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Das algerische Netzwerk für die Verteidigung von Kindern (NADA) schreibt in seinem alternativen Bericht zu Kinderrechten vom August 2011, dass unter dem Ministerium für nationale Solidarität und Familie Heime für betreute Kinder geschaffen worden seien:
„And under the Ministry of National Solidarity and Family, homes for assisted children (FEA) were created and organized by the Decree No. 80-83 of March 15, 1980 (text in force). The regulations: Presidential Decree No. 92-461 on 19/12/1992, concerning the ratification, with the interpretative declaration of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, on November 20th 1989 Decree No. 71-157 of 06/03/1971 concerning the name change, supplemented by Executive Decree No. 92-24 of January 13, 1992 Interministerial Order of 11/02/1988 determining the amounts of monthly allowances paid in respect of paid foster care and relief for assisted children, amended and supplemented by the ministerial order of July 16th 2001. “ (NADA, August 2011, S. 10)
In seinem Länderblatt zu Algerien vom Mai 2009 erwähnt das Country of Return Information Project (CRI) ebenfalls Heime für betreute Kinder des Ministeriums für nationale Solidarität, es werden 26 der 48 algerischen Provinzen als Standorte für diese Heime genannt, die in der Anfrage genannte Provinz Bleda findet sich nicht in der Aufzählung:
„Houses for assisted children, National Solidarity Ministry in Béjaia, Biskra, Béchar, Bouira, Tebessa, Tlemcen, Tiaret, Tizi Ouzou, Algiers, Jijel, Saida, Skikda, Sidi Belabbès, Annaba, Guelma, Constantine, Medea, Mostaganem, Mascara, Oran, Boumerdes, Eltarf, Khenchla, Souk Ahras, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent“ (CRI, Mai 2009, S. 71)
In ihrem neuesten Staatenbericht zur Umsetzung der Kinderrechtskonvention aus dem Jahr 2009, veröffentlicht vom UNO-Kinderrechtskomitee (CRC) im Juli 2011, gibt die algerische Regierung die Zahl der Provinzen (wilayas), in denen es Heime für betreute Kinder gibt, mit 28 (von insgesamt 48 Provinzen) an, die Gesamtzahl der Einrichtungen wird mit 38 und die Zahl der Plätze mit 2.900 angegeben, die Auslastung liege bei 63,59 Prozent:
Institutional care of children deprived of their families
Number of wilayas with homes for children in care (FEA): 28
Number of establishments (0–6 and 7–19 years): 38
Places: 2 900
Places occupied: 1 792
Occupation rate (%): 63.59
Total staff: 1 967
Budget for FEA establishments (dinars): 976 506 930“ (CRC, 18. Juli 2011, S. 92)
In seinem Länderblatt zu Algerien vom Mai 2009 zitiert das Country of Return Information Project (CRI) eine Information des UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office [Anmerkung ACCORD: die Originalquelle dieser Information geht auf das Jahr 2002 zurück]. Demnach würde die Entscheidung über die Unterbringung eines Kindes in einem Heim von den zuständigen Behörden oder von einem Jugendrichter getroffen. Pflegeheime für alleinstehende Kinder würden von der Regierung betrieben, darüber hinaus gebe es einige private Wohltätigkeitseinrichtungen, die Pflegeheime betreiben würden. Familien würden junge Kinder, meist Babys, aus solchen Heimen im Rahmen des Kafala-Systems zur Pflege nach islamischem Recht aufnehmen. Es gebe auch ein Gesetz zum Schutz von Kindern und Jugendlichen, das auf Kinder angewendet werde, deren Gesundheit, Sicherheit, Moral oder Ausbildung gefährdet sei:
„According to the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) ‚The decision to place a child in a home is made by the authorities concerned when they are abandoned at birth, or by the Infants Judge after an investigation into the situation of the infant.‘. [...] ‚Care homes for lone children are set up and run by the Government. They are regulated by the law, namely Executive Decree No 92-182 of 13 October 1992. Such care homes are intended to upkeep nurslings and only children below the upper limit of compulsory school attendance may be placed in such homes. They take boys and girls. A number of charities also run care homes, such as the Association Algérienne Enfance et Familles d’Accueil Bénévoles. Algerian families often adopt young children from state and charity homes under the Kafala system of adoption under Islamic law. Kafala is widespread in Algeria. But in nearly all cases it concerns babies‘ [...] ‚Older children who lack family support are placed in homes by court order or allocated to foster care. The fostering of children is regulated by the law, namely Ordinance No. 72-103 of 10 February 1972 relating to the Protection of Children and Youth. For the purposes of this law infants are defined as being under 21 years of age. The provisions of Ordinance No. 72-103 applies [sic] to those infants whose health, security, morality or education are in danger. As a consequence they are placed under the protection of the State and the Infants Judge is empowered to take all necessary measures. He may decide, depending on the youth’s situation, to place him in a specialised centre, a care home, or a vocational centre. He may also entrust a person with the care of the child‘.“ (CRI, Mai 2009, S. 71)
Sicherheitspolitische Situation und Menschenrechtslage für Minderjährige
Das US Department of State (USDOS) schreibt in seinem Menschenrechtsbericht vom April 2011 zur Lage von Kindern in Algerien, dass die Misshandlung von Kindern verboten sei, aber weiterhin ein Problem darstelle. Auf Kinder spezialisierte NGOs würden das anhaltende Vorkommen von häuslicher Gewalt gegen Kinder einer „Kultur der Gewalt“ zuschreiben, die von den inneren Unruhen in den 1990er Jahren herrühre. Mit diesen seien auch soziale Verwerfungen wegen der Migration von Familien vom Land in die Städte auf der Flucht vor terroristischer Gewalt einhergegangen. ExpertInnen würden annehmen, dass viele Fälle von Gewalt gegen Kinder wegen der Verschwiegenheit der Familien nicht angezeigt würden. Die von der EU mitfinanzierte NGO FOREM schätze die Zahl der von Misshandlungen betroffenen Kinder auf 10.000:
„Child abuse is illegal but continued to be reported as a problem. NGOs specializing in children cited continued instances of domestic violence against children, which they attributed to a ‚culture of violence‘stemming from civil strife in the 1990s, including social dislocations caused by the movement of rural families to the cities to escape terrorist violence. Experts assumed that many cases went unreported because of familial reticence. The National Foundation for Health Progress and Research Development (FOREM), a children's rights watchdog NGO with EU funding, estimated that approximately 10,000 children suffered some form of abuse.“ (USDOS, 8. April 2011, Section 6)
Das algerische Netzwerk für die Verteidigung von Kindern (NADA) erwähnt eine landesweite Studie aus dem Jahr 2006, der zufolge im Monat vor der Durchführung der Interviews 86 Prozent der Kinder mindestens einmal auf irgendeine Wesie physisch bestraft worden seien:
„In Algeria according to the results of the national survey with multiple indicators conducted in 2006, 86% of children have received at least once, some form of physical punishment during the month that preceded the interview, from the interviewee itself or a household member.“ (NADA, August 2011, S. 5)
Das UNO-Kinderhilfswerk (UNICEF) schreibt in seinen Hintergrundinformationen zu Algerien, zuletzt aktualisiert im Juli 2010, dass das Land nach dem Ende des mehr als ein Jahrzehnt anhaltenden blutigen inneren Konflikts in den letzten Jahren Fortschritte in Richtung Frieden und Stabilität gemacht habe. Die Regierung arbeite mit UNICEF zusammen, um ein Umfeld des Schutzes für Kinder herzustellen, doch Gewalt sei weiterhin ein ernstes Thema in Schulen und zu Hause. Die Ernährungssituation für Kinder habe sich seit 2002 nicht verbessert, und mehr als ein Viertel der Kinder würden arbeiten. Als positive Entwicklungen nennt UNICEF unter anderem die Entwicklung eines nationalen Aktionsplans für Frauen und Kinder, die von Gewalt betroffen sind. UNICEF unterstütze das Justizministerium bei der Umsetzung eines neuen Kinderschutzgesetzes:
„Following the end of a bloody civil conflict that dragged on for more than a decade, Algeria has made progress toward peace and stability in recent years. The government is working with UNICEF to create a protective environment for children. But violence remains a serious issue in schools and in the home.
Issues facing children in Algeria
The nutritional status of young children has not improved since 2002. A study conducted by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNICEF revealed that corporal punishment is still commonly practiced in schools. Violence in schools is associated with learning difficulties and early dropouts. School completion rates are declining. In 2005, some 500,000 teens dropped out. A recent study on child labour revealed that more than a quarter of children are working. Many rural children work with their parents. It is estimated that 1 out of every 20 children abuses tobacco, alcohol or drugs. Institutional challenges in departments such as the Ministries of Health and Education have hampered the implementation of some initiatives for children. Ambitious plans to introduce maternal care and universal education for girls and boys have yet to be fulfilled.
Activities and results for children
Infant and maternal mortality rates continue to decline. Mothers and children now enjoy wider access to medical care and improved services. Immunization coverage against the primary childhood diseases is above 80 per cent. UNICEF and its partners are promoting water conservation in arid regions, including the Tindouf refugee camps.
Significant strides have been made to ensure that girls realize their right to an education. In the last few years, almost two thirds of high-school diploma candidates were girls. UNICEF and the Ministry of Education have developed a new national policy that will create early childhood education programmes for children from ages three to six.
The ‚Child-Friendly Schools‘initiative has been launched in some 40 schools. These schools aim to provide a stimulating, healthy and supportive environment for learning. Some 650 educators have attended training sessions on strategies for preventing violence in schools.
With UNICEF support, the Ministry of Family and Women has developed a National Plan of Action for women and children affected by violence. Standard procedures and a reliable support system have been created to respond more effectively to individual cases.
UNICEF is assisting the Ministry of Justice in the implementation of a new Child Protection Code. Algerian National Radio has partnered with UNICEF to promote the rights of children, support national literacy campaigns and develop teaching and training materials for Saharawi refugee women.“ (UNICEF, aktualisiert am 19. Juli 2010)
Das UNO-Kinderrechtskomitee (CRC) äußert in seinen letzten Schlussbemerkungen zum Staatenbericht Algeriens zur Umsetzung der Kinderrechtskonvention vom Oktober 2005 Besorgnis darüber, dass körperliche Bestrafung zu Hause gesetzlich erlaubt sei und von der Gesellschaft weithin akzeptiert werde. Es gebe auch keine Bestimmungen zu einem ausdrücklichen Verbot körperlicher Bestrafung im Bereich der alternativen Pflege. Das Komitee empfiehlt der Regierung dringend das Ergreifen von entsprechenden Maßnahmen:
„41. The Committee notes with concern that corporal punishment is lawful in the home and that, according to a survey in 1999, it is widely accepted in society as a form of discipline. The CRC/C/15/Add.269 page 9 Committee also notes with concern the lack of an explicit prohibition of corporal punishment in alternative care settings. Notwithstanding the fact that corporal punishment is prohibited in schools, the Committee remains concerned that it is still used as a disciplinary measure.
42. The Committee urges the State party to adopt legislation explicitly prohibiting corporal punishment in the home, in public and private alternative care, in schools and in all other settings, and to conduct public education and awareness-raising campaigns promoting children’s right to protection from all forms of violence as well as alternative, participatory, non-violent forms of discipline. In addition, the Committee recommends that the State party improve the effectiveness of the monitoring system in order to ensure that abuse of power by teachers or other professionals working with and for children does not take place in schools or other institutions.“ (CRC, 12. Oktober 2005, S. 8-9)
In ihrem neuesten Staatenbericht zur Umsetzung der Kinderrechtskonvention aus dem Jahr 2009, veröffentlicht vom CRC im Juli 2011, geht die algerische Regierung auf die Empfehlungen des Komitees ein. Im Bericht wird angemerkt, dass die Artikel 254 bis 280 des Strafgesetzbuches alle vorsätzlichen Gewalthandlungen unter Strafe stellen würden und dass körperliche Bestrafung in Schulen, in der Familie und in anderen Zusammenhängen und Institutionen streng verboten sei. Entsprechende Gesetzesstellen werden im Bericht im Wortlaut wiedergebgeben:
„Recommendations 41 and 42 Corporal punishment
82. It should first be pointed out that: 1. Under articles 254 to 280 of the Criminal Code, all deliberate acts of violence are liable to be punished. 2. Corporal punishment is strictly prohibited in schools, within the family and within all other contexts and institutions.
83. As far as the prohibition of corporal punishment in educational establishments is concerned, article 21 of the Education Act (Act No. 08–04 of 23 January 2008) stipulates that “corporal punishment, psychological ill-treatment and all forms of bullying shall be prohibited in educational establishments. Persons violating the provisions of this article shall be subject to administrative penalties, and may be subject to prosecution”.
84. Circulars are regularly sent out to educational establishments to draw attention to this measure, and administrative penalties are imposed on the perpetrators of such acts.
85. It should also be pointed out that the Algerian Criminal Code, enacted by Ordinance No. 66–156 of 8 June 1966, contains a number of articles for the protection of minors, given that this is the group within society that is the most affected by the many forms of deviant behaviour on the part of individuals, whether the main perpetrators or victims.
Art. 269 – Any person who deliberately injures or strikes a minor of 16 or deliberately deprives that minor of food or care with the result that his or her health is jeopardized, or who deliberately commits any other act of violence or assault against a minor, with the exception of light physical injury, shall be liable to imprisonment of between one and five years and a fine of between 500 and 50,000 dinars.
Art. 270 – Where the blows, injuries, violence, assault or deprivation referred to in art. 269 above result in illness, incapacitation or total inability to work for a period of more than two weeks, or, if the offence was premeditated or the victim was waylaid, the penalty shall be between three and 10 years imprisonment and a fine of between 500 and 6,000 dinars. The perpetrator may, in addition, be deprived for a minimum of one year and a maximum of five years of the rights set out in article 14 of this Code and be prohibited from residing in certain areas.
Art. 271 − Where the blows, injuries, violence, assault or deprivation referred to in art. 269 above result in mutilation, amputation, loss of use of a limb, blindness, the loss of an eye or other permanent disabilities, the penalty shall be imprisonment for between 10 and 20 years. If the result is to cause death, unintentionally, but as a consequence of repeated acts, the penalty shall be life imprisonment. If the blows, injuries, violence, assault or deprivation were inflicted with the intention of causing death, the perpetrator shall be punished as being guilty of murder or attempted murder.
Art. 272 – Where the perpetrator is the lawful father or mother, another legal relative in the ascending line, or any other person with authority over the child or having custody of the child, that person shall be liable: 1. In the case for which article 269 provides, to the penalties set out in article 270; 2. In the case for which article 270 provides, imprisonment of between five and ten years; 3. In the cases for which article 271, first and second paragraphs, provides, life imprisonment; 4. In the cases for which article 271, third and fourth paragraphs, provides, the death penalty.
Art. 275 – Any person who causes another person to be sick or unfit for work by administering to that person substances damaging to health, in whatever manner, knowingly but without intending to cause death, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of between two months and three years and a fine of between 500 and 2,000 dinars.
Art. 276 – Where the offences listed in article 275 have been committed by a relative in the ascending or descending line, spouse, heir or person having custody of the victim, the penalty shall be: 1. In the case for which article 275, first subparagraph provides, imprisonment of between two and five years; 2. In the case for which article 275, second subparagraph provides, fixed-term imprisonment of between five and ten years; 3. In the case for which article 275, fourth subparagraph provides, fixed-term imprisonment of between ten and twenty years; 4. in the case for which article 275, fifth subparagraph, provides, life imprisonment.
Art. 281 – Injuries and blows shall be excusable where they have been inflicted on an adult caught in the act of indecently assaulting, with or without violence, a minor aged 16 or over.
Abandonment and neglect of children and incapable persons
Art. 314 – Anyone who abandons or causes to be abandoned, neglects or causes to be neglected, in an isolated place, a child or incapable person whose physical or mental state renders that child or incapable person unable to fend for him- or herself, shall, based on that act alone, be liable to imprisonment of between one and three years. If the abandonment or neglect results in illness or total incapacity lasting for more than 20 days, the term of imprisonment shall be between two and five years. If the child or incapable person is left mutilated or crippled, or with a permanent disability, the penalty shall be fixed-term imprisonment of between five and ten years. If the act of abandonment or neglect resulted in death, the penalty shall be fixed-term imprisonment of between ten and twenty years.
Art. 315 – Where the perpetrators are the relatives in the ascending line or any other person with authority or custody over the child or incapable person, the penalty shall be: • Imprisonment for between two and five years in the case provided for in article 314, first subparagraph; • A term of imprisonment of between five and ten years in the case for which article 314, second subparagraph, provides; • A term of imprisonment of between ten and twenty years in the case for which article 314, third subparagraph, provides • Life imprisonment in the case for which article 314, fourth subparagraph, provides.“ (CRC, 18. Juli 2011, S. 15-17)
Das UNO-Kinderrechtskomitee (CRC) bedauert in seinen Schlussbemerkungen zum Staatenbericht Algeriens zur Umsetzung der Kinderrechtskonvention vom Oktober 2005 weiters, dass unzureichende Maßnahmen gesetzt worden seien, um das ernsthafte Problem des Missbrauchs und der Misshandlung von Kindern zu behandeln. Menschen, die mit Kindern oder für Kinder arbeiten, seien nicht angemessen ausgebildet, um solche Fälle zu erkennen, anzuzeigen und damit umzugehen. So genannte innerfamiliäre Probleme wie Missbrauch, Misshandlung oder häusliche Gewalt würden als private Familienangelegenheiten betrachtet und nur sehr selten den Behörden angezeigt. Im Bericht werden der Regierung dringend entsprechende Maßnahmen empfohlen:
„Violence, abuse, ill-treatment and neglect
50. While noting with appreciation the formulation of a national strategy against child abuse, the Committee deeply regrets that insufficient measures are being taken to address the serious problem of child abuse and ill-treatment in the State party. The Committee is concerned about the lack of reporting of and coordination between medical and social services and legal authorities in child abuse cases. In addition, the Committee notes with concern that professionals working with and for children are inadequately trained to identify, report and manage child abuse and ill-treatment cases. The Committee also notes with concern that owing to prevailing cultural practices and traditional norms, so-called intra-familial problems such as child abuse, ill-treatment and domestic violence are considered as strictly private family matters and only very rarely reported to authorities.
51. In light of article 19, other relevant provisions of the Convention and the recommendations of the Committee adopted on its days of general discussion on children and violence (CRC/C/100, para. 866 and CRC/C/111, paras. 701-745), the Committee urges the State party: (a) To take effective legislative measures to prohibit all forms of physical, sexual and mental violence against children, including sexual abuse in the family; (b) To conduct a study to assess the nature and extent of ill-treatment and abuse of children, develop indicators and design policies and programmes to address it; (c) To develop and implement an effective system for the identification and reporting of child abuse and ill-treatment cases; (d) To train parents and professionals working with and for children, such as teachers, law enforcement officials, health professionals, social workers and judges, in identifying, reporting and managing child abuse and ill-treatment cases; (e) To establish effective procedures and mechanisms to receive, monitor and investigate complaints, including intervention where necessary, and to prosecute cases of ill-treatment, ensuring that the abused child is not victimized in legal proceedings and that his/her privacy is protected; (f) To ensure that all child victims of violence and abuse have access to adequate care, counselling and assistance with recovery and reintegration; (g) To introduce awareness-raising campaigns, with the active involvement of children themselves, in order to prevent all forms of violence against children and to combat child abuse, including sexual abuse, with a view to changing public attitudes and prevailing cultural practices in this respect; (h) Seek assistance from, among others, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO).
52. In the context of the Secretary-General’s study on the question of violence against children and the related questionnaire sent to Governments, the Committee acknowledges with appreciation the written replies of the State party to this questionnaire and its participation in the Regional Consultation for the Middle East and North Africa held in Egypt from 27 to 29 June 2005. The Committee recommends that the State party use the outcome of this regional consultation as a tool for taking action, in partnership with civil society, to ensure that every child is protected from all forms of physical, sexual or mental violence and to gain momentum for concrete and, where appropriate, time-bound actions to prevent and respond to such violence and abuse.“ (CRC, 12. Oktober 2005, S. 10-11)
In ihrem Staatenbericht zur Umsetzung der Kinderrechtskonvention aus dem Jahr 2009, veröffentlicht vom CRC im Juli 2011, reagiert die algerische Regierung auf die Empfehlungen des Komitees und verweist auf Studien und Umfragen und eine im Jahr 2005 erstellte nationale Strategie zur Bekämpfung von Gewalt gegen Kinder, sowie auf geplante zukünftige und bereits bestehende Maßnahmen, insbesondere im Bereich der Fortbildung:
„Recommendations 50, 51 and 52, Violence, abuse, ill-treatment and neglect
101. (b) In addition to national studies and surveys carried out since 2000 by Algerian research organizations and UNICEF, the subjects of which have included such emerging problems as the ill-treatment of children, child labour, street children, abandoned children, unmarried mothers and domestic violence, there are plans for a range of surveys to be carried out during the period to 2025 (see annex 4). (c) A national strategy for combating violence against children was produced, in 2005, with representatives of the ministries concerned working with UNICEF. This is a comprehensive strategy which emphasizes the prevention of violence, intervention by the relevant agents, child protection and the social reintegration of victims. The agents of the State, including teachers, social workers and educational social workers, have a duty to report allegations of violence at school or within the family.
102. Within the framework of this strategy, a communication plan for 2009–2011 has been prepared to promote the rights of the child, and is accompanied by the following child protection measures: • Child protection squads throughout the national territory, responsible for children in moral danger, [young] offenders and child victims of violence of any kind. The squads are run and coordinated by the National Child Protection Bureau, located centrally within the Judicial Police Directorate; • The establishment since 1998 of neighbourhood policing, which is a priority of the Directorate-General for National Security, in an effort to improve relations between citizens and police officers, and especially those victims in need of special attention; • An extensive recruitment programme for women (at all levels of seniority) to improve the care provided for women and children who are victims of any form of violence; and • awareness-raising programmes for the general public, conducted periodically by the National Security Department during information weeks organized throughout the national territory and in educational establishments.
103. (d) To ensure that specialized establishments operate effectively, and provide them with professionals in educational psychology, the State has three national training centres for social workers (educational social workers, specialist educational social workers and social workers), backed up by three branch establishments, as well as a national multidisciplinary training centre for specialist staff which is planned in 2008. The remit of the centres is to provide initial and in-service training for professionals working in various fields relating to social problems.
104. The modules on child protection taught in these training centres for social workers are based on a comprehensive and systematic multidisciplinary analysis, and deal generally with legal issues relating to the rights of the child, with matters relating to the educational, psychological and social support provided for groups in social difficulty, in care either in institutions or in the community, and with the development of social communications and conflict management. Total resource expended on the three national centres for 1999–2007 is of the order of 702,613,800.49 dinars.
105. During 2005–2008, refresher sessions on the care of child victims of violence were held, as part of in-service professional training for psychologists and social workers in the sector, in cooperation with national and foreign experts and foreign NGOs (such as War Trauma Holland ); they dealt with the following themes: • Post-traumatic stress disorder; • Discussion groups; and • Various psychological and art-based therapeutic techniques for the treatment of child victims of violence.
106. During 2007, a diagnostic study on training those active in child protection was undertaken, in partnership with UNICEF. The need for this step was confirmed by the study’s recommendations that training arrangements needed to be diversified and the approach re-thought and made more open to the world of the child, and that it was imperative to put in place a watchdog to monitor the ill-treatment of children. In addition: • Judicial police officers take part in the work of various kinds and training activities of the specialist Interpol group on sexual offences against children; • In the context of the MEDA programme [under the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership], police officers in the child protection units have benefited from specialist training in new techniques and methods used by criminals in the fields of sexual abuse and youth offending; and • Cooperation with other countries has been strengthened to raise the national capacity to improve the care provided for children, particularly in relation to technical support.“ (CRC, 18. Juli 2011, S. 20-21)
Die NGO „Globale Initiative zur Beendigung jeglicher körperlicher Bestrafung von Kindern“ schreibt im August 2011 in einem Briefing für die Arbeitsgruppe des UNO-Kinderrechts-Komitees, dass körperliche Bestrafung in Algerien zu Hause gesetzlich erlaubt sei. Die Bestimmungen gegen Gewalt und Misshandlung im Strafrecht, im Familienrecht, im Gesetz zum Schutz der Kindheit und Adoleszenz und in der Verfassung würden nicht dahingehend ausgelegt, dass sie körperliche Bestrafung bei der Kindererziehung verbieten. Laut einer Studie aus dem Jahr 2008 würden von 1.700 an der Studie beteiligten Familien 70 Prozent ihre Kinder schlagen [Anmerkung: im Original whip] und Gewalt als disziplinäre Maßnahme anwenden. Laut einer UNICEF-Statistik seien 87 Prozent der Kinder zwischen 2 und 14 Jahren in den Jahren 2005-2006 von physischen Strafen und/oder psychischen Aggressionen zu Hause betroffen gewesen:
„Corporal punishment in the home
Corporal punishment is lawful in the home. Provisions against violence and abuse in the Penal Code (1966), the Family Code (1984), the Law No. 72-03 on the protection of childhood and adolescence (1972) and the Constitution (1976, amended 1996) are not interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment in childrearing.
Research reported in 2008 found that of 1,700 Algerian families, 70% whip their children and use violence for disciplinary reasons. According to statistics from UNICEF, 87% of children aged 2-14 experienced physical punishment and/or psychological aggression in the home in 2005-2006: 75% experienced physical punishment, with 25% experiencing severe physical punishment. Of girls and women aged 15-49, 68% think a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances.
The Government accepted the recommendation to prohibit corporal punishment made during its Universal Periodic Review in 2008.
[...] The Committee on the Rights of the Child first expressed concern at corporal punishment of children in Algeria in 1997 (CRC/C/15/Add.76, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 21 and 35). The Committee again expressed concern in 2005, following examination of the second report, and recommended explicit prohibition in all settings, including the home (CRC/C/15/Add.269, paras. 41 and 42). Recommendations to prohibit corporal punishment in the family were also made by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 2010 (E/C.12/DZA/CO/4, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, para. 15) and the Committee Against Torture in 2008 (CAT/C/DZA/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, para. 19).
In light of the Committee’s General Comment No. 8 on “The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruel or degrading forms of punishment” and the importance of eradicating this form of violence given by the UN Secretary General’s Study on Violence against Children, we hope the Committee will raise the issue again in its List of Issues for Algeria, in particular asking what measures have been taken to progress towards prohibition of corporal punishment in all settings. We hope the Committee will subsequently recommend that corporal punishment is prohibited in all settings, including the home, as a matter of priority, and to support law reform with relevant public awareness raising and education.“ (Global Initiative To End All Corporal Punishment Of Children, August 2011)
Auch das UNO-Komitee zu ökonomischen, sozialen und kulturellen Rechten zeigt sich in seinen abschließenden Bemerkungen vom 7. Juni 2010 besorgt, dass die körperliche Bestrafung von Kindern innerhalb der Familie und in alternativen Formen von Pflege in Algerien nicht verboten sei:
„15. The Committee is concerned that violence against women, including spousal abuse, continues to be a widespread problem in the State party. The Committee is also concerned that domestic legislation does not contain specific provisions prohibiting and criminalizing domestic violence, including marital rape, and that corporal punishment of children within the family and alternative care settings is not prohibited (art. 10).“ (CESCR, 7. Juni 2010, S. 4)
Quellen: (Zugriff auf alle Quellen am 3. Februar 2012)
· CESCR - UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant: concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Algeria [E/C.12/DZA/CO/4], 7. Juni 2010 (verfügbar auf Refworld)
· CRC - UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention; Third and fourth periodic reports of States parties due in 2009; Algeria [CRC/C/DZA/3-4], 18. Juli 2011 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)
· CRC - UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention; Concluding observations: Algeria; [CRC/C/15/Add.269], 12. Oktober 2005 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)
· CRI - Country of Return Information Project: Country Sheet; Algeria, Mai 2009 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)
· Global Initiative To End All Corporal Punishment Of Children: Briefing For The Committee On The Rights Of The Child Pre-Sessional Working Group – October 2011, August 2011 (verfügbar auf CRIN - Child Rights Information Network)
· NADA - The Algerian Network for the Defense of Children: The Algerian Alternative Report On Children’s Rights, August 2011 (verfügbar auf CRIN - Child Rights Information Network)
· UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: Algeria – Background, aktualisiert am 19. Juli 2010
· USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2010, 8. April 2011 (verfügbar auf ecoi.net)