Algeria: Crime situation, including organized crime; police and state response, including effectiveness; state protection for witnesses and victims of crime (2015-August 2017) [DZA105847.FE]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. Crime

The statistical database on the website of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has published crime statistics per 100,000 population reported by the Algerian police for 2015 [1] (for comparison, the same rates for Canada for 2015 are indicated in parentheses):

  • 123.76 assaults (140.25 for Canada)
  • 1.30 kidnappings (9.89 for Canada);
  • 124.97 thefts (1,402.65 for Canada);
  • 65.60 burglaries (61.44 for Canada);
  • 8.47 offences involving sexual violence (75.97 for Canada);
  • 1.37 intentional homicide (1.68 for Canada). (UN 2015)

A March 2017 article published by El Watan, a French-language newspaper in Algeria, indicates that according to various reports, in particular the most recent report from the National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale), [translation] “offences against individuals and property are the main trends in crime in Algeria” (El Watan 29 Mar. 2017). Similarly, an article published in 2015 by La Nouvelle République, an Algerian newspaper, reports that in 11 wilayas [administrative divisions] in central Algeria, [translation] “offences against individuals and property increased by 11% in 2015” (La Nouvelle République 7 Dec. 2015). According to an article published in 2017 by L’Écho d’Algérie, an Algerian daily, the 2016 report from the National Gendarmerie and the National Police (Police nationale) shows an [translation] “increase in the number of crimes” in the country with respect to offences against individuals and property (respectively 40 percent and 41 percent of cases processed), intentional homicides and child abduction (L’Écho d’Algérie 26 Mar. 2017).

An article published in 2017 by El Moudjahid, a French-language newspaper in Algeria, quotes the Director of Public Safety and Employment as stating that ordinary crimes (offences against individuals and property, intentional homicides, child abduction and assaults) account for 35.44 percent of cases processed by the National Gendarmerie (El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017).

According to a 2017 report on crime and safety in Algeria published by the United States (US) Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), [US English version] “crimes of opportunity,” such as robbery and burglary, are among the most common crimes in Algeria (US 25 Apr. 2017). The Government of Canada’s Travel Advice and Advisories website indicates that [Canada English version] “street crime, such as robbery and theft,” can occur in Algeria’s larger cities (Canada 27 June 2017). An Agence France-Presse (AFP) article reports that, according to experts, [AFP English version] “urban violence is on the rise” (AFP 25 Jan. 2017). The same source also quotes a professor of architecture at the University of Blida and the head of forensic medicine at the Mustapha Pacha University Hospital Centre in Algiers, who respectively stated that new towns like Ali Mendjeli [AFP English version] “have become marginalised communities where gang violence is common” and that, in these towns, “violence is ‘growing like a cancer’” (AFP 25 Jan. 2017).

Sources indicate that, according to the National Gendarmerie, the wilayas of Sétif, Algiers and Tébessa are the most affected by ordinary crimes, that is, those with the highest number of cases processed (L’Écho d’Algérie 26 Mar. 2017; El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017).

1.1 Organized Crime

According to a report on money laundering and financial crimes, published in 2017 by the US Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, [US English version] “notable” criminal activity in Algeria includes trafficking, particularly of drugs, cigarettes, arms and stolen vehicles; theft; extortion and embezzlement (US Mar. 2017a, 30-31). The National Gendarmerie website indicates that, according to a report on the activities carried out by National Gendarmerie units in the fight against crime and organized crime during the first half of 2015, smuggling and drug trafficking cases accounted for over 31 percent of cases processed (ranked number one), trafficking of arms and ammunition accounted for 13.54 percent, and vehicle trafficking accounted for 2.23 percent (Algeria n.d.a). The same source also mentions that [translation] “fuel smuggling accounted for more than 70% of smuggling cases processed” (Algeria n.d.a). The 2015 article on organized crime in 11 wilayas in central Algeria during the first nine months of 2015, published by La Nouvelle République, notes that [translation] “drug trafficking tops the list of criminal activities” (La Nouvelle République 7 Dec. 2015). The same source also reports that the National Gendarmerie General Command (commandement general), which is responsible for 11 wilayas in central Algeria, noted a [translation] “ʻ14.60% increase in cases involving organized crimeʼ” in the first nine months of 2015 compared with the previous year (La Nouvelle République 7 Dec. 2015).

According to the 2017 OSAC report, criminal networks in the Sahel operate around Algeria’s borders (US 25 Apr. 2017). A 2016 article published by La Nouvelle République reports that, according to a report on National Gendarmerie activities during the second quarter of 2016, the wilayas that are most concerned by organized crime are those along the border (La Nouvelle République 9 Aug. 2016). According to the report on the first half of 2015, published on the National Gendarmerie website, [translation] “the largest number of smuggling cases was recorded at the western border,” and the largest number of drug trafficking cases were recorded in the central, eastern and western parts of the country (Algeria n.d.a). In its 2015 article, La Nouvelle République reports that most of the drug cases in 11 wilayas in central Algeria during the first nine months of 2015 occurred in Blida, followed by the wilaya of Algiers (La Nouvelle République 7 Dec. 2015). According to the National Gendarmerie report on the first half of 2015, with respect to vehicle trafficking, [translation] “the largest number of cases processed was in western Algeria …, followed by eastern … and central Algeria” (Algeria n.d.a). The same source also indicates that the eastern part of the country saw the highest number of cases involving arms and ammunition trafficking (Algeria n.d.a). According to the 2017 OSAC report, the number of weapons seized on Algeria’s eastern and southern borders [US English version] “continues to be high” (US 25 Apr. 2017).

The 2017 US Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs report on money laundering and financial crime indicates that money laundering through Algeria’s official financial system is [US English version] “minimal” and that the informal (cash-based) economy, estimated to be 30 to 50 percent of gross domestic product, “is vulnerable to abuse by criminals” (US Mar. 2017a, 30). The same report explains that Algerian authorities are [US English version] “increasingly concerned by cases of customs fraud and TBML [trade-based money laundering]” (US Mar. 2017a, 31).

1.2 Human Trafficking

An article published in 2016 by Panapress, a pan-African news agency, quotes the Algerian Minister of Justice as stating that human trafficking [translation] “ʻdoes not occur in Algeriaʼ” and “ʻto date, [security services] have only recorded one or two cases of this typeʼ” (Panapress 17 July 2016). Similarly, an article published in 2016 by news agency Algérie Presse Service (APS) quotes a UNODC representative and a representative of the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who respectively stated that [translation] “‘the few cases’ of human trafficking reported in Algeria ‘are isolated cases’” and that human trafficking is a “‘marginal phenomenon’ in Algeria” (APS 20 Sept. 2016).

The Trafficking in Persons Report 2017 published by the US Department of State notes that Algeria is [US English version] “a transit and destination country” with respect to human trafficking, and people from sub-Saharan Africa, “often en route to neighboring countries or Europe, enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, frequently with the assistance of smugglers or criminal networks” (US June 2017, 62). The same source notes that the southern Algerian city of Tamanrasset is [US English version] “the main entry point in Algeria for migrants and for the majority of foreign trafficking victims” (US June 2017, 62).

2. State Response and Effectiveness

According to the National Gendarmerie website, security and intervention units were put in place [translation] “to consolidate the fight against insecurity and violence” because of the “emergence of high crime areas,” mostly around large population centres and in the context of robbery and banditry (thefts, burglaries, and destruction of property and vandalism) (Algeria n.d.b). The same source mentions the following about the security and intervention units:

[translation]

Each wilaya grouping can receive one or more security and intervention units, based on insecure areas to be monitored and the rate of increase in acts of delinquency and banditry.

The security and intervention units have been tasked with carrying out permanent and ongoing security actions in areas where insecurity is widespread and delinquency and banditry proliferate, maintaining order and, through their presence, acting as a deterrent.

These preventive actions are complemented by forceful interventions that can be adapted for the most unpredictable situations, to protect individuals and property, to re-establish order or to thwart all acts of aggression against citizens, and to arrest perpetrators.

These missions consist of:

[c]arrying out surveillance patrols in insecure areas and areas known for violence and banditry[;]

[q]uestioning and identifying suspect individuals[;]

[c]hecking and searching suspect vehicles[;]

[m]onitoring areas that could be concealing illicit activities or harbouring criminal gangs. (Algeria n.d.b)

Sources from 2017 refer to Plan Delphine, a special security operation set up in Algeria during the summer, mobilizing 27,000 gendarmes and commandeering 2,000 vehicles, 2,500 motorcycles and 38 dog and handler teams (L’Écho d’Algérie 7 July 2017; APS 7 July 2017). As for the fight against crime, the same sources also mention the strengthening of local road safety brigades and of security as well as intervention units through foot and mobile patrols [translation] “to thwart any attempt or intention to commit a crime” (L’Écho d’Algérie 7 July 2017; APS 7 July 2017). According to Sud Horizons, an online Algerian newspaper, in the first quarter of 2017, with regard to combatting urban crime in Algiers, [translation] “screening and identification operations carried out by foot patrol teams [were] widely deployed in strategic areas” (Sud Horizons 3 Apr. 2017).

The article published in 2017 by El Moudjahid quotes the Director of Public Safety and Employment as stating that, [translation] “to support efforts to fight child abduction [in Algeria], the number of units handling this matter - there are currently eight teams - will be increased” (El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017).

According to the same source, again citing the Director of Public Safety and Employment, the number of cases of ordinary crimes (offences against individuals and property, intentional homicide, child abduction, and assault and battery) processed by the National Gendarmerie decreased 4.22 percent compared to 2015 (El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017). Similarly, an article published on 8 March 2017 by APS cites the commander of the Algiers local unit as stating that the number of ordinary crimes (assault and battery, murder and theft) in the capital decreased by 3.75 percent in 2016 over 2015, [translation] “National Gendarmerie response teams and units have managed to eliminate hotbeds for crime in the capital,” and “fixed and mobile units responsible for checks and security” have been set up (APS 8 Mar. 2017). According to the same source, the police chief explained that [translation] “all murder cases in the last three years have been solved” (APS 8 Mar. 2017).

According to the website of the National Gendarmerie, the National Institute of Forensic Science and Criminology (Institut national de criminalistique et de criminologie) [translation] “is a public administrative body” (Algeria n.d.c). The same source explains that the Institute’s [translation] “mission is to uphold justice and support the investigative units in carrying out the duties of the judicial police,” and it is primarily responsible for:

  • [c]arrying out, at the request of magistrates, expert and scientific analyses for preliminary investigations and judicial inquiries in order to develop evidence that can be used to identity the perpetrators of crimes and misdemeanours;
  • [c]arrying out, at the request of investigators and competent authorities, scientific reviews, analyses and expert assessments falling within their respective areas of responsibility;
  • [i]mplementing procedures for forensic police concerning the collection and analysis of objects, prints and documents gathered from crime scenes;
  • [p]roviding scientific assistance for complex investigations;
  • [p]articipating in studies and analyses on preventing and reducing all forms of crime;
  • [p]articipating, as the body responsible for carrying out testing and expert analysis in the area of criminology, in developing anti-crime policy. (Algeria n.d.c)

The article published on 8 March 2017 by APS quotes the Chief of the Judicial Police as stating that the National Institute of Forensic Science and Criminology [translation] “responded in 788 cases in 2016 and helped solve another 224 cases through fingerprint and DNA analysis” (APS 8 Mar. 2017).

Sources report that, according to the former secretary general of INTERPOL, the Algerian police are ranked fifth in the world in terms of efficiency and resources (HuffPost Algeria 2 Apr. 2017; Algérie Focus 2 Apr. 2017).

2.1 Organized Crime

According to the website of the National Gendarmerie,

[translation]

[t]he National Gendarmerie has research units whose staff specializes in the judicial police and, in particular, is responsible for combatting the most dangerous forms of organized crime, through lengthy and complex investigations. (Algeria n.d.a)

The National Gendarmerie’s website also indicates that the Border Guard Units Command (Commandement des unités des Gardes-frontières), which is under the authority of the National Gendarmerie, is responsible, within the police field, for preventing and repressing illegal immigration, smuggling activities and drug trafficking, among others (Algeria n.d.d). The same sources explains that [Algeria English version] “the evolution of crime and insecurity especially in regions located in the south, the extent of smuggling in the East and West, the national dimension which implicates the problem of illegal immigration” have led to the implementation of “plans of development … in order to meet the set goals and to accomplish an optimum take over to the territory” (Algeria n.d.d).

A 2017 report on drug and chemical control by the US Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs explains the following about Algeria:

The Ministry of Justice claimed in 2016 that law enforcement and security forces had successfully enhanced land border security to the extent that some drug trafficking networks had shifted to sea routes between Algeria and Morocco, reflected by increasing seizures made by the Algerian Coast Guard and the National Gendarmerie. (US Mar. 2017b, 96)

Similarly, an article published in January 2017 by Sud Horizons cites a source close to the National Office for the Fight Against Drugs and Drug Addiction (Office national de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie) in Algeria as stating that the amount of cannabis resin seized in 2016 decreased by 13.89 percent over 2015, [translation] “mostly thanks to strengthening the security apparatus at the borders … [but that] the quantities seized were still ‘high’” (Sud Horizons 31 Jan. 2017).

The article published in April 2017 by Sud Horizons states the following:

[translation]

The fight against drug trafficking has been one of the priorities set out in the action plan of the SW [wilaya police (sûreté de wilaya)] in Algiers since the beginning of the year. Police officers have intensified their raids in highcrime areas, especially in neighbourhoods known for drug … trafficking. According to a SWPJ [Algiers wilaya judicial police service (service de la police judiciaire de la sûreté de wilaya d’Alger)] source, a crime map was drawn up for urban crime areas. Neighbourhoods went through a “major clean-up,” including municipalities in the districts of Sidi M’Hamed, El Madania, Birtouta, Chéraga, Draria, Rouiba and Dar El Beida. The police are not just tracking down dealers; investigators have also been targeting networks and suppliers. Several networks have been dismantled and drug lords have been neutralized. A large quantity of cannabis resin and psychotropic tablets were seized in these operations. (Sud Horizons 3 Apr. 2017)

An article on drug trafficking that was published in 2016 by Horizons, an Algerian daily, indicates that, according to the Algerian Minister of Justice, the legal system [translation] “is continually updated to improve the fight against new methods of drug trafficking … [notably through] the creation of jurisdictions specializing in drug, terrorism and organized crime matters” (Horizons 22 Apr. 2016).

Sources provide figures concerning the fight against crime in Algeria for 2017, including the following:

  • In the first half of 2017, the ANP neutralized 908 smugglers, 251 drug traffickers and 5,449 illegal immigrants, and seized 28,254.46 kilograms of processed kief [hashish], 552,225 litres of fuel and 605 weapons of war (Algeria July 2017, 21).
  • In the first quarter of 2017, [translation] “in the fight against drug trafficking, [m]ore than 3,400 criminal cases were processed by police investigators in the [c]apital,” leading to the “arrest of 3,741 suspects, including drug dealers and drug lords,” and “1,150 weapons cases [were processed in Algiers], … leading to the arrest of 1,230 suspects in flagrante delicto” (Sud Horizons 3 Apr. 2017).
  • In the first quarter of 2017, more than 14 tons of cannabis resin were seized in Algeria, and 7,734 cases involving trafficking of hard drugs were processed, respectively representing a decrease of 48.33 percent and an increase of 3.58 percent over the same period in 2016 (Sud Horizons 13 May 2017).
  • There were [translation] “preventive operations,” primarily through “raids in suspect neighbourhoods of Algiers and seven other wilayas [Tipasa, Boumerdès, Mascara, Béchar, Biskra, Ghardaïa and Adrar]” as part of efforts to execute the “plan to improve the safety of citizens and property and curtail all sorts of crimes, including physical assault, theft and drug trafficking,” and these raids led “to the arrest of 70 individuals and the seizure of 16 kg of processed kief, [10] bladed weapons and [465] psychotropic tablets … in addition to other cases involving cigarette smuggling” (L’Écho d’Algérie 25 Mar. 2017).
  • In February 2017, 15 criminal cases were solved by National Security (Sûreté nationale) forces across the country, and [translation] “31 people were arrested and brought before the competent authorities,” representing a 100 percent success rate (Algeria 20 Mar. 2017).
  • In January 2017 and December 2016, [translation] “159 criminal cases involving offences against individuals and property” were processed by National Police judicial police forces using the automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) (Algeria 12 Mar. 2017).

Sources provide figures relating to Algeria’s fight against crime for 2016, including the following:

  • In 2016, the ANP neutralized 2,615 smugglers, 6,103 illegal immigrants and 414 drug traffickers, and seized 110,951 kilograms of processed kief, 1,839,827 litres of fuel and 4,768 weapons (Algeria Dec. 2016, 20-21).
  • In 2016, [translation] “several networks specializing in trafficking drugs and psychotropic tablets were dismantled, leading to the arrest of more than 500 people, who were brought before the competent authorities, and another 382 people were incarcerated” (APS 8 Mar. 2017).
  • In 2016, National Gendarmerie forces processed 114,738 cases, leading to the arrest of 115,487 people (El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017).
  • In 2016, 23 cases of child abduction were recorded, 93 percent of which were processed (El Moudjahid 5 Mar. 2017).
  • In December 2016, 28 individuals involved in cases of intentional homicide were arrested by National Security forces, meaning that 100 percent of homicide cases were solved that month (Algeria 18 Jan. 2017).
  • In November 2016, [translation] “thanks to new technologies for research and judicial investigation, particularly the AFIS,” National Security forces processed 67 criminal cases (Algeria 20 Dec. 2016).
  • In October 2016, judicial and criminal police forces solved 100 percent of homicides, or 26 cases, in urban areas, leading to the [translation] “arrest and appearance of 59 individuals, 26 of whom were charged [with being] the main perpetrators and another 33 as accomplice[s]” (Algeria 3 Dec. 2016).
  • In October 2016, National Security forces solved 78 criminal cases [translation] “using new processes, including the [AFIS]” (Algeria 22 Nov. 2016).
  • In August 2016, using the AFIS, [translation] “judicial police forces within the General Directorate of National Security (Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale) solved 96 cases involving offences against individuals and property” (Algeria 19 Oct. 2016a).
  • In August 2016, [translation] “the various National Security crime brigades solved … 17 homicides, including 11 cases of voluntary homicide and 6 cases of assault and battery causing death … [and] 31 individuals involved in these cases were incarcerated” (Algeria 19 Oct. 2016b).
  • In May 2016, using the AFIS, [translation] “judicial police forces within the Directorate General of National Security solved 87 cases involving offences against the individual and property” (Algeria 28 June 2016).

Sources report the following figures for 2015 concerning Algeria’s fight against crime:

  • In the first nine months of 2015, in 11 central wilayas, 23,097 people were arrested, and 5,260 of those were placed in detention; 1,985 of these cases involved organized crime, and 1,918 of those cases were tried and led to the arrest of 2,917 people (1,684 were placed in detention); 989 cases involved drug trafficking, and 960 of those were tried and led to the seizure of 775,146 kilograms of processed kief, 1,500 grams of cocaine and 71,699 psychotropic tablets; 423 cases involved weapons and ammunition trafficking and led to the arrest of 403 people and the seizure of 33 weapons (La Nouvelle République 7 Dec. 2015).
  • In October 2015, through the AFIS, [translation] “National Security judicial police forces solved 82 criminal cases … involving vehicle theft, forgery and use of false documents, and offences against individuals and property” (Algeria 22 Nov. 2015).
  • Nationwide, during the first quarter of 2015, 167 cases related to counterfeit currency led to the arrest of 103 people and the seizure of 25 million Algerian dinars [approximately C$287,872], 550 euros [approximately C$820], [US$]800 and 10,000 Tunisian dinars [approximately C$5,217] in counterfeit bills by National Security (Algeria 5 May 2015).

2.2 Human Trafficking

Without offering more details, the article published in 2016 by Panapress mentions that the Algerian Minister of Justice told the media that [translation] “[t]he provisions to the penal code introduced in 2014 provide for severe punishment for human trafficking” (Panapress 17 July 2016). A 2016 UNODC report on human trafficking in Northern Africa and the Middle East states that [UN English version] “[t]he current legislation on trafficking in persons in Algeria was introduced in November 2009” (UN 22 Dec. 2016).

The same report states the following:

[UN English version]

The national authorities of Algeria have developed a national strategy on prevention and repression of trafficking in persons which was released on 20 October 2015. An inter-ministerial committee, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has been created to develop a national action plan and a report of the activities in place to combat trafficking in persons in Algeria. The national action plan identifies the national focal point on the issue of trafficking in persons, which is in charge of coordinating the actions of different ministries, to reinforce the legislation on trafficking in persons, to strengthen the national capacity on the matters of detection and identification of victims of trafficking, to improve international cooperation, and to implement a communication plan for advocacy purposes. (UN 22 Dec. 2016)

According to the US Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report 2017, the Algerian government has demonstrated its [US English version] “political will” to address human trafficking by issuing, in September 2016, a presidential decree formally institutionalizing the Interministerial Antitrafficking Committee (Comité interministériel de lutte contre la traite) and assigning it a budget to implement its mandate (US June 2017, 60). The same source mentions the following:

The [Algerian] government made key achievements …. These achievements include the investigation and prosecution of 16 alleged traffickers and the identification of 65 potential forced labour victims…. Despite the identified victims’ illegal immigration status, the government provided them temporary housing, medical aid, and other basic services at a migrant transit center. … Despite these achievements, the government did not systematically identify trafficking victims among vulnerable populations, nor did it provide adequate protection services for all trafficking victims. It did not have a standardized mechanism to refer potential victims to government- or NGO-run protection services. Furthermore, due to a lack of identification efforts, authorities continued to punish potential trafficking victims for acts committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking, such as immigration violations and prostitution. (US June 2017, 60)

In its Freedom in the World 2016 report, Freedom House writes the following with respect to Algeria:

Algeria reported its first ever conviction under the law [criminalizing human trafficking] in 2015. However, according to monitors, the government is making virtually no effort to systematically enforce the ban [on human trafficking], and trafficking victims themselves are frequently detained and harassed by authorities. (Freedom House 14 July 2016)

3. Protection for Witnesses and Victims of Crime

An Amnesty International report published in 2017 notes that [AI English version] “[in January,] changes to the Code of Criminal Procedure came into effect, including new witness protection measures” (Amnesty International 22 Feb. 2017). Similarly, in correspondence with the Research Directorate, a lawyer with the Supreme Court in Algeria stated that [translation] “[O]rder No. 15-02 of 23 July 2015, amending and supplementing Order No. 66-155 of 8 June 1966 pertaining to the Code of Criminal Procedure (Ordonnance n° 15-02 du 23 juillet 2015 modifiant et complétant l’Ordonnance n° 66-155 du 8 juin 1966 portant code de procédure pénale), included a new Chapter VI under the title “‘Protection of Witnesses, Experts and Victims’” (lawyer 23 July 2017).

Order No. 15-02 of 23 July 2015 reads as follows:

[translation]

Art. 65. bis 19 – Witnesses and experts may be offered one or more of the extraprocedural and/or procedural protective measures provided for in this chapter, when their life, their physical integrity or that of their family members or close relatives, or their basic interests are seriously threatened by reason of information that they are likely to provide in court and that may be vital to ascertaining the truth in cases of organized crime, terrorism or corruption. (Algeria 23 July 2015)

Art. 65. bis 20 – The extraprocedural measures for the protection of witnesses and experts include the following:

  • concealing information about their identity;
  • making a special telephone number available to them;
  • designating a point of contact for them within the security forces;
  • providing close physical protection, which may be expanded to include family members and friends;
  • installing preventive technical equipment in their home;
  • with their express consent, recording any telephone calls made or received;
  • changing their place of residence;
  • providing social or financial assistance;
  • if they are being detained, placing them in a specially secured area.

These measures also apply to victims when they are witnesses.

… (Algeria 23 July 2015)

A copy of Order No. 15-02 of 23 July 2015 is attached to this Response. The lawyer stated that the witness, expert and victim protection system in Algeria [translation] “is very recent and has not yet been implemented” (Lawyer 3 Aug. 2017). Corroborating information could not found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Note

[1] According to the statistical database on the UNODC website, [UN English version] “changes in definitions and/or counting rules are reported by the Member State [Algeria] to indicate a break in the time series” (UN 2015).

References

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Algeria. July 2017. El Djeich. “Unités en action.” No. 648. [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

Algeria. 20 March 2017. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “Les services de la Sûreté Nationale ont élucidé 15 affaires criminelles en février 2017.” [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]

Algeria. 12 March 2017. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “Résolution de 159 affaires criminelles grâce au système AFIS.” [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]

Algeria. 18 January 2017. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “Interpellation de 28 personnes impliquées dans des affaires criminelles en mois de décembre 2016.” [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]

Algeria. 20 December 2016. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “67 affaires criminelles traitées durant le mois de novembre 2016 grâce au système (AFIS).” [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

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Algeria. 28 June 2016. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “87 affaires criminelles traitées grâce au système AFIS durant le mois de mai 2016.” [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

Algeria. 22 November 2015. Direction générale de la Sûreté nationale. “82 affaires traitées grâce au système automatisé d’identification des empreintes digitales en octobre 2015.” [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

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Algeria. 23 July 2015. Ordonnance n° 15-02 du 23 juillet 2015 modifiant et complétant l’ordonnance n° 66-155 du 8 juin 1966 portant code de procédure pénale. (30-31). [Accessed 31 July 2017]

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Algeria. N.d.b. Gendarmerie nationale. “Section de sécurité et d’intervention.” [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]

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Algeria. N.d.d. Gendarmerie nationale. “Unités des Gardes-frontières.” [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]

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Algérie Presse Service (APS). 20 September 2016. “Traite des personnes – ‘le peu’ de cas signalés en Algérie sont des ‘cas isolés’.” (Factiva) [Accessed 26 July 2017]

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Lawyer, Algeria. 3 August 2017. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

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La Nouvelle République. 9 August 2016. “Le taux plus élevé dans les wilayas frontalières.” [Accessed 18 July 2017]

La Nouvelle République. 7 December 2015. “Plus de 23 000 individus arrêtés dans des affaires de criminalité dans les wilayas du centre en neuf mois.” [Accessed 18 July 2017]

Panapress. 17 July 2016. “Le rapport américain sur la traite des personnes est loin de la réalité en Algérie, selon le ministre de la Justice.” (Factiva) [Accessed 26 July 2017]

Sud Horizons. 13 May 2017. “Les chiffres effrayants de trafic de drogue en Algérie.” [Accessed 3 August 2017]

Sud Horizons. 3 April 2017. “Drogue : plus de 3 400 affaires traitées en 3 mois à Alger.” [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

Sud Horizons. 31 January 2017. “Plus de 109 tonnes de résine de cannabis saisies en 2016 en Algérie.” [Accessed 3 Aug. 2017]

United Nations (UN). 22 December 2016. “North Africa and the Middle East.” Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016. [Accessed 1 Aug. 2017]

United Nations (UN). 2015. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). “UNODC Statistics.” [Accessed 19 July 2017]

United States (US). June 2017. Department of State. “Algeria.” Trafficking in Persons Report 2017. [Accessed 26 July 2017]

United States (US). 25 April 2017. Department of State. Overseas Security Advisory Council. Algeria 2017 Crime & Safety Report. [Accessed 18 July 2017]

United States (US). March 2017a. Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report Volume II - Money Laundering and Financial Crimes. [Accessed 26 July 2017]

United States (US). March 2017b. Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report Volume I- Drug and Chemical Control. [Accessed 26 July 2017]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Algeria – Consulate in Montréal, Direction générale de la sûreté nationale, Embassy in Ottawa, Gendarmerie Nationale; Ligue algérienne des droits de l’homme; Ligue algérienne pour la défense des droits de l’homme.

Internet sites, including: Actualité Algérie; Algeria – Office national des statistiques; Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project; ecoi.net; El-Djazair.com; Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l’homme; Human Rights Watch; UN – Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Attachment

Algeria. 23 July 2015. Ordonnance n° 15-02 du 23 juillet 2015 modifiant et complétant l’ordonnance n° 66-155 du 8 juin 1966 portant code de procédure pénale. (30-31). [Accessed 31 July 2017]