Algeria: Situation of single women and women who head their own households and their treatment by society and authorities, including their ability to live on their own and access housing, education, income, health care, and support services, particularly in Algiers, Oran and Annaba (2020–July 2022) [DZA201102.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada

1. Overview

According to Horizons, a national [government] newspaper in Algiers (Horizons n.d.), there has been an increase in the number of single women in the country (Horizons 24 Jan. 2022). Similarly, a report by the Information and Documentation Centre for Children's and Women's Rights (Centre d'information et de documentation sur les droits de l'enfant et de la femme, CIDDEF) [1], indicates a decrease in marriages between 2013 and 2020 (CIDDEF 2021, 10). The same source reports that the average age for marriage for women in 2020 was 27, and states that this [relatively higher] marrying age is the result of improved levels of education and greater independence among Algerian women (CIDDEF 2021, 11). However, in an interview with the Research Directorate, a women's rights lawyer and advocate based in Algeria indicated that "you still have to end up married, no matter your education" (Lawyer 14 June 2022).

2. Legislation

The Constitution of Algeria, 1996, amended in 2020, provides the following:

Art. 37. – All citizens shall be equal before the law and shall be guaranteed the right to equal protection. There shall be no pretext for discrimination on the basis of birth, race, gender, opinion, or any other personal or social condition or situation.

Art. 40. – The State shall protect women from all forms of violence in all places and situations in the public, professional, and private spheres.

The law shall guarantee victims access to shelter and care facilities, appropriate appeal methods, and free legal assistance.

Art. 66 [2]. – The State shall contribute to enabling citizens to find housing.

The State shall work towards facilitating the access to housing for disadvantaged categories. (Algeria 1996)

The Family Code of Algeria, 1984, amended in 2007, provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 58. – A non-pregnant woman divorced after consummation of the marriage is obliged to observe a legal retreat, the duration of which is three periods of menstrual purity. For a divorced woman who has stopped menstruating, the legal retreat is three months from the date of declaration of divorce.

Art. 59. – A wife whose husband dies is obliged to observe a legal retreat period of four months and ten days. The same applies to a wife whose husband is declared missing, as of the date of the pronouncement of the judgment establishing the disappearance.

Art. 60. – The legal retreat of a pregnant woman lasts until her delivery. The maximum duration of pregnancy is 10 months from the day of divorce or death of the husband.

Art. 61. – A divorced woman, as well as a woman whose husband is deceased, is not required to leave the marital home during her period of legal retreat except in the case of duly established immoral fault. The divorced woman is also entitled to alimony during her legal retreat.

On the Right of Custoday (Hadana)

Art. 62. – The right of custody (hadana) consists in the maintenance, schooling and education of the child in the religion of his father as well as in the safeguarding of the child’s physical and moral health.

The holder of this right must be able to fulfill the related responsibilities.

Art. 64. (Amended) – The right of custody is vested first in the child's mother, then in the father, then in the maternal grandmother, then in the paternal grandmother, then in the maternal aunt, then in the paternal aunt, and then in the nearest relatives, in the best interests of the child. In making the custody order, the judge must grant visiting rights.

Art. 72. (Amended) – In case of divorce, the father is responsible for providing the holder of the custody right with decent housing or, failing that, with the rent.

The woman with custody is kept in the marital home until the father's court order for housing is carried out.

Art. 74. – Subject to the provisions of articles 78, 79, and 80 of this code, the husband is obliged to provide for the maintenance of his wife from the time of consummation of the marriage or if she requires it on the basis of proof. (Algeria 1984, bold in original)

The Penal Code of Algeria, 1966, amended in 2015, provides the following:

[translation]

Art. 266. Bis – Whoever voluntarily causes wounds or blows to his spouse is punished:

Art. 266. Bis 1 – by an imprisonment of one to three years, whoever commits against his spouse any form of assault, or repeated verbal or psychological violence putting the victim in a situation which harms his or her dignity, or physical or psychological integrity.

The offence is established whether or not the perpetrator resides in the same residence as the victim.

The offence is also established, if the violence is committed by the ex-spouse and is found to be related to the previous marriage relationship.

[…] (Algeria 1966)

Amnesty International indicates that the Penal Code and the Family Code "discriminate" against women regarding inheritance, marriage, divorce and child custody (Amnesty International 29 Mar. 2022, 71). Other sources note that men and women do not have equal rights under the Family Code (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 8; Freedom House 28 Feb. 2022, Sec. G3; Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022), which is based on "religious dogma" (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 8) or "Islamic law" (Freedom House 28 Feb. 2022, Sec. G3). In an interview with Liberté, a French-language Algerian newspaper that ceased operations in April 2022 (AFP 14 Apr. 2022), Mahmoud Boudarène, a psychiatrist, [former member of parliament, and author of a book on social violence in Algeria (Algérie360 14 Aug. 2017)], noted that the Constitution and the Family Code contradict each other regarding the rights of women, with the Constitution indicating that men and women are equal and the Family Code indicating that women are minors and require guardianship (Liberté 25 May 2021).

3. Treatment by Society

According to sources, Algeria is a "conservative" society (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022) or becoming "more and more conservative" (Lawyer 9 June 2022). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, the lawyer stated that "marriage is of paramount importance" in Algeria (Lawyer 9 June 2022), and added in a follow-up interview that marriage is "above everything" and is "at the heart of religion" and "therefore the country" (Lawyer 14 June 2022). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, Réseau Wassila/Avife, an NGO and a coalition of Algerian associations that supports women and children who are victims of violence (Réseau Wassila/Avife n.d.), stated that violence is [translation] "endemic" in Algerian society and that women "particularly suffer" from the impact this has on "social relations" (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). Similarly, the lawyer indicated that although not all women are at risk, all women are "targeted" in society and are under its "surveillance" (Lawyer 14 June 2022). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a senior analyst with the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), speaking on their own behalf, noted that women are "monitored and criticized" by society and neighbours (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). Similarly, Réseau Wassila/Avife stated that in some areas single women are under surveillance by their neighbours (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022).

A report from EuroMed Rights, a network of human rights organizations focused on human rights and democracy in the "Southern and Eastern Mediterranean regions" (EuroMed Rights n.d.), indicates that low-income women or uneducated women "experience greater vulnerability" (EuroMed Rights Jan. 2021, 9). The same source further states that young and unmarried women "tend to" face the "most extreme forms of violence" (EuroMed Rights Jan. 2021, 8). Information collected by Féminicides Algérie [3] on 55 women and girls who were killed in 2021 (Féminicides Algérie 2021) and, as of 29 July 2022, 24 who were killed in 2022 (Féminicides Algérie 2022), indicates that the majority were killed by their husbands or partners, ex-partners, or men within their family (Féminicides Algérie 2021; Féminicides Algérie 2022). Féminicides Algérie notes that their lists only reflect the deaths about which they were able to gather information and the organization indicates that the actual number of women killed is [translation] "much higher" (Féminicides Algérie n.d.).

Citing statistics from the Algerian Directorate General for National Security (Direction générale de la sûreté nationale, DGSN), CIDDEF provides the following table on reports of violence against women based on marital status:

[translation]

Based on marital status in 2021
Marital Status Victims Proportion Perpetrators Proportion
Single 1,223 22.60% 2,486 44.03%
Married 3,205 59.22% 2,553 45.22%
Widow[ed] 310 5.73% 39 0.69%
Engaged 6 0.11% 19 0.34%
Divorced 621 11.47% 286 5.07%
Separated - 0% 3 0.05%
Not specified 47 0.87% 260 4.61%
Total 5,412 100% 5,646 100%

(CIDDEF 2021, 62–63)

3.1 Single Women

The Horizons article reports that despite the increase in female celibacy, it is not [translation] "socially tolerated" and single women are "often stigmatized" (Horizons 24 Jan. 2022). Similarly, the Senior Analyst stated that unmarried women are "stigmatized" in "all" regions and social classes in Algerian society (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). Réseau Wassila/Avife stated that single women in particular are [translation] "symbolically" under the authority and protection of male family members which makes it difficult to exercise individual liberties (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). In the Horizons article, a woman who was interviewed about her experience as a single woman in Algeria, recounted that one's family's views can be [translation] "'very negative,'" and can be felt by way of "'reproaches'" for not being married or not knowing "'the happiness of maternity'" (Horizons 24 Jan. 2022).

According to sources, it is difficult for single women to live alone (Lawyer 14 June 2022; Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). The Senior Analyst further stated that living alone as a woman has yet to be accepted by society (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). In his interview with Liberté, Mahmoud Boudarène indicated that women who live alone are [translation] "vulnerable, without protection, potential targets, but also … [considered] women who have loose morals" (Liberté 25 May 2021). Similarly, the Senior Analyst stated that society perceives single women as having sex before marriage, which is still taboo, and are seen as women of "'loose morals' or 'prostitutes'" (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). The same source further stated that women living alone are accused of prostitution if male friends visit their home, as this is seen as "unethical" (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). According to EuroMed Rights, "women living on their own are more likely to be subjected to public defamation" (EuroMed Rights May 2021, 20).

3.2 Divorced Women

Information on the treatment of divorced women by society was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to the Senior Analyst, the situation of divorced women living alone is "much worse" than single women (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). Similarly, the lawyer stated that divorced women are "very badly perceived" by society (Lawyer 14 June 2022). An article from Mediapart, an independent online newspaper based in France (Mediapart n.d.), cites an individual who, reflecting on her status as a divorced woman, describes that people in Algeria believe [translation] "you have no honour" and reports that she is "harassed regularly," as though such harassment were "normal" or "permitted" (Mediapart 29 Nov. 2021). According to EuroMed Rights, there is a "high risk of violence" for women who are separated or divorced because they lack support from the community and their family (EuroMed Rights Jan. 2021, 9).

3.3 Widowed Women

Information on the treatment of widowed women by society was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to EuroMed Rights, there is a "high risk of violence" for widowed women because they lack support from the community and their family (EuroMed Rights Jan. 2021, 9).

3.4 Single Women with Children

Information on the treatment of single women with children by society was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to EuroMed Rights, "[s]ingle mothers … are more likely to be subjected to public defamation" (EuroMed Rights May 2021, 20).

The Mediapart article reports that [translation] "many [women] force themselves into celibacy" to avoid losing child custody rights to their ex-husband (Mediapart 29 Nov. 2021).

4. Treatment by the Authorities

Information on the treatment of single women and women who head their own households by the authorities was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to Réseau Wassila/Avife, there is no particular treatment of single women by authorities (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022).

5. Ability to Relocate to Algiers, Oran, and Annaba

According to the Senior Analyst, women who relocate to a new city risk having ties cut by their families (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). The lawyer stated that support from family is "essential" for women to be single and to pursue employment and education opportunities (Lawyer 14 June 2022). The Senior Analyst stated that women who relocate to other cities face a high risk of "physical or moral attacks" depending on the city they choose (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). The same source further states that it is "frowned upon" for a woman to live alone, especially in lower-income neighbourhoods, whether it be in Algiers, Oran, Annaba, El Tarf, or Algeria in general (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022).

The lawyer stated that family is at the core of tradition and culture, and it is "enshrined" in society (Lawyer 14 June 2022). The Senior Analyst stated that traditions influence gender norms in that women "must" live with their family or guardian, such as a husband, brother, or son (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to sources, regions in the North (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022) or urban areas (Lawyer 14 June 2022; Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022) are more open to women living alone (Lawyer 14 June 2022; Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022) or being unmarried (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022). Sources indicate that it is "impossible" (Lawyer 14 June 2022; Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022) or "simply unacceptable" (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022) for women to live alone in the Plateau and South regions (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022) or rural areas (Lawyer 14 June 2022). The lawyer further stated that people living in rural areas are "conservative and traditional" (Lawyer 14 June 2022). Similarly, Réseau Wassila/Avife indicated that women in large city centres are less likely to be subject to social pressures, but noted that even in cities such pressure is still [translation] "very strong" in working-class neighbourhoods compared to residential neighbourhoods (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022).

Sources report that women could live alone (Lawyer 14 June 2022) or more successfully live alone (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022) in major cities under the following circumstances:

  • owning a car (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022);
  • belonging to a higher [socio-economic] class (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022);
  • being educated (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022; Lawyer 14 June 2022) and financially stable (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022) or having stable employment (Lawyer 14 June 2022);
  • owning a house (Lawyer 14 June 2022);
  • avoiding living in "conservative" neighbourhoods (Lawyer 14 June 2022); and
  • having the support of one's family (Lawyer 14 June 2022).

5.1 Access to Property, Land, and Housing

Information on access to property, land, and housing for single women and women who head their own households was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to Réseau Wassila/Avife, housing for women remains [translation] "problematic" due to rental prices, the economy, and the [COVID-19] health crisis (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). Similarly, the article published by Horizons states that according to a single woman they interviewed, finding rental housing as a single woman in Algiers is [translation] "difficult" (Horizons 24 Jan. 2022). The Senior Analyst indicated that access to housing for single women is "difficult" because landlords specify in their advertisements that they do not want single women as renters (Senior Analyst 21 June 2022).

5.2 Access to Education

According to Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index (BTI) 2022, which "assesses the transformation toward democracy and a market economy as well as the quality of governance in 137 countries" and covers the period from February 2019 to January 2021, "women have significantly higher access to tertiary education than men" (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 2, 20). The same source further states that public education is accessible throughout the country (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 27). The lawyer stated that women represent 60 percent of students enrolled in universities (Lawyer 14 June 2022). Similarly, Réseau Wassila/Avife stated that university enrolment for men and women is equal (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). The BTI 2022 reports that "[f]amily revenue still plays a role in the quality of education, with private schools or education abroad chosen by those who can afford it" (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 27).

Citing statistics from the Ministry of National Education (ministère de l'Éducation nationale), the Algerian National Office of Statistics (Office national des statistiques, ONS) provides the following table on [translation] "the main aggregates for the 2019/2020 academic year":

Level of education Students Teachers Establishments
Total Girls Total Women
Pre-school 505,857 246,802 17,927 14,784 19,308
Primary 4,669,417 2,237,716 187,921 153,632
Middle 3,123,435 1,503,247 162,733 118,154 5,630
Secondary 1,262,641 730,783 104,585 69,021 2,488
Total 9,561,350 4,718,548 473,166 355,591 27,426

(Algeria Jan. 2021, 1, bold in original)

Citing statistics from the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique, MESRS), CIDDEF provides the following table on tertiary education:

[translation]

Total Number of Students 2019–2020
Category Girls Boys Total
Students enrolled in undergraduate [studies] 964,163 505,821 1,469,984
Students enrolled in post-graduate [studies] 41,081 35,178 76,259
Total registered 1,005,243 541,000 1,546,243

(CIDDEF 2021, 33, bold in original)

Similarly, UNESCO's Institute for Statistics provides the following data on tertiary education:

Tertiary Education
Gross Enrolment Ratio % [4]
2019 2020
Total 52.6 52.5
Female 66.1 66.4
Male 39.7 39.2

(UN 2021, bold in original)

5.3 Access to Employment, Financial Resources and Income

According to Réseau Wassila/Avife, despite [translation] "equal" rates between men and women in education, the employment rate is "much lower" for women (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). The source added that women are financially dependent on their family as a result, making it difficult to become independent generally (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). Similarly, the BTI 2022 reports that women face "significant barriers in accessing the job market" despite "significantly higher access" to post-secondary education compared to men (Bertelsmann Stiftung 23 Feb. 2022, 20). Freedom House indicates that "[m]any women receive lower wages than men in similar positions" (Freedom House 28 Feb. 2022, Sec. F4).

Réseau Wassila/Avife stated that when women are employed, they cannot draw attention to themselves in the public space, [translation] "where harassment is very present" (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022). Similarly, Freedom House indicates that it is "common" for women to experience sexual harassment at work (Freedom House 28 Feb. 2022, Sec. F4). An article published by Medfeminiswiya, "a feminist network that brings together women journalists working in the media and content production fields across the Mediterranean region" (Medfeminiswiya n.d.), quotes a law professor at the University of Algiers describing that "women prefer to remain in the informal sector … in order to spare themselves the administrative hassle, the sexist environment of the company, street harassment and criticism from the husband or brother" (Medfeminiswiya 2 May 2022).

According to the US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2021, women face "discrimination" in inheritance claims for entitlement to the estate, where they only received "smaller portions" in comparison to their sons or brother in-laws (US 12 Apr. 2022, 39). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

5.4 Access to Health Care Services

Information on access to health care services for single women and women who head their own households was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to EuroMed Rights, "[s]ingle women also face a wide range of discrimination, being on many occasions victims of violence and lacking rights such as access to family planning health care" (EuroMed Rights Jan. 2021, 9).

6. Support Services

Information on support services for single women and women who head their own households was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to Réseau Wassila/Avife, a rental subsidy program is [translation] "open to all"; however, program enrollment requires a minimum salary (Réseau Wassila/Avife 16 June 2022).

US Country Reports 2021 indicates that the Algerian government offers divorced women a subsidy program when their ex-husband does not pay child support (US 12 Apr. 2022, 38). The same source reports that there are three federal shelters for women, located in Tipaza, Mostaganem, and Annaba (US 12 Apr. 2022, 35).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Notes

[1] The Information and Documentation Centre for Children's and Women's Rights (Centre d'information et de documentation sur les droits de l'enfant et de la femme, CIDDEF) is an NGO based in Algiers that conducts research on and promotes the rights of women and children (CIDDEF n.d.). The report collected data on the situation of women in Algeria from various ministries, the National Office of Statistics (Office national des statistiques, ONS), the Multiple Indicator Clustor Survey 6 (MICS6), and UNICEF (CIDDEF 2021, 4).

[2] In the English translation by the Constitute Project, this article is numbered 66; however, in the French version, it is numbered 63.

[3] Féminicides Algérie is an organization which tracks femicides across the country (Féminicides Algérie n.d.). The data collection follows several steps, including media and social media monitoring, investigating the victims' inner circle, and interviewing a minimum of five people to confirm the events that took place (Féminicides Algérie n.d.).

[4] UNESCO's Institute for Statistics defines Gross Enrolment Ratio as the "[t]otal enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year" (UN n.d.).

References

Agence France-Presse (AFP). 14 April 2022. "Algeria Newspaper Liberte Closes After 30 Years." [Accessed 2 Aug. 2022]

Algeria. January 2021. Office national des statistiques (ONS). "Les principaux indicateurs du secteur de l'éducation nationale: Année scolaire 2019-2020." [Accessed 29 June 2022]

Algeria. 1996 (amended 2020). The Constitution of Algeria. Reproduced by Constitute Project, translated by International IDEA. [Accessed 24 May 2022]

Algeria. 1984 (amended 2007). Code de la famille. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 24 May 2022]

Algeria. 1966 (amended 2015). Modifications to the Penal Code of Algeria. Excerpts translated by the Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada. [Accessed 20 June 2022]

Algérie360. 14 August 2017. "Violences sociale en Algérie: Le psychiatre Mahmoud Boudarène publie son 3e livre." [Accessed 3 Aug. 2022]

Amnesty International. 29 March 2022. "Algeria." Amnesty International Report 2021/22: State of the World's Human Rights. [Accessed 20 May 2022]

Bertelsmann Stiftung. 23 February 2022. "Algeria Country Report." Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index (BTI) 2022. [Accessed 20 May 2022]

Centre d'information et de documentation sur les droits de l'enfant et de la femme (CIDDEF). 2021. Femmes algériennes en chiffres 2020. [Accessed 15 June 2022]

Centre d'information et de documentation sur les droits de l'enfant et de la femme (CIDDEF). N.d. "Objectifs du Ciddef." [Accessed 15 June 2022]

EuroMed Rights. May 2021. "Online Violence Against Women and Girls: The Scenario in the MENA Region." [Accessed 30 May 2022]

EuroMed Rights. January 2021. "Fact-Sheet On: Violence Against Women." [Accessed 30 May 2022]

EuroMed Rights. N.d. "Who We Are." [Accessed 30 May 2022]

Féminicides Algérie. 2022. "Liste des féminicides 2022." [Accessed 29 June 2022]

Féminicides Algérie. 2021. "Liste des féminicides 2021." [Accessed 29 June 2022]

Féminicides Algérie. N.d. "Qui sommes-nous." [Accessed 30 May 2022]

Freedom House. 28 February 2022. "Algeria." Freedom in the World 2022. [Accessed 20 May 2022]

Horizons. 24 January 2022. Samira Azzegag. "Femmes célibataires : dur, dur le regard des autres." [Accessed 2 June 2022]

Horizons. N.d. "Quotidien national d'information." [Accessed 2 June 2022]

Lawyer, Algiers. 14 June 2022. Interview with the Research Directorate.

Lawyer, Algiers. 9 June 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Liberté. 25 May 2021. Mohamed Mouloudj interviewing Mahmoud Boudarène in "'Une société sans empathie sécrète la violence.'" [Accessed 3 June 2022]

Medfeminiswiya. 2 May 2022. Ghalia Khelifi. "Algeria, Where Women's Money Are in Men's Pockets." [Accessed 19 July 2022]

Medfeminiswiya. N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 19 July 2022]

Mediapart. 29 November 2021. Yasmine Sellami. "En Algérie, les mères divorcées se mobilisent pour la garde de leurs enfants." (Factiva) [Accessed 27 July 2022]

Mediapart. N.d. "Qui sommes-nous ?" [Accessed 27 July 2022]

Réseau Wassila/Avife. 16 June 2022. Correspondence from representatives to the Research Directorate.

Réseau Wassila/Avife. N.d. "About." Facebook. [Accessed 27 July 2022]

Senior Analyst, European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS). 21 June 2022. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

United Nations (UN). 2021. UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Institute for Statistics. "Algeria." [Accessed 18 July 2022]

United Nations (UN). N.d. UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). "Gross Enrolment Ratio." [Accessed 26 July 2022]

United States (US). 12 April 2022. "Algeria." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2021. [Accessed 24 May 2022]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Associate professor at a university in the US who studies gender issues and women's rights in North Africa and the Maghreb; Centre d'information et de documentation sur les droits de l'enfant et de la femme; Féminicides Algérie; psychiatrist in Algeria who specializes in trauma.

Internet sites, including: Algeria – Direction générale de la sûreté nationale, ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique, ministère de la Solidarité nationale, de la Famille et de la Condition de la femme; Algérie Presse Service; Al Jazeera; Austrian Red Cross – ecoi.net; BBC; El Watan; Equality Now; EU – EU Agency for Asylum, European External Action Service; Fédération internationale pour les droits humains; France – Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides; Human Rights Watch; Middle East Institute; Norway – Landinfo; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; UK – Home Office; UN – Refworld, UNHCR, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Women; Université d'Alger 2 – Post-Graduation; University of Ottawa – Admissions; World Bank.