a-3983 (ACC-MDA-3983)

Nach einer Recherche in unserer Länderdokumentation und im Internet können wir Ihnen zu oben genannter Fragestellung Materialien zur Verfügung stellen, die unter anderem folgende Informationen enthalten:

Finden Sie nachstehend bitte eine Auflistung von Berichten, die Informationen zu oben genannter Fragestellung liefern sowie Auszüge der für Sie relevanten Passagen. Wir haben uns in der Recherche aufgrund des genannten Wohnsitzes Ihrer Klientin (Hirbovat, Kreis Chisinau) auf die Situation in Moldawien beschränkt; Informationen über die Situation von religiösen Minderheiten, insbesondere der Zeugen Jehovas, in Transnistrien fließen in diese Anfragebeantwortung nicht ein. Die Ihnen bereits bekannten Dokumente (ECRI, Second Report on Moldova, 28. Juni 2004; League for Defence of Human Rights of Moldova, Januar 2003) wurden nicht mehr in die Recherche miteinbezogen.

Laut einem Artikel des Nachrichtenportals Moldova Azi gehören ca. 19.000 Anhänger, aufgeteilt auf 197 Gemeinden, den Zeugen Jehovas an (Moldova Azi, 19. September 2003). Die Zeugen Jehovas wurden von der moldawischen Regierung offiziell registriert (Keston News Service, 24. Juni 2002).

Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

Zu den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen für religiöse Minderheiten liefert das US Department of State (USDOS) in seinem Jahresbericht zur Religionsfreiheit in Moldawien im Jahr 2003 die folgenden Informationen:

“The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice; however, the law includes restrictions that at times inhibit the activities of some religious groups.
There was no change in the status of respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report, and government policy continued to contribute to the generally free practice of religion. After 10 years of refusals, the Government registered the Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia (the Bessarabian Orthodox Church), but the Government continued to uphold its earlier decisions to deny some groups registration. There is no state religion; however, the Moldovan Orthodox Church receives some special treatment from the Government.” (USDOS, 18. Dezember 2003, Sek. Introduction)

Im Jahresbericht 2003 zur allgemeinen Menschenrechtslage konstatiert das USDOS zur Situation der Religionsfreiheit:

“Critics raised concerns about the new Law on Combating Extremism saying that it could be used to abuse opposition organizations--including religious organizations--and individuals. The law had not been used against religious organizations at year’s end.
The law requires religious groups to register with the Government. Unregistered religious organizations are not permitted to buy land or obtain construction permits for churches or seminaries. The law does not expressly oblige the State Service for Religions (SSR) to register a religious organization, but suggests that registration is automatic when adequate documentation is filed. At the request of the State Body for Religions, a court may annul the registration of an organization if its activities are political or harm the "independence, sovereignty, integrity, security, or public order" of the country.
Authorities have not registered the Church of True Orthodox-Moldova despite a 2002 Supreme Court ruling in its favor. The SSR and the Government attempted a variety of appeals and were still ordered to register the church. Many delays in the court process have prevented a final decision. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and the Spiritual Organization of Muslims in Moldova continued to face bureaucratic difficulties in the registration process. The SSR claimed both groups failed to present mandatory documents necessary for registration.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 2.c)

Keston News Service berichtet zudem in einem leider bereits etwas älteren Artikel von der Wiedereinführung eines noch aus Sowjetzeiten stammenden Strafrechtsparagraphen, der laut der Kritik von Menschenrechtsorganisationen und religiösen Führungsfiguren insbesondere gegen die Zeugen Jehovas verwendet werden könnte:

“Some religious leaders and human rights activists have criticized an article in the new Moldovan criminal code lifted almost word for word from an article introduced into the Soviet criminal codes at the time of the anti-religious persecution unleashed by Nikita Khrushchev at the beginning of the 1960s.
The Pentecostals and the Jehovah’s Witnesses, who were unaware of the new article until Keston News Service sought their comments, are particularly concerned. "I grew up with this - I know what it means," Bishop Pyotr Borshch, head of the Pentecostal Union, told Keston from the Moldovan capital Chisinau on 20 June. "I don’t trust them." His colleague, Bishop Viktor Pavlovsky, agreed. "This smells of the Khrushchev era." Their concerns were shared by Serghei Ostaf, chairman of the Moldovan Helsinki Committee for Human Rights. "This is a backward step," he told Keston.
The new code - adopted by the Moldovan parliament on 18 April - comes into force only next 1 January, as the Criminal Procedure Code needs to be adopted as well.
Article 186 of the new code punishes "an offence against the person or the rights of citizens under the guise of the fulfilment of religious rituals." The new article declares in full: "The organization, conducting or active participation in a group whose activity, carried out under the guise of the preaching of religious beliefs or the fulfilment of religious rituals, if it is accompanied by the causing of harm to the health of citizens or the instigation of citizens to refuse to participate in public life or the fulfilment of citizens’ obligations, is to be punished by a fine of 300-700 units or imprisonment of up to 5 years."
The only substantial difference from part 1 of Article 143 of the criminal code of the Moldovan SSR is that reference to "enticing minors into such a group" has been deleted and that there is no longer the possibility of being sent into internal exile for this offence.
During the Soviet period this article was widely used against believers, including Pentecostals ("singing in tongues" or prophesying was deemed to harm health) and Hare Krishna devotees (chanting was likewise deemed to harm health). Jehovah’s Witnesses suffered under this article because of their rejection of blood transfusions and their refusal to vote or perform military service.
[...]
Equally unhappy is the Jehovah’s Witness community. "The article is not good," Ion Rusu, a Jehovah’s Witness leader, told Keston from Chisinau on 20 June. "It could be used against us." He pointed out that various Jehovah’s Witness practices, such as preaching from door to door, refusing to vote in elections and rejecting blood transfusions could fall foul of the article. "Our people were sentenced under this provision in the Soviet era - this could happen again," Rusu warned.“ (Keston News Service, 20. Juni 2002)

Im Hinblick auf die Situation von religiösen Minderheitengruppen in Moldawien konnten wir fast ausschließlich über die Bessarabische Kirche und andere orthodoxe Glaubensgemeinschaften finden, deren Situation aufgrund der Weigerung der Behörden, sie offiziell zu registrieren, als problematisch angesehen werden kann (siehe dazu IHF, 8. Mai 2003, S. 238; UK Home Office, April 2004, Abs. 6.20-6.21; USDOS, 18. Dezember 2003, Sek. Introduction). Informationen über die Religionsfreiheit allgemein sowie über die Lage einzelner Religionsgemeinschaften entnehmen Sie bitte den Absätzen 6.16 - 6.26 des von UK Home Office herausgegebenen Country Report Moldova 2004 (siehe Referenzliste).

1) Berichte über Übergriffe auf Zeugen Jehovas durch die Polizei; Bestrafung wegen Verteilung religiöser Schriften

In den von ACCORD im Zuge dieser Recherche verwendeten Quellen (s.u.) konnten keine Informationen gefunden darüber gefunden werden, ob es in der Vergangenheit zu Gewaltanwendung gegen Angehörige der Zeugen Jehovas durch die Polizei gekommen ist.

Im Zusammenhang mit Missionierungsversuchen einzelner Minderheitenreligionen werden die Zeugen Jehovas wiederholt genannt. Das USDOS berichtet beispielsweise in seinem Jahresbericht zur Menschenrechtlage im Jahr 2003 in Moldawien:

“The Law on Religion permits proselytizing, but explicitly prohibits "abusive proselytizing," which is defined as "an attempt to influence someone’s religious faith through violence or abuse of authority." The Government has not taken legal action against individuals or organizations for proselytizing, with the exception of a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses who was fined approximately $27 (400 lei) for door-to-door preaching.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 2.c; siehe auch UK Home Office, April 2004, Abs. 6.28)

Auch Keston News Service berichtet in einem Artikel vom Juni 2002 von einer Geldstrafe, mit der ein Anhänger der Zeugen Jehovas wegen „door to door preaching“ belegt wurde:

“In a move that Jehovah’s Witness leaders in Moldova say is a first in recent years, one of their members has been fined for door to door preaching.
Igor Danile, from the town of Glodeni in north western Moldova close to the border with Romania, this week paid the fine of 360 lei (27 US dollars, 28 Euros or 18 British pounds), equal to twenty months’ minimum wage, imposed by a court last March. "The penalty was imposed for preaching from door to door," Ion Rusu, a Jehovah’s Witness leader in the capital Chisinau, told Keston News Service by telephone on 20 June.
Danile was charged under Article 200, part 3 of the administrative code, which punishes "the carrying out in the name of a registered or unregistered faith or in one’s own name of customs and rites that violate current law" with a fine of between ten to twenty months’ minimum wage. Danile was found guilty by the city court in Glodeni on 26 March and fined the maximum under the article. He took his case to appeal, but a hearing on 15 May upheld the original ruling.” (Keston News Service, 21. Juni 2002)

Zu den von Ihnen genannten Vorfällen konnten in den ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden Materialien leider keine Informationen gefunden werden.

2) Gesellschaftliches Klima gegenüber religiösen Minderheiten, insbesondere Zeugen Jehovas

Das USDOS beobachtet in seinem Jahresbericht 2003, dass zwischen den verschiedenen Religionsgemeinschaften in Moldawien grundsätzlich eine freundschaftliche Beziehung herrsche:

“The generally amicable relationship among religions in society contributed to religious freedom; however, disputes among various branches of the Christian Orthodox faith continued, and there was one reported instance of the desecration of a Jewish cemetery. There were no major cases of harassment reported.” (USDOS, 18. Dezember 2003, Sek. Introduction)

Allerdings berichtet das USDOS auch von negativer Berichtserstattung über die Zeugen Jehovas in den moldawischen Medien:

“There were a few reports of negative press articles about non-Orthodox religions. Members of Jehovah’s Witnesses have been the target of articles criticizing their beliefs and legitimacy, and the Baptists in Transnistria claim press reports about their religion have been negative.” (USDOS, 25. Februar 2004, Sek. 2.c; siehe auch UK Home Office, April 2004, Abs. 6.28)

Diese Informationen beruhen auf einer zeitlich begrenzten Recherche in öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten, die ACCORD derzeit zur Verfügung stehen. Die Antwort stellt keine abschließende Meinung zur Glaubwürdigkeit eines bestimmten Asylansuchens dar.

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