Information on the situation between the various Kurdish factions, especially the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) and the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) [IRQ26950.E]

For information on this subject, please consult the attached documents.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.


Agence France Presse (AFP). 19 May 1997. "Iraqi Kurds Group Drives PKK Out of Arbil, Three Executed." (NEXIS)

_____. 28 April 1997. "Several Dead in New Clashes Between Iraqi Kurds: PUK." (NEXIS)

_____. 5 February 1997. "PUK Says Saddam to Blame for Insecurity in Iraqi Kurdistan." (NEXIS)

Associated Press (AP). 28 September 1996. PM Cycle. Tony Smith. "In Kurdistan, the Victors Launch a Disarmenent Program." (NEXIS)

APS Diplomat Recorder. 14 September 1996. Vol. 45, No. 11. "Iraq: KDP Moves Towards Sulaymanyieh; Kurds Flee." (NEXIS)

The Baltimore Sun. 24 September 1996. "Tribal Disputes Distract Kurds." (NEXIS)

Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 11 September 1996. "Barzani's Forces Try to Re-Install Stability in Suleimanyah." (NEXIS)

The Economist [London]. 10 August 1996. US Edition. "Kurdistan? Which One Do You Mean?" (NEXIS)

Extremist Groups. 1996. Jeffrey Builta. "Iraqi Kurdish Groups." Chicago: Office of the International Criminal Justice, pp. 653-660.

IRNA [Tehran, in English]. 3 April 1997. "PUK Radio Says KDP Suppressing Kurds in Arbil Area." (BBC Summary 4 Apr. 1997 (NEXIS))

_____. 22 October 1996. "Iranian Agency Says KDP Forces Withdraw From Sulaymaniyah Outskirts." (BBC Summary 23 Oct. 1996 (NEXIS))

IRNA [Tehran, in Persian]. 3 December 1996. "PUK Reportedly Repels Attack Near Arbil." (BBC Summary 4 Dec. 1996 (NEXIS))

_____. 12 September 1996. "KDP Reportedly Executes PUK Members in Penjwin, Sulaymaniyah." (BBC Summary 13 Sept. 1996 (NEXIS))

The Guardian [Manchester]. 25 May 1994. "Civil War Threathens Kurdish Self-Rule." (NEXIS)

Middle East Economic Digest (MEED) [London]. 25 October 1996. "Iraq: PUK Marches on Arbil." (NEXIS)

Mideast Mirror [London]. 8 February 1995. Vol. 9, No. 27. "KDP and PUK Dispute the Gravity of Fresh Flare-Up in Iraqi Kurdistan." (NEXIS)

_____. 24 January 1995. Vol. 9, No. 16. "Three-Day 'Undeclared Truce' in Iraqi Kurdistan." (NEXIS)

The Middle East [London]. November 1996. Mariam Shahin. "After the Sorm." (NEXIS)

_____. December 1996. Chris Kutschera. " Invoicing the Future." (NEXIS)

Middle East Report [Washington]. October-December 1996. Isam al-Khafaji. "The Destruction of Iraqi Kurdistan."

Radio Monte Carlo [Paris, in Arabic]. 19 October 1996. "PUK Official Denies Plans to Withdraw From Sulaymaniyah." (BBC Summary 21 Oct. 1996 (NEXIS))

Reuters. 24 February 1997. BC Cycle. "Iraqi Kurd Group Says Arbil Governor in Gun Attack." (BBC Summary 3 Dec. 1996 (NEXIS)).

_____. 3 May 1997. "Iraqi Kurdish Groups Sign Ceasefire in Iran." (NEXIS)

Voice of Iraqi Kurdistan [Salah al-Din, in Arabic]. 1 December 1996. "KDP Radio Reports PUK Forces Violate Cease-Fire in Kurdistan." (BBC Summary 3 Dec. 1996 (NEXIS))