Somalia: The Badi-Ade [Badi Ado; Baadicade; Badi Ade; Badi'ade; Badi Adde; Baadi-cadde; Baada-Adde] clan, including distinguishing features, locations, occupations and position in clan hierarchy; treatment by authorities and other clans (2012-April 2018) [SOM106076.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. Badi-Ade Clan

Information on the Badi-Ade clan was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources indicate that the Badi-Ade clan falls under the Hawiye clan-family (IDMC and NRC 10 Jan. 2006, 155; Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018; Abbink 2009). Sources indicate that the Badi-Ade clan is a sub-clan of the Gugundabe [Gugundhabe] clan, which is a part of the Hawiye clan-family (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018; Abbink 2009). Other sources similarly indicate that the Badi-Ade clan falls under the Jibedi [Jibade] clan, which belongs to the Gugundabe clan that is part of the Hawiye clan-family (Hagi 1998, 225; UN 2004). Sources indicate that the Hawiye is a major clan in Somalia (IDMC and NRC 10 Jan. 2006, 155; UN 6 Sept. 2017, para. 9; Ambroso Mar. 2002, 11). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a senior Somali advisor to Saferworld [1], speaking on his own behalf, indicated that the Gugundabe clan is a major Hawiye clan (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). A 2002 paper written by Guido Ambroso, while he was a field repatriation officer for UNHCR, states that the Badi-Ade clan are "agropastoralists, known for their love of camels and cattle" and that they are "located in the Shebelli valley to the west of Bulo Burti and in the Hararge region of Ethiopia" (Ambroso Mar. 2002, 11). According to the senior Somali advisor to Saferworld, members of the Badi-Ade clan

are predominantly pastoralists, although some agro-pastoralist families are emerging on the western side of Shebelle River. Geographically, they are mainly known to concentrate on the western side of Hiraan and Middle Shabelle regions. Nevertheless, some business acumen individuals of the clan have established well in the Bakara market of Mogadishu. (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018)

Information on distinguishing features of the Badi-Ade could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

2. Relationship with Other Clans

According to the senior Somali advisor to Saferworld, "[t]he best measure of how other Somali clans see or treat any other clan is how much they are allowed to intermarry with other clans. The pure Baadi-cadde is widely intermarried" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to the senior Somali advisor to Saferworld, the Badi-Ade "as a clan is not known to be very violent" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). The same source added that "[m]any times, [members of the Badi-Ade clan] could become easy victims of other neighbouring clans [like] Gaaljecel, Jajeelo or Hawaadle [Hawadle]" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018).

2.1 Situation in Beletweyne

According to a report by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) that cites a report of August 2002 of the UN Coordination Unit and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), "[t]he Bantu (Makane) in Beletweyne [Beledweyne; Beled Weyne; Belet Weyne] suffered mistreatment and violation from the Hawadle, Galjele, Badi Adde and Jijele clans. Most of them were displaced from Beletweyne town to rural areas in Hiran region" (IDMC and NRC 10 Jan. 2006, 22).

Human Rights Watch reports that in October 2015, there were "violent clashes between the Gaaljecel and Baadicade clan militia at a checkpoint in Beletweyn" and that a "reporter with Somalia Channel TV based in Beletweyn was shot in his left arm" (Human Rights Watch May 2016, 31). For further information on clashes in the area of Beletweyne in October 2015, see Response to Information Request SOM105510 of April 2016.

Sources indicate, without specifying which clans are involved, that inter-clan violence continues to occur in the Beletweyne area (Somali Update 17 May 2017; Garowe Online 20 May 2017) and that "clan militiamen have staged frequent attacks on each other in and around Beledweyne district" (Garowe Online 20 May 2017). According to a June 2017 Voice of America (VOA) article, "clan militias belonging to the Habar Gidir and Hawadle of Hawiye subclans" have been fighting in the Beletweyne area "over pastures and land" (VOA 17 June 2017).

According to sources, Beletweyne has been attacked by Al-Shabaab (Shabelle News 6 Mar. 2018; UN 26 Dec. 2017, para. 56). Shabelle News, a Mogadishu-based radio and television network, reports in March 2018 that "[t]he security forces of Somalia's Federal government have launched a massive security operation in Beledweyne city" "until the security is restored and to flush out Al Shabaab sympathizers mixing among the local population" (Shabelle News 6 Mar. 2018). According to a report of the UN Secretary-General on Somalia, the UN has a presence in Beletweyne (UN 26 Dec. 2017, para. 72).

3. Relationship with Authorities

According to the senior Somali advisor to Saferworld, "[i]n the Somali social structure, in the absence of an effective government, one's clan is one's first resort of protection. If one's clan is not there, then the wider clan-family, like Gugundhabe in the Baadi-cadde case, and then Hawiye, if there are no Gugundhabe" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). The same source added that "[i]f there is effective governance in place, like working institutions such as the police or courts, [members of the Badi-Ade clan] are free to approach those institutions. In most cases, there may be some [Badi-Ade] clan members in those institutions" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

4. Relationship with Al-Shabaab

When asked whether members of the Badi-Ade clan are targeted by Al-Shabaab, the senior Somali advisor to Saferworld indicated that he was "not aware of any special targeting by Al-Shabaab to the Badi-Ade clan, except for imposing on them the forced zakat, which Al-Shabaab does on all other Somali clans" (Saferworld 5 Apr. 2018). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Note

[1] Saferworld is a London-based "politically independent research organisation" focused on "preventing violent conflict and building safer lives" (Saferworld n.d.a). Saferworld also carries out "policy work" and "in-country programming" (Saferworld n.d.a). In Somalia, Saferworld's work includes conducting "research and advocacy nationally and internationally to identify drivers of conflict within the Somali region and strategies to address them" (Saferworld n.d.b).

References

Abbink, Jan. 2009. The Total Somali Clan Genealogy (Second Edition). Working Paper, African Studies Centre, Leiden University. No. 84. [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]

Ambroso, Guido. March 2002. Clanship, Conflict and Refugees: An Introduction to Somalis in the Horn of Africa. [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]

Garowe Online. 20 May 2017. "Somalia: Four Civilians Killed in Inter-Clan Revenge Attack in Hiiraan." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

Hagi, Aves Osman. 1998. Clan, Sub-clan and Regional Representation in the Somali Government Organization 1960-1990: Statistical Data and Findings. Washington, D.C.: Aves Osman Hagi and Abdiwahid Osman Hagi.

Human Rights Watch. May 2016. "Like Fish in Poisonous Waters." Attacks on Media Freedom in Somalia. [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018]

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) and Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC). 10 January 2006. Somalia: Window of Opportunity for Addressing One of the World's Worst Internal Displacement Crises. A Profile of the Internal Displacement Situation. [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]

Saferworld. 5 April 2018. Correspondence from a representative to the Research Directorate.

Saferworld. N.d.a. "History." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

Saferworld. N.d.b. "Somalia and Somaliland." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

Shabelle News. 6 March 2018. "Somali Forces Carry Out a Security Operation in Beledweyne City." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

Somali Update. 17 May 2017. "Somalia: Government Forces, Local Militia Clash in Central Somalia Town." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

United Nations (UN). 26 December 2017. Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia. (S/2017/1109) [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

United Nations (UN). 6 September 2017. Human Rights Council. Report of the Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia. (A/HRC/36/62) [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]

United Nations (UN). 2004. UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Somalia. "Genealogical Table of Somali Clans." [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018]

Voice of America (VOA). 17 June 2017. Mohamed Olad. "5 Killed, 12 Hurt in Al-Shabab Attack on Somali Military Base." [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Academics specializing in Somali studies; African Union – Mission in Somalia; Amnesty International; International Crisis Group; Minority Rights Group International; Somali Canadian Association of Etobicoke; UN – High Commissioner for Refugees, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs; US – Library of Congress.

Internet sites, including: African Union – Mission in Somalia; Al Jazeera; All Africa; Allbanaadir News; Amnesty International; BBC; CBC; Danish Refugee Council; Denmark – Danish Immigration Service; ecoi.net; The Economist; Freedom House; Galmudugnews.net; The Globe and Mail; Google Scholar; Hiiraan Online; Human Rights Centre Somaliland; Institute for Security Studies; International Crisis Group; IRIN; Minority Rights Group International; The New York TimesPolitical Handbook of the WorldRadio France internationale; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty; Shabelle Relief and Development Organization; Time Magazine; UN – Refworld; Waagacusub Media.