A peace agreement between the government of Chad and the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) signed on 9 January 2003; whether it has been implemented; treatment of members of the Kobe subclan, and, in particular, any information on the Haggar clan (July 2002 - November 2003) [TCD42127.E]

Reports on a peace agreement between the government of Chad and the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) signed in January 2003 could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. For information on a peace agreement signed on 7 January 2002 between the government and the MDJT, please consult TCD39174.E of 9 July 2002.

With regard to the 7 January 2002 accord, Agence France-Presse reports that the pact was rejected by Youssouf Togoimi, the leader of the MDJT (AFP 3 Oct. 2003). Africa Research Bulletin (ARB) and Agence France-Presse both point out that the accord led to divisions within the MDJT (ARB 25 Aug. 2003, 15368; AFP 24 Sept. 2002) between a 'moderate' wing and 'hardliners' who said they had the support of fighters on the ground" (ARB 25 Aug. 2003, 15368).

In May 2002, negotiations between the Chad government and the MDJT over the rebel group's involvement in the government administration that were scheduled to take place in Libya were interrupted, "allegedly so that the MDJT could consult among themselves, but in fact apparently due to differences within the rebel movement" (AFP 19 May 2002). Togoi, second vice-president of the MDJT, was reportedly kidnapped and wounded by Togoimi, who wanted the next head of the government to come from the MDJT (ibid.).

In September 2002, Togoimi reportedly died in a hospital in Tripoli, Libya, where he had gone for treatment after being wounded in a landmine explosion (AFP 24 Sept. 2002). Before announcing his death, however, the MDJT's political and diplomatic advisor, Youssouf Barkai, released a statement from Paris accusing government forces of breaching the January ceasefire in mid-September 2002 (ibid.).

The death of Togoimi in Libya in September 2002 apparently deepened divisions within the MDJT (AFP 31 Mar. 2003; ARB 25 Aug. 2002, 15368). Three leaders of the MDJT from the south, including Adoum Maurice Hel Bongo, first vice-president, Madjadoum Londadjim and Gotnadji Kossi, allegedly resigned from the movement in April 2003 because of '"clan warfare"' within the movement (ARB 29 May 2003, 15269).

More recently, the MDJT claimed to have killed 35 government troops and to have captured Bardai airport in the north of the country (AFP 10 Sept. 2003). At the beginning of March 2003, the government announced the mass defections of members and leaders, in particular Salah Hassaballah, from the MDJT to the government side (AFP 31 Mar. 2003). Nevertheless, at an "extraordinary" meeting held in Yebbi-Bou, Tibesti, from 15 to 21 August 2003, the MDJT is said to have elected Colonel Hassan Abdallah Mardigue, commander of the forces fighting the Chadian regime, to be its new chairman (ARB 25 Sept. 2003, 15413).

Although, Togoimi's death was followed by a lull in the fighting between the MDJT and the government (AFP 13 Oct. 2002), and although "the death of the MDJT's hardline leader Youssouf Togoimi ... had raised hopes for a speedy reopening of peace negotiations that broke down in May" (ibid. 27 Oct. 2002), fighting broke out again at the beginning of October when MDJT rebels were reported to have launched a surprise attack at an airport in Faya, "formerly known as Faya Largeau" (ibid. 3 Oct. 2002).

In another incident, the government is said to have killed 51 rebels, captured 26 others after "a rebel attack on the town of Fada ... in the northern Ennedi region...around 880 kilometres (550 miles) northeast of [the capital city Ndjamena]" (ibid. 13 Oct. 2002). Chadian army units searched the area for Adoum Togoi, "the deputy MDJT leader who was taken prisoner last June by the movement's military commander after calling for peace talks with the government" (ibid. 13 Oct. 2002). Nonetheless, the rebels claimed to have "inflicted heavy losses" on government forces (ibid. 27 Oct. 2002).

Africa Research Bulletin reports that, in August 2003, the MDJT accused Libya of arranging to assist the government of President Idriss Deby by supplying the latter with military equipment (25 Aug. 2003, 15368). The claim apparently followed doubts expressed by the Chadian press over the death in Tripoli of Togoimi, whose body Libya allegedly refused to return to his family (ARB 25 Aug. 2003, 15368).

Clashes between the government forces and the MDJT, in which 70 government soldiers were killed and 100 others injured, were reported in the far north of Chad (AFP 27 Mar. 2003). "The claim came as Chadian national radio announced that 23 MDJT fighters taken prisoner last year in the mountainous northeastern Ennedi region had been freed" (ibid.).

Current reports on the treatment between members of the Kobe subclan and of the Haggar clan in particular, could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. For information on these clans, please consult TCD38334.E of 5 March 2002 and TCD38369.E of 25 February 2002.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this information request.


Agence France-Presse (AFP). 10 September 2003. "Chadian Rebels Claim Capture of Northern Airport, 35 Govt Troops Killed" (Dialog)

_____. 31 March 2003. "Chadian Rebels Deny Mass Defection, Release of POWs." (NEXIS)

_____. 27 March 2003. "Chad Rebels Claim to Have Killed 70 Soldiers" (NEXIS)

_____. 27 October 2002. "Chad Rebels Claim Holding Ground, Inflicting Losses on Govt." (NEXIS)

_____. 13 October 2002. "Chad Government Forces Claim Gains Against Rebels." (NEXIS)

_____ . 3 October 2002. "Rebels Launch Surprise Attack on Chad Airport." (NEXIS)

_____. 24 September 2002. Pierre Ausseill. "Chad Says Door Open to Peace After Rebel Leader Togoimi Dies." (NEXIS)

_____. 19 May 2002. "Opposition Politician Kidnapped in Chad: Military." (NEXIS)

Africa Research Bulletin: Social, Political and Cultural Series (ARB) [Oxford]. 25 September 2003. Vol. 40, No. 8. "In Brief : Chad."

_____. 25 August 2003. Vol. 40, No. 7. "Chad-Libya: Rebel Accusation."

_____. 29 May 2003. Vol. 40, No. 4. "In Brief: Chad."

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential


Amnesty International

L'Autre Afrique

Human Rights Watch

New African

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Africa News

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