a-er3829 (ACC-KGZ-3829)

Nach einer Recherche in unserer Länderdokumentation und im Internet können wir Ihnen zu oben genannter Fragestellung Materialien zur Verfügung stellen, die unter anderem folgende Informationen enthalten:
Situation ethnischer Minderheiten, insbesondere deutsche Minderheit; Übergriffe durch staatliche Stellen?
Zur ethnischen Verteilung der kirgisischen Bevölkerung konsultieren Sie bitte den Ende Februar 2004 vom US State Department (USDOS) herausgegebenen Jahresbericht zur Menschenrechtslage in Kirgistan im Jahr 2003:
“The latest statistical data released in August reflected the following ethnic breakdown of the population: 66.9 percent Kyrgyz; 10.7 percent Russian; 14.1 percent Uzbek; 1.1 percent Dungan (ethnic Chinese Muslims); and 1 percent Uighur. Other ethnic groups, including Tatars and Germans, comprised 6.2 percent of the population. Since independence more than 294,908 ethnic Russians and nearly 91,390 ethnic Germans have emigrated (see Section 2.d.) (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 5 ‘National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities’).“
Das US State Department (USDOS) erwähnt in seinem Jahresbericht zur Menschenrechtslage in Kirgistan 2003, dass die Berichte über eine diskriminierende Behandlung von nicht ethnischen Kirgisen im Jahr 2003 als problematisch angesehen werden können (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. ‚Introduction’; Sek. 5 ‘National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities’). So würden Angehörige ethnischer Minderheitengruppen beispielsweise bei der Jobsuche, der Beförderung oder bei der Wohnungssuche benachteiligt werden; auch würden ethnische Kirgisen auf allen Ebenen von den Behörden bevorzugt werden. Zudem seien ethnische Minderheiten mit voreingenommener Berichterstattung in den Medien und einer nationalistischen Grundeinstellung konfrontiert (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 5 ‘National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities’). Generell, so Freedom House, habe die Toleranz von ethnisch motivierter Diskriminierung zu einer wachsenden Verbitterung unter der Minderheitenbevölkerung geführt. Die ethnisch deutsche Volksgruppe und Personen slawischen Ursprungs hätten, so Freedom House weiter, das Land in Scharen verlassen. Für jene, die nach Angaben von Freedom House, in Kirgistan blieben, klängen die staatlichen Bemühungen zur ethnischen Integration hohl (Freedom House, April 2004, S. 5; siehe auch Council of the European Union, 24. Januar 2002, S. 51 – zum Zeitpunkt der Veröffentlichung sollen nur noch ca. 20.000 – 30.000 ethnische Deutsche in Kirgistan gelebt haben). Darüber hinaus erwähnt Freedom House:
“It should be emphasized that post-Soviet ethnic-based grievances have not produced violent conflict, a fact that is particularly notable given Kyr-gyzstan’s experience with ethnic rioting in June 1990. Recent calm, how-ever, does not mean that ethnic tensions have disappeared over the past decade. Much as was the case prior to the Soviet collapse, ethnic Kyrgyz today continue to monopolize positions of power, even in regions where Uzbeks constitute the local majority.18 Moreover, tensions extend beyond questions of representation to those of everyday life.” (Freedom House, April 2004, S. 5)
Die Nachrichtenagentur Kabar News Agency erwähnt in einem am 14. Mai 2003 veröffentlichten Artikel:
“The Kyrgyzstan Republic is a multi-ethnic country with 80 nationalities. Inter-ethnic conflicts are caused by the close, and sometimes controversial interweaving of religious, linguistic, cultural and regional borders, which are reflected in the unequal division of political and social power. The main problem is that ethnic minorities are poorly represented in political processes.” (Kabar News Agency, 14. Mai 2003)
Eurasianet berichtet im Februar 2004 von der Einführung eines umstrittenen Sprachengesetzes, das Spannungen zwischen den verschiedenen ethnischen Gruppen weiter anheizen könnte. Für Detailinformationen konsultieren Sie bitte den in der Literaturliste angeführten Eurasianet-Artikel (Eurasianet, 23. Februar 2004).
 
Weitere Hintergrundinformationen zur Situation ethnischer Minderheiten finden Sie darüber hinaus in den in der Literaturliste angeführten Dokumenten.
Religiöse Minderheiten, insbesondere römisch-katholische Glaubensgemeinschaft; Übergriffe durch staatliche Stellen bzw. Dritte (Muslime)?
In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Materialien konnten die folgenden allgemeinen Informationen zur Lage christlicher Minderheiten in Kirgistan gefunden:
 
UNHCR: Stellungnahme an die Caritas: Kirgisistan - Verfolgung durch islamische fundamentalistische Gruppen, 29. Mai 2002
„Spannungen zwischen Moslems und Christen wurden nach Auskunft unseres Büros in Bischkek bislang lediglich in Bezug auf zum Christentum Konvertierte aus dem Ort Ak-Tyz berichtet. Diese sind von den dort ansässigen Muslimen der Missionierung der Kinder verdächtigt und der Belästigung durch ihre Gebete beschuldigt worden. Doch auch in Ak-Tyz kam es zu keinem Vorgehen gegen die Christen.
Nach Ansicht von UNHCR kann daher in Kirgisistan grundsätzlich von keiner Verfolgung von Christen durch radikale moslemische Gruppen ausgegangen werden, wenn auch festzuhalten ist, dass eine Verfolgung einer aus dem Süden Kirgisistans stammenden Person christlichen Glaubens im Einzelfall nicht ausgeschlossen werden kann.“ (UNHCR, 29. Mai 2002)
Forum 18: KYRGYZSTAN: Religious freedom survey, 7. Januar 2004:
“However, due to Muslim anger at conversions from Islam to Christianity, Forum 18 has been told by some that an official campaign against Christian proselytism may soon be launched.” (Forum 18, 07. Januar 2004)
USDOS – US State Department: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2003 – Kyrgyzstan, 25. Februar 2004:
“The State Commission on Religious Affairs (SCRA) was responsible for promoting religious tolerance, protecting freedom of conscience, and overseeing laws on religion. Under the law, all religious organizations were required to register with the SCRA, which was required to recognize the registrant as a religious organization. Each congregation was required to register separately. Religious organizations, including religious schools, were required to register with the MOJ to obtain status as legal entities, which was necessary for them to own property, open bank accounts, and otherwise engage in contractual activities. Under the tax code, religious organizations were required to pay taxes on commercial activities. The Ministry's registration process was cumbersome, taking a month on average. In practice, the Ministry never registered a religious organization without prior registration by the SCRA.
Several religious organizations reported delays registering with the SCRA. The majority of these were small Christian congregations and Islamic organizations. All of them were eventually registered. According to the SCRA, it registered all churches that applied for registration during the year. The Church of Jesus Christ reported that 10 of its churches succeeded in registering by year's end, with another 6 applications pending.
The Government was concerned about political extremism disguised as conservative Islam, particularly Wahhabist interpretations. Armed incursions by militants of the IMU in the summers of 1999 and 2000 increased the Government's apprehension about radical Islam and the actions of its followers. The Government, leaders of the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Muftiate expressed concern over new religious movements posing a threat to stability, such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Unification Church, Falun Gong, and other Christian "sects." The Muftiate issued a fatwa (legal decree) denouncing the activity of Hizb ut-Tahrir in December 2002.
Religious leaders noted with concern that the SCRA frequently used the term national security in its statements. Law enforcement authorities, including the MVD and the SNB, often played a role in investigating religious organizations and resolving inter-religious disputes. Representatives of smaller churches, such as the Church of Jesus Christ, complained of government attempts to hamper their activities. However, a pastor of the Catholic Church denied that the Government had attempted to hamper the Church's activities during the year.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 2c)
Eurasianet: Protestants In Kyrgyzstan Face Hostile Reception, 8. Dezember 2003
“Kyrgyzstan has drawn international criticism for cracking down on officially nonviolent Islamic groups like Hizb-ut-Tahrir. But evidence suggests that the authorities are nonsectarian when discouraging religious freedom. People who convert to western schools of Christianity, especially Protestants, face strong psychological pressure from authorities and religious leaders. Activists say that persecution of Protestants has intensified since signals from the Ministry of Justice seemed to encourage it on national-security grounds.” (Eurasianet, 08. Dezember 2003)
Informationen im Zusammenhang mit der Situation der katholischen Glaubensgemeinschaft finden Sie in den unten angeführten Textausschnitten:
 
Forum 18: KYRGYZSTAN: Religious freedom survey, 7. Januar 2004:
“The head of the Catholic Church in Kyrgyzstan, Father Aleksandr Kan, also had no complaints about the authorities. "In principle, we could register 40 small parishes around the country besides our cathedral in Bishkek," he told Forum 18 on 12 December 2003 in Bishkek. "But we simply see no need, because no-one is making us do it."” (Forum 18, 07. Januar 2004)
USDOS – US State Department: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2003 – Kyrgyzstan, 25. Februar 2004: 
“Religious leaders noted with concern that the SCRA frequently used the term national security in its statements. Law enforcement authorities, including the MVD and the SNB, often played a role in investigating religious organizations and resolving inter-religious disputes. Representatives of smaller churches, such as the Church of Jesus Christ, complained of government attempts to hamper their activities. However, a pastor of the Catholic Church denied that the Government had attempted to hamper the Church's activities during the year.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 2c)
USDOS – US State Department: International Religious Freedom Report 2003 – Kyrgyzstan, 18. Dezember 2003:
“The country's Roman Catholic Church, approximately 80 percent of whose members are citizens, was considered an unregistered foreign religious organization in the country until its registration in 2002. The Roman Catholic Church in Bishkek first attained legal status under Soviet law in 1969; however, the SCRA notified the church that it would have to reregister as a foreign religion in the country after the issuance of Presidential Decree 319 in 1996. The Holy See established the Catholic Mission in the country in 1997, and a representative from the Vatican visited the country in 2001 to meet with SCRA members on behalf of registration. In February 2002, the SCRA approved the Catholic Mission's application for registration, and registration was finalized in October 2002. The Unification Church, which is registered as a social, rather than a religious, organization, has "semi-official" status. According to the SCRA, the Unification Church has not applied for registration as a religious organization. However, an affiliated organization is registered as a NGO.” (USDOS, 18. Dezember 2003, Sek. II)
IWPR – Institute for War and Peace Reporting: Missionaries Offer Faith and Food to Kyrgyz, 9. September 2003
“Natalia Shadrova, deputy head of the State Commission on Religious Affairs, says the issue of conversion to foreign religions is a difficult one, and there have already been localised incidents but so far no major outbreaks of trouble.
"There have been some local conflicts and clashes on this issue, which the police have dealt with. It is mostly Muslims 'betray' their co-religionists, going off to join the Bahais, become Hare Krishnas or join one of the Christian churches. There are now over 260 Christian prayer-houses in Kyrgyzstan," she said.” (IWPR, 09. September 2003)
Die kanadische Einwanderungsbehörde (IRB) zitiert in einer Anfragebeantwortung zur Frage möglicher Übergriffe auf Christen durch Moslems oder islamistische Gruppen die folgenden Ausschnitte aus Medienberichten bzw. Pressemitteilungen:
“The response of the local "chief specialist" was that "the Protestants must understand that Chon-Tash is a purely Kyrgyz village, where practically all the villagers are Muslims. It is far from simple to preach Christianity in a place like that. We cannot give police protection to every local Protestant" (ibid.; Nezavisimaya Gazeta 21 Nov. 2001). Even so, as CountryReports 2001 state, "[t]he incident was resolved peacefully by the Ministry of the Interior and the Security Service" (2002).”
[…]
“Nezavisimaya Gazeta reports that "Kyrgyz members of a Christian community were, at the call of a mullah, beaten up in the village of Myrzak of Osh Province, people spat in their face, and it was demanded that they deny their faith, after which they were expelled from the village" (21 Nov. 2001). The Baptist World Alliance mentioned, without corroboration or examples, that "there is also widespread harassment of Christians in Kyrgyzstan and other areas" (BWA News June 2001). Keston reported one case of a Baptist male threatened with forcible incarceration in a psychiatric hospital for refusing to swear his military oath (13 Feb. 2002). In Naryn Oblast a Baptist church was "denied registration and harassed by police because it is ethnically Kyrgyz" (International Christian Concern 31 July 1999). In Kyzyl-Kiya of the Osh province several unregistered Baptist preachers were first "cautioned... officially about violating the laws of Kyrgyzstan" then deported from the country after they "ignored four cautionary notes" (Vecherniy Bishkek 10 June 1999).” (IRB, KGT38708.E, 14. März 2002)
Gezielte Verfolgung durch Behörden, wenn diese bei höheren Stellen angeschwärzt wurden?
In den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Materialien und der kurzen Recherchezeit konnten keine Informationen gefunden werden, ob Personen, die z.B. Mitarbeiter der Polizei bei höheren Stellen anschwärzen, von den Behörden gezielt verfolgt werden.
Polizeistruktur, Korruption 
Korruption, insbesondere das Zahlen von Bestechungsgeldern zur Vermeidung strafrechtlicher Verfolgung, war nach Angaben des US State Department (USDOS) im Jahr 2003 auf allen Ebenen der Exekutivorgane ein großes Problem (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 1d):
“Impunity remained a problem; however, during the year numerous MVD officials were dismissed and prosecuted for various offenses, including corruption, abuse of authority, and police brutality.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 1d)
Nach Angaben der International Crisis Group (ICG) agiert die als korrupt und gewaltbereit eingestufte kirgisische Polizei außerhalb staatlicher Kontrolle und mit enormen Einfluss auf das Alltagsleben der kirgisischen Bevölkerung. Korruption innerhalb des Polizeiapparats, so die International Crisis Group, ist aufgrund mangelnder Bezahlung „almost a necessity“ und „making various forms of extortion and bribery almost inevitable“ (ICG, 20. August 2002, S.1 und S.10).
 
Darüber hinaus verweist ICG auf die schlechte Ausbildung der Polizeibeamten, insbesondere auf die stetig abnehmende Zahl von Spezialisten innerhalb der Reihen staatlicher Sicherheitskräfte und auf die Schwierigkeiten bei der Rekrutierung des Nachwuchses. Laut ICG werden neue Mitarbeiter auf der Straße angesprochen oder über das Telefon angeworben (ICG, 20. August 2002, S.1 und S.10).
 
Die dänische Einwanderungsbehörde beruft sich in ihrem Bericht über ihre Erkundungsreise vom 27. Mai bis 10. Juni 2001 nach Kirgistan auf mehrere nicht näher genannte Quellen, die Aufschluss über Polizeikorruption in Kirgistan geben. Laut Bericht gilt dies insbesondere für die Verkehrspolizei (CIREA, 24. Juni 2002, S. 72). Die International Helsinki Federation (IHF) verweist in ihrem Jahresbericht 2003 zu Kirgistan ebenfalls auf kriminelle Machenschaften in den Rängen der Sicherheitsbeamten, darunter Anwendung von Folter zum Erzwingen von Geständnissen, Misshandlungen und Erpressung von Bestechungsgeldern (IHF, 08. Mai 2003, S. 7).
 
In einem Presseartikel der Pravda vom Mai 2002 heißt es über die kirgisische Polizei:
“Police has lost the image of people’s protector long ago already. People often have problems every time they meet policemen. Nowadays, police seems to be closely connected with criminal structures, policemen often abuse the power for racketeering, extortion and blackmailing.” (Pravda 02. Mai 2002; siehe auch uygur.org 16. Februar 2002)
Allgemeine Information zu Korruption in Kirgistan finden Sie zusätzlich in dem Bericht „Corruption in Kyrgyzstan“ des Center for Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts und in einer Anfragebeantwortung der kanadischen Einwanderungsbehörde (IRB) vom 6. Oktober 2000 (siehe Literaturliste).
 
Das Institute for War and Peace Reporting berichtet in einem Artikel vom 2. Mai 2003 von Ankündigungen der kirgisischen Regierung, der Korruption den Kampf anzusagen. Allerdings, so IWPR, gehen Analysten davon aus, dass diese Kampagne kaum Wirkung zeigen wird, zumal hochrangige Beamte nicht ins Visier der Untersuchungsbehörden kommen werden.  IWPR berichtet allerdings auch, dass seit Ankündigung der Anti-Korruptions-Kampagne in den regierungsnahen Medien Namen von Polizisten genannt wurden, die Geld angenommen hatten (IWPR, 02. Mai 2003).
 
Des Weiteren heißt es in dem oben bereits zitierten Bericht des IWPR:
“The president preceded the announcement by setting out the scale of the problem at a meeting of the country's Security Council on March 31. He noted that corruption is rampant in all areas of life and that it is harming economic performance, as well as having a demoralising effect on society.
He gave the example of smuggling, often facilitated by senior bureaucrats, which costs the government at least 18 million US dollars a year - a lot of money in a country where state spending comes to around 250 million dollars a year.
This will come as no surprise to people in Kyrgyzstan, who are all too well aware of official corruption. Dinara Joldoshova, an analyst with the World Bank in Bishkek, cites alarming statistics from a survey conducted among a cross-section of the public, "Fifty six per cent of the population think that bribery has become the norm, and that law enforcement agencies are the most corrupt."
[…]
But observers say the talk of getting tough on graft is less than it seems, and that the campaign is doomed to failure. It is, they say, likely to publicise bribery cases involving low- and mid-level officials, while leaving those at the top unscathed.
[…]
The pessimism voiced by critics comes partly from the fact that this is the fifth in a series of major campaigns begun in the past decade, only to fizzle out. In one of them, a number of senior officials in the finance, foreign trade and environment ministries were jailed in 1998. But most were let out after a while.
Absamat Masaliev, an opposition deputy in parliament, told IWPR, "In 2001 parliament passed a law which would have given deputies an opportunity to monitor the way the corruption law was implemented - but the president vetoed it."” (IWPR, 02. Mai 2003)
Transparency International berichtet in seinem Global Corruption Report 2003 im Zusammenhang mit der Korruption in Kirgistan:
“In April 2002, Kyrgyzstan’s president Askar Akaev declared clan and family relations breeding grounds for corruption, which he said has ‘made its nest’ in the summits of power.16 The tone of his statement, however, was taken more as a warning to prominent families and clans than a challenge to the country’s endemic corruption. The Kyrgyz Code of Ethics for Government Personnel, which came into effect in January 2001, has done little to prevent government officials from engaging in business or employing relatives.
[…]
In August 2001, Kurmanbek Bakiev, then prime minister of Kyrgyzstan, came down hard on ministers and police officials as a result of their lacklustre efforts to target corruption, smuggling and economic crime.20 Bakiev claimed that most criminal groups had friends in the law enforcement bodies and were therefore unlikely to be caught.21 The newly appointed interior minister of Kyrgyzstan has declared the anti-corruption fight to be his priority.” (TI, 27. November 2002, S. 171)
Quellen:
Situation ethnischer Minderheiten, insbesondere deutsche Minderheit; Übergriffe durch staatliche Stellen?
Weitere Hintergrundinformationen zur Situation ethnischer Minderheiten
Religiöse Minderheiten, insbesondere römisch-katholische Glaubensgemeinschaft; Übergriffe durch staatliche Stellen bzw. Dritte (Muslime)?
Siehe auch: 
Polizeistruktur, Korruption