a-7323-3 (ACC-SUD-7323-3)

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.
Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar.
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Die folgenden Zitate enthalten Informationen zu oben genannter Fragestellung (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 27. Juli 2010):
·       USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2009 - Sudan, 11. März 2010
„In January in and around Muhajeria, South Darfur, fighting involving government forces and SLA/MM against the JEM resulted in deaths, injuries, and displacement of civilians. On January 14, the JEM attacked SLA/MM-controlled Muhajeria and took control of the town until February 3, when it withdrew. Government forces conducted aerial bombing of the area from January 22 to February 4. Two of the bombs hit an IDP site, killing a child. The fighting and bombing resulted in the almost complete displacement of the area's 30,000 residents. […] Rebel forces based in Chad attacked government military installations, resulting in civilian displacement. For example, on May 24, in Umm Barro, North Darfur, fighting between government and JEM forces resulted in the displacement of 300 civilians.“ (USDOS, 11. März 2010, Section 1g)
·       HRW - Human Rights Watch: World Report 2010 – Sudan, 20. Jänner 2010
„In early 2009 fighting between government forces and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels in Muhajeria, South Darfur, displaced more than 40,000 civilians. The government used indiscriminate force through aerial bombing, often in combination with ground forces, to attack civilian populations linked to rebel movements. In May, during government-JEM clashes in North Darfur, witnesses reported heavy aerial bombing on civilian areas with scores killed and many more injured. After a lull during the rainy season, fighting resumed in September when government forces clashed with rebel movements in North Darfur, killing more than a dozen civilians and destroying several villages.“ (HRW, 20. Jänner 2010)
·       UNSC – UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the African Union- United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) [S/2009/592], 16. November 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
“In addition to threats posed by criminal activity, military activities by the parties to the conflict in Darfur continued throughout the reporting period. The Government of the Sudan continued to exert military pressure on the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and as the Sudan Liberation Army/Abdul Wahid faction (SLA/AW). Fighting broke out between JEM and Government forces in Adilla and Alliet localities in Southern Darfur on 2 August 2009. Government aircraft reportedly flew over Abu Sufyan and Um Sauna, north of El Daein, and dropped bombs in areas suspected to be JEM positions. In Northern Darfur, JEM and Government forces clashed near Mellit and Saiyah villages on 5 and 6 August 2009, and again on 9 August 2009 near Kushkush, where JEM ambushed Government troops that were moving to Silea and Kulbus in Western Darfur. UNAMID was able to confirm that Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) combat helicopters providing air cover for their advancing troops retaliated by bombing areas suspected to be occupied by JEM.” (UNSC, 16. November 2009, S. 2-3)
“During the reporting period, UNAMID continued its efforts to gain access to two Justice and Equality Movement soldiers in the custody of the Government in Khartoum in order to verify whether they were being treated in accordance with the Government’s obligations under international humanitarian law. The two soldiers were among the several injured in the fighting between the Government and JEM forces near Um Barru, Northern Darfur, in late May 2009. Attempts to gain access to the prisoners were repeatedly denied by Government authorities. […] Fighting between SAF and JEM forces on 5 and 6 August in Northern Darfur and 9 August in Western Darfur has put civilians’ lives at risk and demonstrates that the parties have not made a full commitment to a political solution to the Darfur crisis.” (UNSC, 16. November 2009, S. 11-12)
·       UNSC – UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the deployment of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur, [S/2009/297], 9. Juni 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
“Despite the 3 May 2009 Doha Agreement between the Governments of Chad and the Sudan, the period under review was characterized by increased fighting along the Chad-Sudan border, an incursion into Western Darfur by Chadian national forces, and several clashes in Western Darfur between JEM and SLA/Minni Minawi (SLA/MM) supported by the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF).
11. On 5 May, following a reported build-up of JEM forces in eastern Chad, UNAMID received reports that JEM had occupied Umm Barru, Northern Darfur, and several nearby locations, including Shegeg Karo, Mozbat and Farawiya. Subsequent clashes occurred in those locations on 6 and 7 May between JEM and SLA/MM, supported by SAF. On 8 and 9 May, UNAMID observed SAF aerial bombardments of JEM locations near Umm Barru, in response to which approximately 160 civilians gathered in the UNAMID team site in Umm Barru. At the request of SLA/MM, UNAMID evacuated 30 injured SLA/MM combatants from Umm Barru to El Fasher on 10 May 2009.
12. On 17 May 2009, JEM forces attacked and seized control of a government military base in Kornoi (50 km west of Umm Barru). On 20 May, 15 government soldiers received medical assistance at the UNAMID team site in Umm Barru. On 24 May 2009, JEM forces attacked an SAF camp in Umm Barru, during which approximately 350 civilians sought refuge in the UNAMID team site in Umm Barru and 53 wounded persons were treated by UNAMID personnel. During the fighting, rounds struck the UNAMID team site in Umm Barru causing damage to 14 UNAMID vehicles. As at 26 May 2009, Government and SLA/Minni Minawi forces still held Umm Barru and fighting had ceased.” (UNSC, 9. Juni 2009, S. 3)
·       UNHRC – UN Human Rights Council: Human Rights Situations That Require The Council’s Attention – Report Of The Special Rapporteur On The Situation Of Human Rights In The Sudan, Sima Samar [A/HRC/11/14], Juni 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
“In North Darfur, the security situation remains volatile and tense. In early to mid- September 2008, Government forces launched a large scale offensive against non-signatories to the DPA targeting 20 villages including Dis, Birmaza north of Kutum town, and Tarnyt, Tabit, Khazan Tungur villages near El Fasher. Some 35,000 people were believed to have fled the areas. A UNAMID mission to Disa and Birmaza villages was aborted on 17 September 2008, as the helicopter came under fire by an unknown armed group. On 24 January 2009 the Government conducted air strikes in Umm Sauunna, 24 km west of Haskanita. On 26 January 2009, clashes occurred between SAF and JEM, following an aerial bombardment by Government Antonov planes in Shawa, south of El Fasher, in which the Government targeted JEM soldiers gathered outside El Fasher. Although UNAMID could not verify the number, civilian casualties were reported, as well as some displacement. Clashes between members of the Zaghawa and Mima tribes in Shangil Tobaya area and in Wada’ah also had an impact on the human rights and security situation. Fighting between the Government and JEM continues in Umm Baro, and the number of civilian casualties remains unknown since UNAMID Human Rights Officers have not been able to access the area due to security restrictions.” (UNHRC, Juni 2009, S. 12)
·       Reuters: Darfur clashes over army base kill 63: military, 25. Mai 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ReliefWeb)
“Twenty Sudanese soldiers and 43 Darfur rebels were killed in fierce clashes over a Sudanese army base close to the Chadian border, the country's army said on Monday. Darfur's rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said it attacked the army base in the settlement of Umm Baru, in north Darfur on Sunday, the second military camp it has raided in just over a week. […] Sudan's army spokesman Brigadier Uthman al-Agbash told state media that government soldiers had routed the rebel forces and 43 JEM fighters had been killed and 54 injured. He told the Sudanese Media Centre 20 of his soldiers had also been killed and 31 injured. "The remnants of JEM's armed forces have fled to the Sudan- Chad border," he said. Khartoum accuses its neighbour Chad of backing JEM. […] JEM gave varying accounts of the fighting. Senior commander Suleiman Sandal insisted JEM was still largely in control of Umm Baru on Monday morning and had sent out units to confront an expected government counter-attack from the south and east. JEM humanitarian chief Suleiman Jamous told Reuters the rebel forces had pulled out of the settlement after government planes started bombing the area.“ (Reuters, 25. Mai 2009)
·       Reuters: Darfur fighters take Sudan army base – peacekeepers, 24. Mai 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ReliefWeb)
“Armed raiders using mortars and heavy guns seized a Sudanese army base near the Chad border in Darfur on Sunday, the second reportedly taken in just over a week, international peacekeepers said. Sudan's army denied the base had been taken, telling state media they had routed rebels who attacked the remote settlement of Umm Baru. The joint U.N./African Union UNAMID peacekeeping force said it could not confirm the identity of the attackers but suspected the rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) that has been active in the area. […] Any JEM involvement would heighten already deeply troubled relations between Sudan and Chad, as Khartoum accuses the N'Djamena government of backing the insurgent force. Sudan's army spokesman Brigadier Uthman al-Agbash told the state Sudanese Media centre his men had defeated the attackers, who he said were JEM backed by Chadian forces. […] There was no one immediately available to comment on the fighting from JEM. Tensions have been building along Sudan's remote border with Chad for weeks. […] JEM said it seized a Sudanese army base at Kornoi, a settlement just 50 km (31 miles) west of Umm Baru, on May 16, along a road that runs towards a crossing point into Chad. The governor of North Darfur later accused Chad of sending troops to fight alongside JEM during the battle, which he said the Sudanese government forces won. There have been signs of JEM re-arming and re-grouping in North Darfur in recent weeks -- it fought former rebels aligned with Sudan's government around Umm Baru earlier this month.” (Reuters, 24. Mai 2009)
·       Reuters: Darfur rebels accuse Sudan of daily bombing, 24. Mai 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ReliefWeb)
“Darfur rebels on Sunday accused Sudan's government of mounting daily bombing raids around their positions and said they were expecting another clash with state troops soon. The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said it had faced regular raids since its rebel forces seized the strategic town of Kornoi last weekend in North Darfur, the scene of a recent surge in fighting and growing tensions with neighbour Chad. U.N. sources, speaking on condition of anonymity, said they had received unconfirmed reports of aerial attacks in territory around the settlements of Tina, Kornoi and Umm Baru, all along a road that leads northwest to a crossing point into Chad. No one from Sudan's armed forces was immediately available to comment. "There is a government Antonov over my head right now," said senior JEM commander Suleiman Sandal, speaking to Reuters by satellite phone on Sunday morning. ’They have been bombing every day. They bomb randomly. Yesterday we were bombed by MiGs,’ he said. It was unclear how many casualties there were. Sandal said his commanders had heard Sudanese government troops were heading towards them, from El Fasher, capital of North Darfur. ’More fighting is imminent. But we are ready for anything that comes,’ he said. Air attacks in Darfur are banned under U.N. Security Council resolutions and a series of failed ceasefires, but Khartoum has in the past reserved the right to attack JEM and other rebels who did not sign a 2006 Darfur peace deal.” (Reuters, 24. Mai 2009)
·       Reuters: Clashes in North Darfur, civilians flee, 9. Mai 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ReliefWeb)
“Darfur rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) clashed with forces loyal to a former rebel leader in North Darfur on Saturday, rebels and the Sudanese army said. A spokesman for the UNAMID peacekeeping force said there were unconfirmed reports about fighting between the government and JEM in North Darfur and that about 160 people had been displaced. JEM commander Suleiman Sandal told Reuters JEM forces had fought off an ambush in Umm Baru by Sudanese armed forces and troops loyal to former rebel Minni Arcua Minnawi, the only Darfur rebel to sign a peace deal with the government in 2006. ’JEM was subjected to a treacherous ambush by government forces aided by Minni's forces. JEM was able to completely defeat the forces and crush and destroy them, and was able to capture some light and heavy weapons,’ Sandal said. A spokesman from the Sudanese army confirmed clashes had taken place between JEM and troops loyal to Minnawi, but denied government forces had been involved. UNAMID spokesman Noureddine Mezni said: ’Civilian populations from that area, because of the fighting, have started moving towards our camp. They are mostly women, children and older people, and we are taking care of them.’ Minnawi leads a faction of the Sudan Liberation Army and became a presidential assistant after the 2006 peace agreement.” (Reuters, 9. Mai 2009)
·       UNSC – UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the deployment of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur [S/2009/201], 14. April 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)
“Notwithstanding the positive political steps made by the Government and JEM in Doha in February 2009, an alarming number of clashes took place between the two parties over the reporting period.
8. Following the withdrawal of JEM from the town of Muhajeriya in Southern Darfur on 3 February 2009, Government forces pursued JEM during its retreat northwards towards eastern Jebel Marra (Northern Darfur). I reflected this event in an earlier report to the Security Council (S/2009/83). Subsequently, on 11 February, clashes were reported on the ground between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and JEM in the area north of Al Mallam and Dobo villages (west of Shangil Tobaya, Northern Darfur). As a follow-up action, on 5 February, Joint Special Representative Rodolphe Adada met with the JEM leadership in N’Djamena to establish an effective communication channel between JEM and UNAMID in areas controlled by the Movement and agreed in principle to establish a liaison and coordination mechanism for the protection and the safe movement of civilians and the humanitarian community.
9. UNAMID received numerous reports of aerial bombardment, including night attacks, of actual and suspected JEM positions by Government forces during the two-week period following the withdrawal of JEM from Muhajeriya, including reports of bombing of Dobo Madrassa, Tarny, Dabaneria, Dobo, Kutur, Fanga Suk, Deribat, Kazan Tanjur and Falluja (Northern Darfur) on 6 February; around Afara Mountains near Beli Ali Seref village (20 km west from Shangil Tobaya, Northern Darfur) on 8 February; around Tarny village (60 km south-west of El Fasher) on 9 February; in areas of Dobo El Sug, Madrasa, Dabaneira, Dobo Djedid, Kutur Dubo, El Omda and Funga on 10 February; and Dobo Madrassa (Northern Darfur) on 13 February.
10. On 9 February, a UNAMID cargo helicopter on a supply mission from El Fasher to Mukjar (Northern Darfur) was fired upon while flying over Dabaneira village in the Al Mallam area. None of the four crew members on board sustained injuries. Although the windscreen of the helicopter was hit by a bullet, the aircraft was able to return safely to El Fasher.
11. On 17 February, JEM forces started to move north in the vicinity of Kafod (Northern Darfur) and engaged in clashes with the Government of the Sudan and SLA/Minni Minnawi (SLA/MM) forces simultaneously. JEM forces also clashed with Government forces at Turr, Daba Tuga and Donki Shatta, and with SLA/MM at Wana, Daba Tuga, Thabit and Wadi Mora areas (Northern Darfur) and were militarily engaged by other movements. Nearly all clashes were preceded by aerial bombardment by Government aircraft. Fighting continued until JEM retreated westward across the border into Chad around 25 February.” (UNSC, 14. April 2009, S. 2-3)
“For example, a UNAMID convoy from Zalingei was denied access to Mukjar (Western Darfur) on 17 February 2009, while a patrol from Khor Abeche to Al Mallam (50 km south-west of Shangil Tobaya, Northern Darfur) was denied access on 19 February, following clashes between Government forces and JEM in eastern Jebel Marra. In one instance, access to Al Riyadh camp for internally displaced persons in El Geneina (Western Darfur) was denied to a UNAMID night patrol on 8 March. This issue was subsequently resolved at the local level.” (UNSC, 14. April 2009, S. 7)
·       AFP – Agence-France Presse: Darfur rebel group says peace talks not possible, 4. März 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ReliefWeb)
„The Justice and Equality Movement had signed a deal on confidence-building measures with Khartoum in the Qatari capital Doha last month which the European Union hailed as an "important step in the right direction."  […] The JEM refused to sign a largely abortive 2006 peace deal for Darfur and in May last year launched an unprecedented assault on the Sudanese capital.
In January and February, it was involved in renewed fighting with government troops and their allies that international peacekeepers described as the most intense in Darfur since the 2006 deal.“ (AFP, 4. März 2009)
Darüber hinaus finden sich in der folgenden ACCORD-Anfragebeantwortung vom Juli 2009 Informationen über Zusammenstöße zwischen den Regierungstruppen und JEM in Muhajiriyah (Darfur):
·       ACCORD: a-6859 (Konflikte zwischen Regierungstruppen und Rebellenbewegung (Al Adel & Al Musawa) in Muhajiriyah (Darfur)), 15. Juli 2009 (veröffentlicht auf ecoi.net)