Treatment of ethnic Arabs in Hargeisa and treatment of single women without male family members (1997-1999) [SML33260.E]

No reports on the treatment of ethnic Arabs in Somaliland could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

In an address to the IRB, Dr. Amina Adan, a Somali academic at Orange Coast College in Coast College, California, stated that unless a single woman without male relatives had her own resources, her situation would be difficult because it not possible for someone to offer her "their" home permanently (29 Mar. 1999). "There is no welfare. There is no unemployment agency. Whatever people give is through the kindness of their hearts" (ibid.). The academic also stated that a single woman would be at risk albeit a hidden one.

If you have no one taking care of you and you have no education, it is going to be difficult. It is a physical risk that is not seen or talked about. Even if there is a free press in Somaliland, it is a press of the elite. Even if Somaliland is very peaceful, violence against women exists (ibid).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please see the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Dr. Amina Adan, Ottawa. 29 March 1999. Address to the IRB on Country Conditions in Somaliland and Somalia.

Additional Sources Consulted

Africa Confidential [London]. January 1997 - October 1999. Vols. 38-40. Nos. 1-25.

Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series [Oxford]. 1997-1998. Vols. 34-35. Nos. 1-12.

Amnesty International. 1997-1999. Amnesty International Report 1998. New York: Amnesty International USA.

Horn of Africa Bulletin [Uppsala]. January 1997-July 1999. Bi-monthly. Nos. 1-6.

The Indian Ocean Newsletter [Paris]. Weekly. January 1997-October 1999. Nos. 793-856.

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1997-September 1999. Monthly. Vols. 44-45.

Electronic sources: IRB databases, LEXIS/NEXIS, World Network Connection (WNC), Internet sites including,

Two oral sources consulted did not provide information on the requested subject.