The nature and use of electoral tables (mesas electorales); whether the "president" (titular) of an electoral table can be a candidate in an election; whether the Peruvian authorities conduct security screenings of a potential titular; whether there are pre-requisites to become a titular; whether one needs to register to become a titular and whether this needs to be done in Peru (2004 - April 2006) [PER101290.E]

Au cours d'un entretien téléphonique qui a eu lieu le 18 avril 2006, le ministre-conseil de l'ambassade du Pérou à Ottawa a révélé qu'au Pérou, les électeurs sont divisés en tables électorales (mesas electorales). Puisque chaque table électorale représente entre 200 et 250 personnes, le Pérou, qui compte approximativement 16 millions d'habitants, est divisé en 80 000 tables électorales (Pérou 18 avr. 2006). Selon Notimex, service de nouvelles mexicain, il y avait 85 971 tables électorales pour les élections d'avril 2006 (9 avr. 2006). Au cours d'une élection ou d'un référendum, les tables électorales sont rassemblées dans des collèges ou des écoles où les électeurs se rendent pour voter (Pérou 18 avr. 2006). Le vote est obligatoire au Pérou et, à l'âge de 18 ans, tous les Péruviens doivent s'inscrire sur la liste électorale (ibid.).

Pour de plus amples renseignements sur la définition juridique des tables électorales et les règles régissant leur fonctionnement, veuillez consulter le chapitre 6 de la partie III de la loi organique sur les élections (Ley Orgánica de Elecciones N° 26859), qui est annexé à la présente réponse.

Le Bureau national des processus électoraux (Oficina Nacional de Proceso Electorales - ONPE) organise les élections (Pérou 3 mai 2006; ibid. 18 avr. 2006). Pour chaque élection ou référendum et pour chaque table électorale, l'ONPE détermine qui agira à titre de titular et qui seront les deux autres membres de la table électorale (ibid.). Outre le titular, l'un des deux autres membres fait office de secrétaire de la table (ibid. 3 mai 2006). Les trois membres de la table reçoivent une formation et le matériel électoral nécessaire (ibid. 18 avr. 2006). D'après un représentant de l'ONPE, les membres de la table électorale doivent accomplir les tâches suivantes : préparer la table, diriger le scrutin et compter les votes (ibid. 3 mai 2006). L'ONPE choisit également trois remplaçants pour chaque table électorale (ibid.).

Le ministre-conseil de l'ambassade du Pérou à Ottawa a confirmé qu'après une élection, les trois membres de la table sont tenus de dépouiller le scrutin et de remplir les formulaires requis (ibid. 18 avr. 2006). Ils doivent également régler tout problème qui peut survenir à leur table (ibid. 3 mai 2006).

Selon le ministre-conseil, il n'y a aucun prérequis pour être membre d'une table électorale (ibid. 18 avr. 2006). Il faut seulement être un électeur admissible (c.-à-d. avoir son nom inscrit sur la liste électorale d'une table) (ibid.). Toutefois, puisque les prisonniers n'ont pas le droit de vote, ils ne peuvent pas être choisis comme membres d'une table électorale (ibid.). De plus, toute personne qui est candidate aux élections ne peut pas être titular ou membre d'une table électorale (ibid.; ibid. 3 mai 2006).

Outre l'obligation d'être inscrit sur la liste des électeurs admissibles, le ministre-conseil ne savait pas si un titular et les membres potentiels d'une table électorale font l'objet d'une vérification de sécurité dans le cadre du processus de sélection (ibid. 18 avr. 2006). Des sources gouvernementales mentionnaient également que l'ONPE privilégie les membres ayant fait des études supérieures (ibid. 3 mai 2006; voir aussi ibid. 18 avr. 2006) ou n'ayant jamais occupé ce poste auparavant (ibid. 3 mai 2006). Les bureaux régionaux et le bureau central à Lima peuvent participer au processus de sélection (ibid. 18 avr. 2006).

D'après le ministère des Affaires étrangères du Pérou, les Péruviens qui vivent à l'étranger ne sont pas tenus de voter lors des élections municipales (s.d.a). Cependant, ils peuvent recevoir une amende s'ils omettent de faire changer leur adresse sur leur pièce d'identité nationale (documento nacional de identidad - DNI) et qu'ils ne votent pas ou ne sont pas en mesure d'agir à titre de membre d'une table électorale (Pérou s.d.a).

Le jury national des élections (Jurado Nacional de Elecciones) a déclaré que certaines personnes peuvent être dispensées de payer les amendes électorales pour des raisons médicales (s.d.b).

Cette réponse a été préparée par la Direction des recherches à l'aide de renseignements puisés dans les sources qui sont à la disposition du public, et auxquelles la Direction des recherches a pu avoir accès dans les délais prescrits. Cette réponse n'apporte pas, ni ne prétend apporter, de preuves concluantes quant au fondement d'une demande d'asile. Veuillez trouver ci-dessous la liste des autres sources consultées pour la réponse à cette demande d'information.

Références


Notimex [Mexico]. 9 avril 2006. « Cierran mesas electorales en Peru e inicia escrutinio de votos ». (Factiva)

Pérou. 3 mai 2006. Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales (ONPE). Communication écrite envoyée par un représentant.

_____ . 18 avril 2006. Ambassade du Pérou à Ottawa. Entretien téléphonique avec le ministre-conseil.

_____ . 1er octobre 1997. Jurado Nacional de Elecciones. Ley Orgánica de Elecciones N° 26859. http://www.jne.gob.pe/modulos/archivos/sec_Informacion/documentos/lojne6.pdf [Date de consultation : 13 avr. 2006]

_____ . S.d.a. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. « Régimen electoral de los peruanos en el exterior ». http://www.rree.gob.pe/portal/aconsular.nsf/bd437a0309e5e7be05256bff006da083/c9c7cf995b5374e9052570d5006a7db8?OpenDocument [Date de consultation : 18 avr. 2006]

_____ . S.d.b. Jurado Nacional de Elecciones. « Preguntas Frecuentes ». http://www.jne.gob.pe/index.php?t=1&option=com_content&task=view&id=81&Itemid=5 [Date de consultation : 13 avr. 2006]

Autres sources consultées


Sites Internet, y compris : ambassade du Pérou au Canada, consulat général du Pérou à Toronto, Factiva, Jurado Nacional de Elecciones, Political Database of the Americas, World News Connection.

Document annexé


Pérou. 1er octobre 1997. Jurado Nacional de Elecciones. Ley Orgánica de Elecciones N° 26859. Chapitre 6. Traduction de la Direction de la traduction multilingue, Bureau de la traduction, Travaux publics et services gouvernementaux Canada. Document annexé

Pérou. 1er octobre 1997. Jurado Nacional de Elecciones. Ley Orgánica de Elecciones N° 26859. Chapitre 6. Traduction de la Direction de la traduction multilingue, Bureau de la traduction, Travaux publics et services gouvernementaux Canada.

Law No. 26859

Promulgated on 29 September 1997
Published on 01 October 1997

PART IIIElectoral Bodies

[...]
CHAPTER 6
Voting stations
Table of contents

Purpose of voting stations

Article 51.- The purpose of the voting station or voting table (mesa de sufragio) is to receive the votes of electors in referenda and other popular consultations, as well as vote counting, computation and elaboration of election return forms.

Establishment of voting stations

Article 52.- Each political district of the Republic shall have as many voting stations as correspond to groups of at least 200 and no more than 300 citizens entitled to cast votes. The number of citizens per voting station is determined by the National Office of Electoral Processes (Oficina Nacional de Processes Electorales - ONPE).
Article 53.- Each voting station shall be identified by a number and the lists of electors per voting station shall be drawn up on the basis of the citizens registered in the electoral district, in numerical order.
Article 54.- If the number of citizens registered with the National Register of Identification and Civil Status (Registro Nacional de Identificación y Estado Civil) in an electoral district is less than 200, one voting station shall be established in any case.

Appointment of Voting Station Officers

Article 55.- Each voting station is composed of three officers. The first officer to be designated shall serve as president and the second as secretary. The officers shall be chosen in a process of random draw from a list of 25 citizens selected from among the electors of the voting station. The process of selection and drawing of names is conducted under the responsibility of the National Office of Electoral Processes, in coordination with the National Register of Identification and Civil Status. Three additional members shall be drawn on the same occasion; these shall serve as substitutes.
Computerized systems may be used for selecting the list of citizens referred to in the preceding paragraph and for drawing the names of voting station officers.When selecting citizens, preference shall be given to persons with a higher level of education or to those who have not held such positions in the past.
Article 56.- The drawing of names of officers may be overseen by representatives of the political parties, independent groups and alliances who are duly accredited before the Special Electoral Jury (Jurado Electoral Especial - JEE), or before the National Electoral Jury (Jurado Nacional de Elecciones - JNE), as the case may be. An official record of the draw for the officers for each voting station shall be prepared in duplicate. One copy shall be sent immediately to the Special Electoral Jury (JEE) and the other to the National Electoral Jury (JNE).

Who may not be a Voting Station Officer

Article 57.- The following shall not be appointed as a voting station officer:
a) Candidates or accredited representatives of political parties, independent groupings and alliances
b) Officials or employees of entities of the Peruvian Electoral System;
c) Political authorities and members of Municipal Councils;
d) Citizens who are members of boards of directors of political parties, independent groupings and alliances registered with the National Electoral Jury (JNE);
e) Spouses or persons related by two degrees of consanguinity or affinity to another officer of the same voting station; and
f) Electors temporarily absent from Peru according to the official record furnished by the National Register of Identification and Civil Status.
The state entities with jurisdiction over citizens in the conditions mentioned in paragraphs a), b), c), d) and f) above are required by law to furnish the relevant information to the National Office of Electoral Processes, so that those citizens will not be considered in the drawing of names for voting station officers.

Irrevocable appointment

Article 58.- A person appointed as a voting station officer cannot resign his or her appointment except in cases of notorious or grave physical or mental impediment, necessity to absent himself or herself from Peru, the existence of one of the incompatibilities listed in the preceding article, or if the officer is older than 70 years.The resignation shall be submitted in writing, accompanied by instrumental proof, within five days of the publication referred to in Article 61.

Deadlines for drawing of voting station officers, numbering and establishment of voting stations

Article 59.- The numbering of the voting stations and the drawing of officers shall be conducted by the corresponding Decentralized Offices of Electoral Processes (Oficinas Decentralizadas de Procesos Electorales - ODPE) at least 45 calendar days before the date set for the election. The establishment of the voting stations shall be made known immediately through the communication media and by means of posters affixed in public buildings and in the most heavily frequented places in the locality.The National Register of Identification and Civil Status shall furnish to the National Office of Electoral Processes, no later than five days after the drawing of names of the voting station officers, the addresses of the citizens appointed as officers.
Challenges to the establishment of voting stations or appointment of voting station officers Article 60.- Following the publication of the information referred to in Article 61, any registered citizen and with valid rights before the National Register of Identification and Civil Status or any accredited representative may, within three days of the publication, challenge the establishment of a voting station or appointment of a voting station officer. Challenges not substantiated by instrumental proof shall not be admitted by the Decentralized Offices of Electoral Processes. Substantiated challenges shall be forwarded on the same day that they are received to the Special Electoral Jury (JEE), which shall rule on them within 24 hours of their having been submitted. The decision of the Special Electoral Jury concerning the challenge is final.
Article 61.- Once challenges have been ruled on or the deadline for submitting challenges has passed, the Special Electoral Jury (JEE) shall communicate the result to the Decentralized Office of Electoral Processes, which shall publish the names of the voting station officers and substitutes and invite those residing in the capital of the province to present themselves to the respective Decentralized Office of Electoral Processes within ten calendar days following publication to receive their credentials.If challenges against the three officers and one or more substitutes are ruled to be justified, a new draw shall be held within a maximum of three days.
ExceptionArticle 60.- In exceptional cases, the National Office of Electoral Processes may establish that the voting station officers shall be the same officers who fulfilled that role in the previous electoral process.

Publication of list of voting station officers

Article 63.- The list of names of voting station officers appointed, with names, identity card number and location of voting station, shall be published one time only in the official newspaper "El Peruano" or in the largest-circulation daily newspaper, in special sections furnished by the National Office of Electoral Processes. The foregoing does not exclude that these lists may be furnished to the public offices which may further circulate them.In the provincial capitals without daily newspapers, publication shall be in the form of posters affixed in public buildings and in the most heavily-frequented places.

Second-round elections

Article 64.- In the event that a second-round election is held, the voting station officers shall be the same as those who served in this capacity in the first round, and there shall be no requirement for another draw.

Locations of voting stations

Article 65.- The locations of voting stations shall be designated by the Decentralized Offices of Electoral Processes in the following order:
Schools, municipalities, courts and public buildings not intended for the use of the Armed Forces, the National Police or political authorities.
Wherever possible, the Decentralized Offices of Electoral Processes shall ensure that the largest possible number of voting stations operate in a single locale, as long as the polling booths meet the criteria established by the law and absolute independence between them can be maintained.
Article 66.- Once the locales in which the voting stations will operate have been designated, the Decentralized Offices of Electoral Processes shall make known their location no less than ten days before the date set for the elections, in the official newspaper "El Peruano" or in a newspaper published in the capital of the province, as the case may be. In provincial capitals where no newspaper is published, publication shall be by means of posters affixed in public buildings and the most heavily frequented places, and by judicial notices. The Decentralized Office of Electoral Processes may also order the information to be published in another newspaper of the same place. The publications, whether in newspapers or by means of posters, shall indicate accurately and precisely the location of the voting station and the names of the voting station officers and their substitutes.
Article 67.- Once published, the location of the voting stations shall not be changed except for reasons of force majeure, as approved by the Decentralized Office of Electoral Processes and with the consent of the Special Electoral Jury.