a-6788-1 (ACC-RUS-6788)

Das vorliegende Dokument beruht auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen, und wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Standards von ACCORD und den Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) erstellt.
Diese Antwort stellt keine Meinung zum Inhalt eines Ansuchens um Asyl oder anderen internationalen Schutz dar.
Wir empfehlen, die verwendeten Materialien im Original durchzusehen.
USDOS - US Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2008 – Russia, 25. Februar 2009 (Zugriff am 10. Juni 2009)
„The government expressed its commitment to children's rights and welfare, but provided limited resources to the welfare of children. The law does not provide adequate protection for children, and child abuse remained a problem.
Although education is free until grade 11 and compulsory until age 15 or 16, regional authorities frequently denied school access to the children of unregistered persons, including Roma, asylum seekers, and migrants.
Child abuse was a widespread problem, but the majority of child abuse cases were not subject to legal action.
Children, particularly homeless children or orphans, were exploited in child pornography. While authorities viewed child pornography as a serious problem, laws against child pornography do not define, criminalize the possession of, or provide for effective investigation and prosecution of child pornography. The statute on the production and distribution of pornography was poorly drafted and seldom used. Criminal cases were often dismissed because of the lack of clear standards. In addition, when a suspect was convicted, the courts frequently imposed the minimum sentence, often probation. Relatively few child pornography cases were investigated and prosecuted, creating an environment where child pornography proliferated. Nonetheless, according to the latest figures from the General Prosecutor's Office, the number of child pornography investigations increased from 98 in 2005 to 299 in 2007.
In December, the NGO Children's Rights estimated that approximately 40,000 children ran away from home annually to flee abuse and neglect, along with 20,000 orphans who fled orphanages. The same estimate also noted that there were approximately 120,000 new orphans every year in the country. The Moscow Helsinki Group indicated in 2005 that each year approximately two million children under 14 years of age were victims of domestic violence. While there was some government attention to child abuse, it was generally not linked to the broader problem of domestic violence. At a public roundtable on children's rights in January, the MVD announced that approximately 2,000 children died every year from violence, most of it domestic. At year's end, approximately 5,000 cases against parents for abuse and neglect were active in the country's court system.
During the past seven years, according to the NGO Children's Rights, an average of 690,000 children lived in the streets. However, police attempted to return approximately 70 percent of them to a home or to an institution.
Homeless children often engaged in criminal activities, received no education, and were vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse. Some young girls on the streets turned to, or were forced into, prostitution, often to survive. According to the Ministry of Interior Affairs, between January and October, 97,567 crimes out of total of 2,730,424 crimes were committed by minors or with their complicity. This was a 15.7 percent decrease compared with the same period in 2007.
According to 2007 data from the Moscow Department of Social Security, 12 percent of street children in shelters had run away from orphanages or boarding schools. Law enforcement officials reportedly abused street children, blamed them for unsolved crimes, and committed acts including extortion, illegal detention, and psychological and sexual violence against them.“ (USDOS, 25. Februar 2009, Sec. 5)
The New York Times: In a Fairy-Tale Village, Russian Orphans Thrive, 1. Oktober 2008 (Zugriff am 10. Juni 2009)
„With its colorful wooden cottages, Kitezh appears as distant from the cruelty of the children’s frequently alcoholic and abusive parents as it is from the stale, often crowded government institutions where many Russian orphans still live. […]
The founders of Kitezh hope that their village can be a model of reform for Russia’s decrepit child welfare system, little changed since Soviet days. Though perhaps hard to replicate on a large scale, Kitezh still stands as one of the few largely successful alternatives here to institutional care for orphans. Russia’s orphan problem stretches back for most of the last century: wars, revolution, Stalin’s purges, famine and disease all thinned the adult population. Even now, as Russian wealth accumulates, alcoholism and social decay prompted by the Soviet collapse continue to plague the countryside, destroying families.
Russia’s Education Ministry has classified about 750,000 children today as orphans. Most have been abandoned or taken from their parents because of neglect or abuse. Thousands more are homeless, living in the dank, freezing train stations and fetid stairwells of Russia’s cities. Foster care, widespread in the United States and Europe, has been slow in coming to Russia. About 510,000 children cycled through foster care in the United States in 2006, and it took an average of 28 months for them to be adopted, according to the Department of Health and Human Services. While increasing numbers of orphaned Russian children are entering foster care, 200,000 are still housed in orphanages — often living there until age 18 — and thousands more enter the institutions each year. […] Vasily V. Burdin spent four years in an orphanage after his parents died from complications related to alcohol abuse when he was 4. He said he was treated fairly well there, but gained “an understanding of the world” only when he moved to Kitezh. […]
Maxim Tarasenko, 7, the village’s youngest resident, described his life before Kitezh as “very bad.” […] But the government has begun to revamp child welfare services, promoting adoption to ease the strain on orphanages. Government funds allotted to adoptive families, including the parents at Kitezh, increased by 28.2 percent in 2007, and about 120,000 orphans left state institutions to join foster families, an increase of 7,000 over 2006, according to the Education Ministry. Still, those removed from orphanages were replaced by some 120,000 new orphans registered by the ministry last year. Adoptive parents also give back thousands of children each year.“ (The New York Times, 1. Oktober 2008)
Im April 2008 erscheint auf der Website der russischen Nachrichtenagentur Nowy Region 2 (NR2) ein Artikel über die mangelnde gesellschaftliche Integrationsfähigkeit von ehemaligen Heimkindern: PsychologInnen würden Kinderheime für die „schlechteste Art der Unterbringung“ von Kindern halten. Beweis hierfür seien die Schwierigkeiten, mit denen die AbgängerInnen von Kinderheimen bei der Anpassung an ein selbständiges Leben konfrontiert seien. Nach Angaben des Psychologen Artur Rean fänden nur 10-30% der Heimkinder ihren Platz in der Gesellschaft, die anderen seien nicht in der Lage, sich anzupassen, und würden zu AußenseiterInnen wie Obdachlosen und VerbrecherInnen: 
NR2 – Nowy Region 2: W Rossii wypuskniki detskich domow ne mogut adaptirowatsja w soziume, 2. April 2008 (Zugriff am 10. Juni 2009)
[Russsisches Zitat entfernt] (NR2, 2. April 2008)