahrten in den Bezirk Gozara, doch gebe es auch Anzeichen für eine Stimmungsveränderung. Unter anderem sei der Basar von Gozara wieder gut besucht, und Polizeiposten seien im Bezirk verbreitet. Trotz dieser Fortschritte seien einige lokale Bewohner darüber besorgt, dass Reste der Akbari-Gang, die sich derzeit versteckt halten würden, wieder die Kontrolle über das Gebiet erlangen könnten. Die Behörden würden Spekulationen darüber, dass Akbaris Gruppe weiterhin aktiv sei, zurückweisen und erklären, dass die neue Stabilität dauerhaft sei:
„People’s entrenched fears of travelling to Gozara district are hard to shake, even six months after the elimination of infamous local insurgent commander Ghulam Yahya Akbari. But the change of mood is tangible from the start of the ten-kilometre car journey from Herat, the provincial capital: a woman passenger feels comfortable not wearing a burqa, and the driver free to play a music cassette, which would have brought punishment under Akbari’s hard-line interpretation of Islam. The road in western Afghanistan is again busy with vehicles heading to and from Gozara’s now teeming bazaar, and at the roadside, groups of young girls make their way to school. The transformation is remarkable considering the grim history of unrest associated with Akbari, a former mayor of Herat who went on to forge links with Islamic extremist groups like Hezb-e-Islami and the Taleban. The United States authorities held him responsible for an increase in kidnapping, extortion and violence in Herat in recent years, including attacks in 2008 against the United Nations Assistance Mission and Herat city airport. In particular, Gozara district became a virtual no-go zone under Akbari and daily life here was close to collapse. Akbari was killed on October 8 last year in a firefight with foreign and Afghan troops in the hills surrounding Siyawoshan, where he had made his base. Along with him 22 of his men died – about ten per cent of his entire fighting force. Some 5,000 people attended his funeral. Citizens of Herat would seldom visit Gozara for fear of abduction by his gunmen, whose presence was so strong that local police were permanently hunkered down in their own defence. Today reassuring police posts are spread around the district, which owing to its lush, picturesque scenery has re-emerged as a favourite recreation spot for Heratis. […]. But for all the rapid progress, some local people voice lingering concerns that remnants of the Akbari gang are in hiding, biding their time until they can return and resume the fight against the government and foreign forces. ‘Armed individuals who survived when Akbari was killed have been seen in the Siyawoshan area and are currently staying in the mountains,’ said Wali Khan, a 40-year-old resident of Gozara. For now the district is quiet, although local people say there is nervousness among all sides caught up in the former conflict. ‘Many people in the area still think as if Ghulam Yahya is still alive,’ said a tribal elder who wished to remain anonymous. ‘Those who were against Akbari and his men are concerned they may regain control of the area. But those who supported Akbari and his men now fear the government may imprison them.’ The authorities are quick to reject speculation that remnants of Akbari’s group are still active in Siyawoshan area and elsewhere, and say the new stability is permanent.” (IWPR, 13. April 2010)
In einer Meldung vom Juli 2010 berichtet die Nachrichtenagentur Pajhwok Afghan News über einen Bombenanschlag im Bezirk Gozara (hier: Guzara) auf ein Fahrzeug eines Polizeibeamten. Der Bezirk Gozara wird als relativ unsicher beschrieben:
“The deputy head the police recruitment centre in western Afghanistan escaped unhurt on Thursday after a remote-controlled bomb exploded near his vehicle in Herat, officials said. The incident occurred Thursday morning in the relatively insecure Guzara district, said a police spokesman, Col Abdul Rauf Ahmadi. Col. Abdul Zahir's vehicle was partly damaged in the blast, but no one was harmed, he added. No groups, including the Taliban who have intensified their use of roadside bombs, have claimed responsibility for the attack.” (Pajhwok Afghan News, 8. Juli 2010)
Afghan Islamic Press (AIP) berichtet im Februar 2010 über die Entführung und anschließende Tötung eines Stammesältesten im Bezirk Gozara:
“A tribal elder has been killed after being kidnapped [in western Herat Province]. Reports indicate that the body of the tribal elder was recovered from Gozara District of Herat province today who was kidnapped from the same district some 20 days ago. Talking to the Afghan Islamic Press [AIP], an intelligence official in Herat Province, who requested anonymity, identified the slain tribal elder as Abdol Zaher, saying his body was found from the Maslakh area of Gozara District this morning. According to the intelligence official, the tribal elder was first killed and later his body was thrown into a well.” (AIP, 16. Februar 2010)
Die spanische Online-Zeitung ABC berichtet im Februar 2010, dass es vier Monate nach dem Tod bzw. der Gefangennahme der Taliban-Führung den Aufständischen in der Provinz Herat gelungen sei, ihre Kommandeure neu zu organisieren. Ihr neuer Anführer sei Abdula Sioshani, ein Sohn von Gholam Yahya. Eine Schura der Taliban habe Sioshani mit dem Kampf gegen die ausländischen Truppen in den östlichen Bezirken der Provinz Herat, darunter Gozara, betraut. Momentan würden die Aufständischen beweisen, dass sie weiterhin dazu in der Lage seien, gegen Nato-Truppen zu kämpfen:
“Four months after the death and capture of the Taleban leadership in Herat [western Afghanistan], the insurgents have managed to reorganize their commanders and Abdula Sioshani is the new strong man. Their latest action was the launch of three rockets against the international base in which Spain has the main part of its troops deployed and in which the body of the soldier John Felipe Romero awaited the Ministry of Defence plane that repatriated his remains to Spain. The Taleban shura (council) has entrusted Sioshani with the fight against the foreign forces in the eastern districts of the province such as Obe, Cheshte-Sharif, Gozara or Pashtun Zarghun, the place in which Cristo Cabello died on 7 October in a similar attack to the one on Monday [1 February] - a pressure-activated device buried in the ground with a powerful explosive charge underneath and no remote control. The new ringleader is one of the 12 children of Gholam Yahya, the Taleban commander who the Afghan police accused of ordering the planting of the mine against the convoy of Corporal Cabello and who 24 hours after this action was killed in a joint operation by US and Afghan special forces, with Spanish cover. His two deputies are Molavi Ramazan and Faiz Mohamed Pahlawan and for the moment they continue to demonstrate their capacity to combat the NATO forces at the gates of their main base in the west of the country.” (ABC, 5. Februar 2010)
Auf die allgemeine Sicherheitslage in der Provinz Herat geht die Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe (SFH) in einer Anfragebeantwortung vom Mai 2010 ein:
·       SFH - Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe: Afghanistan: Sicherheitssituation in Herat, 5. Mai 2010 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
2) Im Jahr 2008
Das Afghanistan NGO Safety Office (ANSO) berichtet in seinem Bericht zur Sicherheitslage vom 15. Oktober 2008 (Berichtszeitraum: 1. - 15. Oktober), dass es entlang der Straße zum Flughafen, der im Bezirk Gozara (hier: Guzara) liege, eine alarmierende Zahl von Entführungen und Entführungsversuchen, vermutlich durch bewaffnete kriminelle Gruppen, gebe. Aufständische Gruppen hätten in der ländlichen Umgebung der Stadt Herat Einfluss ausgeübt und stets Entführungen vermieden, möglicherweise da diese mit kriminellen Gruppen assoziiert würden:
„The kidnapping and attempted kidnapping of persons driving along the airport road is alarming and probably the result of ACG activity. The city airport is in Guzara district (south of Herat) and the incidents there underline that even areas immediately on the southern outskirts of the city are more amenable to AOG or ACG activities. AOGs have generally been leaving the city alone and exerting influence in the surrounding countryside and have always avoided direct involvement in abductions as a tactic, possibly because of its local association with ACGs.” (ANSO, 15. Oktober 2008, S. 6)
In einem Sicherheitsupdate vom Oktober 2008 erwähnt UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR):
„Herat: Die gesamte Provinz, mit Ausnahme der Stadt Herat und der Distrikte Kohsan, Kushke Rubat Sangi, Guzara und Engil, wird als unsicher eingestuft.“ (UNHCR, 6. Oktober 2008, S. 2)
Die Afghan Islamic Press (AIP) berichtet im Oktober 2008 über einen Selbstmordanschlag im Bezirk Gozara, bei dem sieben afghanische und fünf ausländische Soldaten getötet worden seien, und zu dem sich die Taliban bekannt hätten:
“In a phone call from an undisclosed area Taleban spokesman Qari Mohammad Yosuf Ahmadi has claimed responsibility for today's suicide attack in Gozara District, Herat Province, and said that the attack was carried out at the gate of the district building, as a result of which one ranger vehicle and one tank were destroyed and seven Afghan and five foreign troops were killed. Earlier, police chief of southwest region, General Akramodin Yawar told AIP that the attack was carried out near his vehicle and only three people were wounded, including one national army soldier and two civilians.” (AIP, 5. Oktober 2008)
Der afghanische Fernsehsender Ariana TV berichtet im August 2008, dass vier Mitarbeiter des Büros des Generalstaatsanwalts in Herat von Unbekannten entführt worden seien, als sie sich in einem Dorf im Bezirk Gozara aufgehalten hätten:
“Unidentified men have kidnapped four staffers of the Attorney-General's Office in western Herat Province. The head of the investigation department of the Attorney-General's Office is also among the abductees. Provincial security officials have said that two suspects have been arrested in connection with the abduction case. According to another report, provincial officials in western Farah Province have detained three people suspected of kidnappings in this province. […] According to Abdol Rauf Ahmadi, the spokesman for regional police command in the western region, the four staff members of the Attorney-General's Office were kidnapped when they were on a picnic in Seyawshan village of Gozara District of Herat Province.” (Ariana TV, 3. August 2008)
AIP berichtet im März 2008, dass es im Bezirk Gozara zu einem bewaffneten Angriff auf einen hochrangigen Beamten gekommen sei, bei dem dieser sowie ein Passant verletzt worden seien. Ein angeblicher Sprecher der Taliban habe Verantwortung für den Angriff übernommen:
“Gunmen sprayed a volley of bullets at the vehicle of a high-ranking Afghan transportation officer in Gozara District of western Herat Province, injuring him and a passer-by, a police official told AIP [Afghan Islamic Press] today (Sunday). […] Meanwhile, claiming responsibility for the attack, a purported Taleban spokesman, Qari Mohammad Yusof, told AIP that Haji Abdol Baqi was injured in the attack while two of his men were killed.” (AIP, 2. März 2008)
Der Herater Radiosender Radio Sahar berichtet in einer Sendung vom Februar 2008 über eine Operation afghanischer Sicherheitskräfte in den Bezirken Gozara und Adraskan, die stattgefunden habe, nachdem zuvor sechs Personen von Aufständischen entführt und später von Regierungstruppen befreit worden seien. Laut Angaben des Polizeichefs von Herat seien diese Bezirke nun frei von Aufständischen, weiters habe man Beweise für Verbindungen zwischen ihnen und den Taliban gefunden. Laut Radio Sahar sei die Sicherheitslage im Bezirk Gozara nicht gut:
“Gen Mohammad Joma Adil, the Herat police chief, says that the Afghan security forces, backed by NATO troops in western Afghanistan, have organized a mopping-up operation in two districts, Gozara and Adraskan. He has said that they have discovered three arms caches and wounded two insurgents. According to the commander, the forces have seized 50 mines, 20 missile launchers and some other types of weapons and ammunition. […] The general claims they have cleared both districts of the insurgents. He adds that they have discovered evidence proving that the insurgents in Gozara District had established relations with the Taleban. Gozara District does not enjoy good security. It is worth pointing out that the operation was launched after six citizens were kidnapped by the insurgents but then rescued by the government forces.” (Radio Sahar, 21. Februar 2008)
CNN berichtet im Juni 2008, dass eine Polizistin im Bezirk Gozara (hier: Guzara) von Bewaffneten auf einem Motorrad erschossen worden sei:   
“In the Guzara district of Herat province in the west, gunmen on a motorbike fatally shot a female police officer, police said. The attackers were arrested and are being interrogated, said Abdul Raouf Ahmadi, spokesman for police forces in western region. He said he believes that the officer was the first female Afghan police officer to die in the line of duty since the fall of the Taliban in 2001.” (CNN, 24. Juni 2008)
Quellen (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 18. August 2010)
·       ABC: Taleban regroup around Spanish base in western Afghanistan, 5. Februar 2010 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       AIP - Afghan Islamic Press: Kidnappers kill tribal elder in Afghan west, 16. Februar 2010
(veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       AIP – Afghan Islamic Press: Taleban claim responsibility for suicide attack in Afghan west, 5. Oktober 2008 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       AIP – Afghan Islamic Press: Taleban claim responsibility for attack on Afghan provincial official, 2. März 2008 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       AIP - Afghan Islamic Press: Taleban claim responsibility for suicide attack on police convoy in Afghan west, 8. August 2010 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       ANSO – Afghanistan NGO Safety Office: The ANSO Report 16-31 July 2010, 2. August 2010 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
·       ANSO – Afghanistan NGO Safety Office: The Anso Report October 1st to 15th 2008, 15. Oktober 2008 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
·       Ariana TV: Four Attorney-General's Office staffers kidnapped in Afghan west, 3. August 2008 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       CIGI - Centre for International Governance Innovation: The Taliban Beyond the Pashtuns (Autor: Giustozzi, Antonio). In: Afghanistan Papers Nr. 5, 19. Juli 2010
·       CNN: Afghanistan violence leaves 32 dead, 24. Juni 2008
·       IWPR - Institute for War and Peace Reporting: New Lease of Life for Liberated Herat District, 13. April 2010
·       Pajhwok Afghan News: Police recruiting official escapes unhurt in Herat bombing, 8. Juli 2010 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       Radio Sahar: Two insurgents wounded in mopping-up operation in Afghan west, 21. Februar 2008 (veröffentlicht auf LexisNexis)
·       SFH - Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe: Afghanistan: Sicherheitssituation in Herat, 5. Mai 2010 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
·       UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: Afghanistan Security Update Relating to Complementary Forms of Protection, 6. Oktober 2008 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)