2019 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Brazil

In 2019, Brazil made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government published two updated versions of the national “Dirty List” containing information on employers that the Ministry of Economy has found to be using slave labor, including that of children. The Labor Prosecution Service and the Federal Police also signed a 3-year technical cooperation agreement to combat child labor and forced labor, with the aim of increasing both agencies' technical capacity, while also providing access to each other's databases for more efficient information exchange. In addition, national, state, and local governments conducted a wide range of awareness-raising campaigns throughout the year, including a national meeting on combating child labor during which participants collaborated on a coordinating agenda to better promote education and combat child labor. Moreover, the Labor Prosecutor’s Office and the Labor Inspection Unit at the Ministry of Economy promoted the Fourth National Apprenticeship Week, a program that has significantly contributed in reducing child labor in the country, and the Ministry of Social Development in Pernambuco State assisted 8,932 victims of child labor. However, children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee. Although Brazil made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, prohibitions against child trafficking require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to be established for the crime of child trafficking and, therefore, do not meet international labor standards. In addition, there are likely not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and local governments lack the capacity to fully implement and monitor the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor, the family stipend program Bolsa Família, and other social protection programs.
I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1-3) Children also engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee. (4,5) The 2016 National Household Survey, published in November 2017, estimated that 998,000 children ages 5 to 17 engaged in child labor—190,000 children ages 5 to 13, and 808,000 adolescents ages 14 to 17. (6,7) The North and Northeast regions had the highest number of child laborers, with almost half working in agriculture. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Brazil. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education




Working (% and population)

5 to 14

2.1 (638,943)

Working children by sector

5 to 14











Attending School (%)

5 to 14


Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14


Primary Completion Rate (%)



Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2020. (8)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) Continua, 2015. (9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity




Production of açaí, bananas, ceramics, citrus fruits,† cocoa, coffee, corn, cotton,† manioc, mate tea, pineapples,† rice, sisal,† soy, sugarcane,† and tobacco† (4,5,10-14)


Cattle ranching and raising livestock, including hogs, poultry, and sheep (5,11,15,16)


Fishing and harvesting mollusks† (5,11,17)


Forestry, including logging,† extracting carnauba palm leaves, and producing charcoal†(5,11,18,19)


Slaughtering animals,† including for beef production (20,21)


Processing manioc/cassava flour† and cashews† (22,23)


Production of bricks† (24,25)


Production of footwear† and textiles, including garments (11,15,26)


Work in stone quarries† (27)


Street work,† including vending,† washing cars,† and garbage scavenging† (28-31)


Work in markets and fairs, including hauling fruits and vegetables and transporting heavy loads (20,31,32)


Work in fast-food establishments (33)


Selling alcoholic beverages† (32)


Artistic and sports related activities and cultural work (15)


Domestic work† (32)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3,28-30)


Forced domestic work and playing in soccer clubs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (28,34,35)


Forced labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee and manioc (4,28,36,37)


Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including drug trafficking, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (28,32,38-40)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The overall scope and magnitude of commercial sexual exploitation of children is unknown; however, in 2018, the Federal Highway Police, in collaboration with Childhood Brazil, published a report identifying 2,487 areas along highways in the country where children are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation. According to this report, the states with the highest number of vulnerable areas for commercial sexual exploitation of children are Ceará, Goiás, Pará, Minas Gerais, and Paraná. (1) In addition, the Northeast region was found to have the highest number of vulnerable areas for commercial sexual exploitation of children in the country, followed by the South. (1) Child sex tourism is particularly common in tourist and coastal areas, and girls from other South American countries are also exploited for commercial sex in Brazil. (41)

The ILO and the Labor Prosecution Service (MPT) of Brazil published a report indicating that at least 8,000 children and adolescents in the country were found to be working in the production of cocoa. The study was conducted between July 2017 through June 2018, and aims to expose companies and hold them accountable for their child labor and forced labor violations. (42,43)

Research found that some schools, particularly those in rural areas, are overcrowded, have poor infrastructure, and lack basic resources and teachers. (28,30,44) Although birth registration documents are required for school enrollment under Brazilian law, school registration cannot be denied to children lacking proper documentation. State and municipal governments implement this law and assist vulnerable families with acquiring birth registration documents; however, occasionally there may be delays in processing school registration while children are being registered for birth certificates. (13,45) In 2016, the Senate approved draft legislation that would alter the national Education Law to remove the requirement of birth certificates for school registration. Subsequently, the draft legislation was also approved by the Education Committee in 2018, and by the Constitution, Justice and Citizenship Committee in 2019. The legislation is currently awaiting a final vote in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies. (13,46,47)

II. Legal Framework for Child Labor

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor



ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor


UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Brazil's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking for labor exploitation.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor


Meets International Standards



Minimum Age for Work



Article 403 of the Labor Code (48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work



Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (49)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children



Hazardous Work List (49)

Prohibition of Forced Labor



Articles 149 and 149-A of the Penal Code (50,51)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking



Article 149-A of the Penal Code; Article 244-A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (51,52)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children



Articles 218-A, 218-B, and 227–228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240–241 and 244-A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (50,52)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities



Articles 33 and 40 of the National System of Public Policies on Drugs; Article 244-B of the Child and Adolescent Statute (52,53)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment



Article 127 of the Military Service Regulation (54)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military



Article 5 of the Military Service Law (55)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups



Compulsory Education Age



Article 4 of the National Education Law (56)

Free Public Education



Article 4 of the National Education Law (56)

In January and October 2019, the government published two new versions of the national "Dirty List," comprising, respectively, 202 and 190 employers found to be using slave labor by the Ministry of Economy's Secretariat of Labor Inspection. (57-59)

Prohibitions against child trafficking require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to be established for the crime of child trafficking and, therefore, do not meet international labor standards. (51) As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (48,56)

III. Enforcement of Laws on Child Labor

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Economy that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement



Ministry of Economy

Oversees the Special Secretariat of Social Security and Labor, which is responsible for the enforcement of labor laws, including those related to child labor and forced labor. Its Labor Inspection Unit is responsible for conducting announced inspections at sites in which forced labor is suspected, including forced child labor. (13)

Labor Prosecution Service

Prosecutes child labor and forced labor violations by working with prosecutors from its National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, an in-house body that coordinates efforts to combat child labor. Collects fines for forced labor violations and allocates funds for initiatives that address child labor and forced labor. (13,60)

Military, Civil, and Federal Police

The Military Police operate at the local level and refer cases to the Civil Police for investigation. The Federal Police work on interstate or international cases and maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. (13) The Federal Highway Police help identify areas where children are at high risk of commercial sexual exploitation. (13,61)

Ministry of Justice and Public Security

Leads efforts to combat human trafficking, and oversees the operations of Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) and state-run Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento). Provides guidance to federal, state, and local government officials on referrals for victims of human trafficking, including to Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers, Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers, and NGOs. (13) Nine Postos Avançados operate throughout the country to identify human traffickers and potential victims in high-transit areas, including airports and bus stations. (13)

Special Courts for Childhood and Youth

Oversees legislative issues related to the eradication of child labor, and guarantees the fair and adequate entry of adolescents into the labor force, in compliance with the 1990 Child and Adolescent Statute. Provides protection and care to victims through court psychologists. (13,62)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2019, labor law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Economy that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement



Labor Inspectorate Funding

$3,072,390 (64)

$1,902,588 (45)

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,309 (65)

2,168 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (65)

N/A (13)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (65)

N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted



Number Conducted at Worksite



Number of Child Labor Violations Found

13,887 (65)

11,692 (45)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

28 (45)

20 (45)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

28 (45)

20 (45)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

In 2019, reports indicate that labor inspectors removed 1,040 victims of child labor, and 20 child victims of forced labor. In addition, labor inspectors and the Military Police also rescued eight workers, including two adolescents, subjected to forced labor on a cattle-raising farm in Paraná state. (13) Upon finding children in hazardous working conditions, Ministry of Economy officials immediately remove the children and return them to their families or refer them to social services providers. (65)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Brazil's workforce, which includes approximately 104.2 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Brazil would employ about 6,947 labor inspectors. (66-68)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2019, criminal law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including holding violators of child labor laws accountable in accordance with the law.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement



Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor


N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

Number of Investigations

29 (59)

Unknown (13)

Number of Violations Found


Unknown (13)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

10 (59)

Unknown (13)

Number of Convictions

3 (59)

Unknown (13)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor


Unknown (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (65)

Yes (13)

In March and September 2019, the Ministry of Justice launched the fourth and fifth phases of Operation Light in Childhood. State Civil Police investigated the storage, distribution, and production of child pornography and crimes of sexual abuse and exploitation of children via the Internet. (13) During the fourth phase of the operation, 141 suspects were arrested in 133 cities nationwide. Most of these arrests took place in the state of São Paulo, with 61 suspects detained. (13,69) The fifth phase of the operation, which resulted in 39 arrests, was the first phase to include cooperation with regional partners, including Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement also participated in the operation through several of its domestic offices, and conducted a training session for 30 police officers from the group of regional partners. (13,70)

While the government did not provide comprehensive data on the total number of criminal child labor investigations during the reporting period, the Federal Prosecution Service in the state of Pernambuco found 114 workers, including 13 minors, in forced labor conditions at three cassava flour-production factories. The Federal Police rescued an Ecuadorian girl age 16 from a sewing workshop in São Paulo in which she was found to be working long hours under degrading conditions. (13) In addition, though the number of convictions was not reported for 2019, a perpetrator was convicted for the production and distribution of child pornography, the storage of pornographic material involving children or adolescents, and the practice of sexual exploitation of children or adolescents, and received a sentence of 58 years and 8 months in prison. Despite this one stringent penalty, however, reports indicate that more commonly the judicial system does not sufficiently hold perpetrators accountable for child labor law violations, including forced child labor, which may lead to a sense of impunity among violators. (15,41)

In September 2019, MPT and the Federal Police signed a 3-year cooperation agreement aimed at strengthening efforts to combat slave labor and child labor. The agreement includes technical training and information exchange between each institutions' database. (71) The Judiciary, the Labor Prosecution Service, the Federal Police, and the state police have established databases to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation, however, there is weak coordination of these data collection efforts across the country. (45,72)

IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on Child Labor

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-Sectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitors implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Justice's Special Secretariat for Human Rights (SDH). (73,74) Research was unable to determine whether any activities were undertaken by the Commission during the reporting period.

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Led by the National Secretariat for Justice within the Ministry of Justice and Public Security. Coordinates activities to address human trafficking and advises the Ministry on public policies related to human trafficking. (41,75) Composed of seven voting members distributed among government and civil society. (41) In 2019, raised awareness on combating child labor through a national campaign. (13)

Inter-Agency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children's and Adolescents' Rights

Coordinates the implementation of policies to protect children's and adolescents' rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by SDH. (76) In 2019, the state of São Paulo's program to eradicate child labor removed 558 children and adolescents from child labor situations throughout the state. (13)

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents

Coordinates efforts to eliminate child labor and ensure that adolescents have decent work opportunities. (77) Includes 11 representatives from the Superior Labor Court and regional labor courts. (78) In 2019, launched an awareness-raising campaign aimed at addressing the psychological, physical, and social issues faced by victims of child labor. (13)

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento)

Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. Established in 17 states and the Federal District. (13) During the reporting period, the Anti-Trafficking Coordination Center of São Paulo registered 35 cases of human trafficking, including 3 cases of child trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation involving 6 victims. (41)

In 2019, the government issued a Presidential Decree, based on resource concerns, eliminating the National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor.(13,79) Previously, the responsibility of implementing the National Plan to Prevent and Eradicate Child Labor and Protect Adolescent Workers was under the National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor. Since the elimination of the Committee, however, the monitoring and implementation of the plan is led by several entities: the ministries of Education; Citizenship; Women, Family, and Human Rights; Justice and Public Security; Economy; the MPT; and employee associations, ILO, and the National Forum for the Prevention of Child Labor. (13,80)

V. Government Policies on Child Labor

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor



National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents III (2019–2022)

Aims to eradicate child labor by 2025 by increasing access to quality education and pathways for adolescents of minimum working age to enroll in apprenticeship programs. (59,81) In 2019, conducted the Fourth National Apprenticeship Week, including lectures, exhibitions, and public hearings to raise awareness on the benefits of apprenticeships. (13)

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2013–2020)

Identifies strategies to prevent the sexual exploitation of children, protect children's rights, and assist child victims. (74) In 2019, conducted several awareness-raising activities on the commercial sexual exploitation of children. (13)

National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking III (2018–2022)

Outlines the government's strategy to address human trafficking. Includes 58 objectives covering six themes: policy and information management, training, accountability, victim assistance and prevention, and public awareness-raising. (41,82) In 2019, conducted several awareness-raising campaigns. (13)

Federal Pact for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Aims to establish a database on forced labor to share research and data, create state-level commissions to combat forced labor, and strengthen inter-agency coordination. Led by SDH, and currently signed by 23 of the 27 states. (65,83,84) In 2019, Paraná and the Federal District announced their intention to establish their own state-level commissions. (41)

National Education Plan (2014–2024)

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Plans to allocate 10 percent of Brazil's gross domestic product to public education by 2024. (85) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Education Plan during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (86,87)

Research found that greater resources are needed to ensure adequate implementation of the National Education Plan. (88,89)

VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2019, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to assist child victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor



National Program to Eradicate Child Labor (Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil [PETI])†

Ministry of Citizenship (MOC) social assistance program that combats child labor through awareness-raising activities, victim identification and protection, and conditional cash transfers. (90,91) To receive program benefits, family participants must ensure that children are not working and maintain at least 85 percent school attendance. (92) In 2019, assisted 8,932 children and adolescents found in child labor situations. (13)

Family Stipend (Bolsa Família)†

MOC program that provides families living in poverty and extreme poverty with cash transfers. (93,94) During the reporting period, 14 million families participating in Bolsa Família received messages addressing the dangers of child labor. (13,95)

Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers†

MOC program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services. (96) The results of a national census indicate that 143 centers have been opened since 2017, a number of which were opened during the reporting period. (97-99)

South-South Cooperation Projects†

Government of Brazil-funded projects implemented by ILO to combat child labor and promote South-South cooperation. (100) In 2019, the government, along with 24 representatives countries, met in Lima to exchange good practices and strengthen the regional voice and collective action against child labor.(45)

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded, $2 million project implemented by Verité in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico to develop tools for businesses to establish systems to prevent, detect, and combat child and forced labor in coffee supply chains. (101) For additional information, please see our website.

† Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (102-107)

During the reporting period, in light of the influx of Venezuelan refugees in the country, the state of Amazonas initiated a project to map incidents of child labor in the indigenous and non-indigenous Venezuelan population. The purpose of the project was to connect those lacking proper documentation to the appropriate social assistance services. (13) Numerous awareness-raising campaigns were conducted throughout the reporting year by national, state, and local governments, including a national meeting on combating child labor attended by students, civil society, international institutions, the justice system, State Labor Prevention and Eradication Forums, and regional educational committees. (13) During the event, a coordination plan was created through the collaboration of the participants to promote education and to strengthen efforts to combat child labor, including by increasing communication strategies with society and influencing political will. (108) Moreover, in June 2019, the Bahia State Secretariat of Justice, Human Rights, and Social Development, along with the Bahian NGO Mãe da Terra (Mother Earth Institute), developed a project, named "Childhood and Labor: New Intervention Alternatives," to prevent child labor throughout the state. The project, which concluded in September, provided training to municipal guard officials, military police officers, community health workers, and others on the topics of diversity, childhood development, and public security. (13,109)

Because the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor is decentralized, municipal governments are responsible for implementation and monitoring, and must report back to state and federal governments. Challenges include responding to the needs of program participants, complex local contexts and geographic areas, excessive program requirements, and high staff turnover. (45) In 2019, many municipalities and states suffered from delays in funding for Bolsa Família due to budget issues.(45) In addition, many states reported a lack of resources to adequately assist victims of human trafficking, and research found a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation. (28,35)

VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Brazil (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor


Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws do not require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to establish the crime of child trafficking.

2016 – 2019


Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2019


Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018 – 2019


Publish complete labor law and criminal law enforcement data.

2012 – 2019


Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2014 – 2019


Impose penalties for convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2018 – 2019


Ensure relevant enforcement agencies are able to coordinate on their efforts to collect data on cases regarding human trafficking for sexual exploitation, and ensure that the data are disaggregated by victims' ages.

2009 – 2019


Ensure that all violators of child labor laws, including the worst forms of child labor, are held accountable in accordance with the law.

2015 – 2019


Ensure the Inter-Sectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents is able to carry out its intended mandate.


Government Policies

Provide adequate resources to ensure that the goals outlined in the National Education Plan are achieved.

2015 – 2019

Social Programs

Remove barriers to education, including by ensuring an adequate number of trained teachers, improving school infrastructure, and taking steps to enroll children in rural areas.

2013 – 2019


Expand the accessibility of birth registration services in remote areas and ensure that indigenous communities are aware of the benefits of birth registration.

2013 – 2019


Support local governments in the implementation and monitoring of the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor and Bolsa Família.

2009 – 2019


Provide adequate resources to state governments to ensure that child trafficking victims receive appropriate social services, and ensure the availability of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2019

  1. Policia Rodoviária Federal, et. al. 7º Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodovias Federais Brasileiras. MAPEAR. May 2018.

  2. Consultor Jurídico. Compete à Justiça do Trabalho Julgar Exploração Sexual Infantil. May 25, 2016.

  3. Cunha, Joana. Pará é emblema da exploração sexual; conheça o drama das ribeirinhas. Epoca. May 22, 2017.

  4. Danwatch. Bitter Coffee: Slavery-like Working Conditions and deadly Pesticides on Brazilian Coffee Plantations. March 2016.

  5. ABRINQ Foundation. O Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. 2017.

  6. Silveira, Daniel. Trabalho infantil: quase 1 milhão de menores trabalham em situação ilegal no Brasil, aponta IBGE. November 29, 2017.

  7. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua: Trabalho infantil 2016. Brasilia. January 9, 2018.

  8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 1, 2020. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  9. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) Continua, 2015. Analysis received March 2020. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  10. Vinicius, Cassius. O Sabor Amargo do Trabalho Escravo na Extração da Erva-mate. August 30, 2016.

  11. Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). O Trabalho Infantil nos Principais Grupamentos de Atividades Econômicas do Brasil. December 2016.

  12. Santiado, Henriqueta. Em Dez Anos 108 Mil Deixam Trabalho Infantil na Paraíba. Portal CZN. October 18, 2010.

  13. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. January 24, 2020.

  14. Barbosa, Leandro. Você prefere seu açaí com granola, banana ou trabalho infantil? The Intercept. December 31, 2019.

  15. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. January 15, 2016.

  16. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 31, 2017.

  17. Câmera Record. No Alagoas, crianças abandonam os estudos para trabalhar na produção de sururu. June 26, 2017.

  18. Câmera Record. Carvoaria de Minas Gerais contrata mão de obra infantil por R$ 20. June 26, 2017.

  19. Hanson, Hilary. Workers Who Help Make Haribo Gummies Kept In 'Slave'-Like Conditions, Says Report. October 26, 2017.

  20. Villela, Sumaia. Despite Strict Laws, Child Labor in Brazil Is Not Going Away. August 11, 2016.

  21. Câmera Record. Em Pernambuco, crianças trabalham em matadouros em condições insalubres. June 26, 2017.

  22. Globo Repórter. Reportagem denuncia exploração de crianças na extração da castanha de caju. May 4, 2016.

  23. Câmera Record. Crianças deixam de frequentar a escola para trabalhar em tempo integral. June 26, 2017.

  24. Associação Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho. MPT quer o fim do trabalho infantil em olarias de Cabreúva. October 23, 2015.

  25. Domingo Espetacular. Domingo Espetacular flagra exploração de trabalho infantil em olaria clandestina de SP. January 3, 2016.

  26. Sindicato dos Trabalhadores(as) nas Indústrias de Calçados de Jaú. Governo Temer prepara o terreno para aumento do trabalho infantil. June 12, 2017.

  27. Jornal da Paraíba. Adolescente de 16 anos morreu após cair de pedreira em João Pessoa. January 18, 2018.

  28. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding Observations on the Combined Second to Fourth Periodic Reports of Brazil. October 2, 2015: CRC/C/BRA/CO/2-4.

  29. Transforming Childhoods Research Network, and University of Dundee. 'Let's Win This Game Together' Documenting Violations of Children's Rights Around the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. 2015.

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