a-6862 (ACC-IRN-6862)

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.
Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar.
Wir empfehlen, die verwendeten Materialien im Original durchzusehen.
Rechte von Green-Card-BesitzerInnen (Arbeitsbewilligung, soziale Unterstützung, Bewegungsfreiheit)
USCRI - US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants: World Refugee Survey 2009, ohne Datum
„The Government's 2007 registration of Iraqis was open only to those who had arrived before 2005 but UNHCR registers later arrivals and recognizes those from central and southern Iraq as refugees prima facie. The Government does not allow UNHCR to issue refugee certificates or other documents. Longstanding Iraqi refugees in Iran hold refugee identity documents known as “white cards.” To those arriving since 2006, Iran issues visas valid for one month and renewable for up to three months. To renew for a longer period, refugees must return to Iraq and re-entering. Authorities levy large fines upon Iraqis violating the terms and/or duration of their visas.“ (USCRI, ohne Datum)
„Some 97 percent of refugees live outside of camps but with reduced benefits.   Pursuant to a 2001 Decree, Iran bans foreigners, with no exception for refugees, from 19 areas and requires some 120,000 registered Afghan and Iraqi refugees to live in Torbat-e-Jam, Semnan, and Saveh camps in the provinces of Khorasan Razavi, Semnan, and Markazi, or repatriate, and de-registers those who fail to do so. The Government requires even registered refugees to apply for temporary laissez-passer through local authorities in the province where they register as refugees.   Refugees had to leave their refugee cards with the local authorities until they returned. Iran maintains a reservation to the 1951 Convention’s provision for freedom of movement and the 1963 Regulations allowed the Government to restrict refugees’ residence. Except for those with refugee status since before the 1979 revolution and refugee booklets, refugees cannot get international travel documents unless they are resettling or repatriating.“ (USCRI, ohne Datum)
„The Government increasing fines or imprisons employers of undocumented foreigners, including registered Afghan refugees although they were more lenient with Iraqis. […] Iran maintains a reservation to the 1951 Convention’s provisions regarding the right to work.   The 1963 Regulations allow recognized refugees "employment in the fields authorized for foreign nationals and those fields deemed appropriate,” including animal husbandry and brick making. The 1990 Labor Law mandates the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs to issue, extend, and renew work permits to refugees, subject to the written agreements of the Ministries of the Interior and Foreign Affairs. Work permits are restricted to particular jobs, cost 700,000 Rials (around $75), and are valid for one year, renewable.“ (USCRI, ohne Datum)
·       AA – Auswärtiges Amt: Bericht über die asyl- und abschiebungsrelevante Lage in der Islamischen Republik Iran, 23. Februar 2009
[Textpassage entfernt]
USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2008 - Iran, 25. Februar 2009
„Since 2007 authorities maintained approximately 19 "No Go Areas" in the country for Afghan refugees, according to UNHCR. Refugees were required to register and relocate in areas the government approved; those who did not were considered unregistered and remained subject to deportation. Afghan and Iraqi refugees faced a lack of job opportunities, and the government at times failed to grant them residence or work permits, effectively preventing them from obtaining health insurance coverage.“ (USDOS, 25. Februar 2009, Sek. 2d)
McGill University (Autorin: Anisseh Van Engeland-Nourai): Repatriation of Afghan and Iraqi Refugees from Iran: When Home is No Longer Home, In: UNESCO – UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: International Journal on Multicultural Societies (IJMS) Vol. 10, No. 2, 2008 - “The Conditions of Modern Return Migrants”, 2008
„In general, Iraqis receive a green card, which is comparable to the blue card issued to Afghans. However new measures have barred them not only from working but also from accessing education or medical treatment.“ (McGill University, 2008, S. 151)
„Some Afghan refugees hold white refugee documents. Most of these documents, which use the correct word for refugees, panahandegan, were issued in the pre-revolutionary period. The white card, actually a booklet, provides greater rights and benefits than the mohajerin[1] blue cards (see below), such as exemption from taxes, the right to work, and the right to obtain travel documents; but it also requires holders to renew their status every three months and to report movement and residence to the authorities. Since the Islamic revolution, the government has continued to issue white cards on an irregular basis, mostly to highly educated individuals and established professionals, and more often to Iraqis than to Afghans. […] Blue card holders were granted indefinite permission to stay in Iran legally. Until 1995, blue card holders had access to subsidised healthcare and food, and free primary and secondary education; but they could not own their own businesses or work as street vendors, and their employment was limited to low-wage, manual labour. All these social advantages ended in 1995. One of the issues with the blue card is that the duration of stay is not specified, so the card can be revoked at any time. Sometimes, the authorities have removed blue cards from holders in order to deport them, especially when the holders are living with undocumented relatives.“ (McGill University, 2008, S. 149f)
USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007 - Iran, 11. März 2008
„According to the country's civil code, citizenship was derived from birth in the country or from the male parent. Citizenship could be acquired upon the fulfillment of the following criteria: persons were at least age 18, lived in the country for more than five years, were not military service escapees, and had not been convicted of a major crime in the country of origin or country of residence. It was likely that there were stateless persons in the country during the year. The Iraqi and Iranian governments continued to dispute Iraqi refugees' citizenship, rendering many of them stateless.“ (USDOS, 11. März 2008, Sek. 2d)
FIDH - International Federation for Human Rights: Iraq: continuous and silent ethnic cleansing - Displaced persons in Iraqi Kurdistan and Iraqi refugees in Iran, Jänner 2003
„The Iraqis who were interviewed live in particularly difficult conditions. In the camps, which are controlled by the Iranian authorities, they are not allowed to come and go without prior authorisation and they are not allowed to work. The mission could also take note of cases of malnutrition among children and of the extreme poverty of the populations. Information received after the mission mention the deterioration of the situation, in particular concerning water supply in some camps. In the cities, where refugees have more freedom of movement, their economic situation remains precarious as the green card issued to refugees who are officially registered does not theoretically give them the right to exercise any professional activity.“ (FIDH, Jänner 2003, S. 24)
The Faili Kurds Homepage: The Kurds and the obligatory life in Iran, ohne Datum
„Then an identity card is issued for every immigrant leave the camps which is called KART SABZ in Persian language which means the green card on the card there is a sentence that says that it is only for identification and it is not allowed for the immigrant to buy or sell estates or transportation means. The expelled can not get an official contract of marriage in case he gets married. He or she also can not get a passport of work or any official education and cannot be enrolled to the Iranian universities. He or she also has to get a previous permission from the local authorities before moving, so that many Faili Kurds preferred to leave Iran for these reasons and to do so, they have to get a passport issued by the Iranian ministry of Interior in which person’s name and nationality are written the Iranian officers used to write the sentence of " departure with no return " and define the period of departure with only 48 or 72 hours.“ (The Faili Kurds Homepage, ohne Datum)
USCRI - US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants: World Refugee Survey 1999, ohne Datum
„About 350,000 of the estimated 580,000 Iraqi refugees in Iran were expelled from Iraq at the time of the Iraq-Iran War because of their suspected Iranian origin, and have lived in the western region of Iran for almost two decades. In many cases, both Iran and Iraq dispute their citizenship, in effect rendering many of them stateless. Those people who were able to prove their family links to Iran have been granted Iranian citizenship, and the remainder have been issued green cards. In practice, the Iranian authorities make no distinctions among Iraqi refugees, whether or not Iraq acknowledges their citizenship.“ (USCRI, ohne Datum)
ICRI – International Consortium for Refugees in Iran: Overview of the Refugee Situation, ohne Datum
„Some Afghans, who fled Afghanistan during the 1980s, received a "green card", a refugee identification document that enables them to stay in Iran legally (although duration of the stay is not specified). These refugees are entitled to subsidized health care and free primary and secondary education. Until a downturn in the Iranian economy in 1995, these documented refugees also received food subsidies. This card does not entitle the refugee to legally work in Iran.“ (ICRI, ohne Datum)
Rückkehrerlaubnis für Green-Card-BesitzerInnen nach illegaler Ausreise
In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen konnten im Rahmen der zeitlich begrenzten Recherche keine Informationen zur Rückkehrerlaubnis für Green-Card-BesitzerInnen nach einer illegalen Ausreise gefunden werden.
Eine Anfrage an die Konsularabteilung der iranischen Botschaft in Berlin blieb bisher unbeantwortet. Sobald wir eine Antwort erhalten, werden wir sie umgehend an Sie weiterleiten.
Folgende Informationen über die Wiedereinreise abgeschobener iranischer AsylwerberInnen konnten gefunden werden:
·       AA – Auswärtiges Amt: Bericht über die asyl- und abschiebungsrelevante Lage in der Islamischen Republik Iran, 23. Februar 2009
[Textpassage entfernt].
DRC/DIS – Danish Refugee Council/ Danish Immigration Service: Human Rights Situation for Minorities, Women and Converts, and Entry and Exit Procedures, ID Cards, Summons and Reporting, etc. - Fact finding mission to Iran 24th August – 2nd September 2008, April 2009
„An international organisation in Tehran (2) explained that the Immigration Police must verify the identity of every person entering Iran. If a person has not left legally, he/she has not been registered in the computer system as having left Iran, and therefore will be questioned upon return. A person, who has left Iran illegally, might also be detained one or two days upon return. It was added, that a person that has left illegally could also be arrested if he had committed an illegal act before leaving Iran. A person entering Iran on a laissez passer, issued by an Iranian representation abroad, might be fined for illegal exit or subjected to one to two hours interrogation. The source did not know if there might be any further consequences in relation to the interrogation.“ (DRC/DIS, April 2009, S. 39)
Faili-KurdInnen: Soziale Situation, Einbürgerung oder Abschiebung durch die iranischen Behörden
USCRI - US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants: World Refugee Survey 2008, 14. Juni 2008
„Most of the 57,400 Iraqis were Shi’a Arabs or Feili Kurds who fled in the 1980s or whom the Iraqi Government had expelled. Most lived in Qom, Mashad, or in the southern and western provinces. Camp-based Iraqi refugees generally lived in the western provinces.“ (USCRI, 14. Juni 2008)
UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees: Feili Kurds in Iran seek way out of identity impasse, 28. Mai 2008
„However, under former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's Baathist regime in the 1970s, the Faili Kurds were accused of being Iranian, stripped of their nationality and expelled from the country. Their expulsion continued through the 1980s, over the course of the Iran-Iraq war. They became stateless, or without a nationality and unable to enjoy the rights and benefits accorded by a state. At its peak, there were estimated to be several hundreds of thousands of Faili Kurds in Iran, living in the border provinces of Ilam and Ahwaz, as well as further inland, in camps like Jahrom, also known as Dastgheib camp. Some 760 in Ilam were able to obtain Iranian citizenship after a complicated process, while the general number has dropped in recent years as many repatriated to Iraq after the fall of Saddam. Today there are believed to be some 7,000 registered Faili Kurds remaining in Iran.“ (UNHCR, 28. Mai 2008)
MPI – Migration Policy Institute: Country Profile - Iran: A Vast Diaspora Abroad and Millions of Refugees at Home, September 2006
„The Iranian government has dealt with the Iraqi refugee population differently than with the Afghans. For example, while regulations passed in February 2004 restricted Afghan refugees' residence in certain cities and regions, limiting their ability to rent or own property, these rules did not apply to Iraqis. Furthermore, in 2004, when Iran imposed new restrictions that required Afghan refugees to hold work permits and that increased sanctions on employers who hired Afghans lacking work permits, these regulations did not apply to Iraqi refugees. This differential treatment may be due to the relatively larger size and prolonged presence of the Afghan refugee population relative to the Iraqis, as well as the perceived socioeconomic differences between the two populations. According to UNHCR, by September 2003 there were over 202,000 Iraqi refugees in Iran, composing over half of the entire Iraqi refugee population in the world. Though the majority lived in urban centers and settlements, about 50,000 were housed in 22 refugee camps, which are situated along the country's western border with Iraq. However, with more than 80 percent of them choosing to repatriate, Iraqi refugees staying in camps in Iran have demonstrated a higher rate of departure than those who settled in urban communities throughout the country. As a result, by the end of 2004, the overall camp population had decreased from 50,000 to 8,000, with six out of the 22 camps empty and many others near empty. Even though large numbers of Iraqis have repatriated, an entire generation of children born out of Iraqi-Iranian marriages —whose existence the authorities refuse to acknowledge — is now growing up in Iran. The illegality of marriages between Iraqis and Iranians, and the government's refusal to recognize their children point to an integration problem that the government must deal with.“ (MPI, September 2006)

[1] „[P]eople who seek exile for religious reasons“ (MPI, September 2006)