Battle of Khorramshahr; the National Front; desertion. [IRN0126]

Information about the severity of punishment to which Iranian deserters are subject is not readily available, and, therefore, an assessment must be based largely on the subjective conditions existing in the country. During the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian government relied heavily upon conscription in order to conduct the war effectively. [ Shahram Chubin and Charles Tripp, Iran and Iraq at War, (London: I.B. Tauris and Co. Ltd., 1988), pp. 76-77. ] Punishment for evading the draft included lashings and imprisonment. [ Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre, Iran: Country Profile, ( Ottawa, 1989), p. 7.] In some instances, some conscripts who failed to register for service at the appointed time were actually determined to be deserters and were executed. [ Ibid.] It can be imputed from such incidents that the penalty for desertion from the Iranian military is in all likelihood death, although this is probably impossible to verify independently. Given that the Islamic Republic of Iran does not recognize conscientious objector status nor does it offer alternative service to conscription, it is reasonable to assume severe punishment for desertion. [United Nations, Conscientious Objection to Military Service, (1985), pp. 19-30.]

The city of Khorramshahr was captured by Iraqi troops during the last week of October 1980. It remained in Iraqi hands until the end of May 1982 at which time it was retaken by the Iranians. Excessive artillery fire had destroyed most of the city by this time (see attachments for full details).
See Attachments

United Nations. Conscientious Objection to Military Service. 1985.

Delury, George E. World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties. 2nd ed. Vol.1. New York: Facts on File, 1987.

Shahram Chubin and Charles Tripp. Iran and Iraq an War.
London: I.B. Tauris and Co. Ltd., 1988.

The Globe and Mail, [Toronto], various issues, October 1980 and May 1982.