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Recommended citation:
IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: Nigeria: Domestic violence, including Lagos State; legislation, recourse, state protection and services available to victims (2011-October 2014) [NGA104980.E], 10 November 2014 (available at ecoi.net)
http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/291839/412404_en.html (accessed 17 August 2017)

Nigeria: Domestic violence, including Lagos State; legislation, recourse, state protection and services available to victims (2011-October 2014) [NGA104980.E]

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. Prevalence

According to the Government of Nigeria's 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which surveyed 38,948 women and 17,359 men in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), violence against women is "common practice" (Nigeria 2013, 2, 4). According to the US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013, domestic violence "remained widespread and was often considered socially acceptable" in Nigeria in 2013 (27 Feb. 2014, 35). The NDHS notes that "domestic violence cuts across all socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Nearly three in ten Nigerian women have ... experienced physical violence since age 15" (Nigeria 2013, 15). Furthermore, according to the same source, one in four married women experienced physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by their husband or partner (ibid., 19). The CLEEN Foundation, a non-governmental organization based in Nigeria that "works to promote public safety and security, accountability and justice," publishes the National Crime Victimization and Safety Survey, the largest database on crime and victimization in Nigeria (CLEEN Foundation 21 Oct. 2014, 7). According to the 2013 survey, which had a population sample of 11,518 Nigerians (equally distributed by gender) in 36 states and the FCT, domestic violence is among the top four most common types of crime experienced by respondents (ibid. 2013, 1, 6). According to the survey, 30 percent of those surveyed had been victims of domestic violence, and the rate of domestic violence reportedly increased over the last 3 years in comparison with previous surveys (ibid., 6). The chief judge of the state of Lagos, interviewed in September 2014 by Nigerian newspaper, the Nation, indicated that domestic violence, rape, and sexual offence rates have increased in Lagos State (25 Sept. 2014).

2. Legislation and Enforcement

Sources note that there is no national legislation on domestic violence in Nigeria (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; CLEEN Foundation 21 Oct. 2014; ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014). Sources report that the Violence Against the Persons (Prohibition) (VAPP) bill was passed in the House of Representatives in 2013, but remains before the Senate awaiting approval (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; Oxfam 9 May 2013). According to Oxfam, the VAPP bill, which covers domestic and gender-based violence, also includes "a more comprehensive definition of rape, harsher sentences for rape and other sexual offences, compensation for rape victims, institutional protection from further abuse through restraining orders and a new fund to support the rehabilitation of victims of violence" (ibid.).

Country Reports 2013 indicates that spousal rape is recognized as a "separate offense" (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35). The same source states that some federal laws allow gender-based violence, such as permitting husbands to "use physical means to chastise their wives, as long as it does not result in 'grievous harm,' which is defined as loss of sight, hearing, speech, facial disfigurement or life-threatening injuries" (ibid.). An article published in the Nigerian newspaper Punch NG indicates that under Section 55 of the Penal Code (applicable in northern Nigeria), men may engage in wife battery as long as it does not result in "excessive bodily injury" (6 Jan. 2013).

The Nigeria Criminal Code Act of 1990 indicates that:

353. Any person who unlawfully and indecently assaults any male person is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for three years. The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

...

360. Any person who unlawfully and indecently assaults a woman or girl is guilty of a misdemeanour, and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Sources report that some states have state-level domestic violence legislation, including:

  • Ebonyi (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; Nwogugu 2014, 113);
  • Jigawa (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014);
  • Cross River (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; Nwogugu 2014, 113);
  • Lagos (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35; Nwogugu 2014, 114), enacted in 2007 (ibid.);
  • Ekiti State, which has a "gender-based" violence law (ibid., 119).

Copies of the domestic violence legislation for Ebonyi, Jigawa, Cross River and Lagos are attached to this Response.

In a statement published in the Nigerian newspaper, Premium Times, the Chairman of the Nigerian National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) stated that domestic violence laws, in the states that have them, are "still quite poorly implemented" (Premium Times 25 Nov. 2013). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a representative of the Legal Defence Assistance Project of Nigeria (LEDAP), a non-governmental organization of lawyers that provides free legal assistance to "poor and vulnerable victims of human rights violations," indicated that of the states with domestic violence legislation, Lagos State, is the "most organized" and the "only state where the state-level domestic violence law is being applied in practice" (16 Oct. 2014). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of ProjectAlert, a non-governmental women's rights organization that promotes and protects the rights of women and young girls and that founded Nigeria's first women's shelter, Sophia's Place, in Lagos, indicated that legislation is not being enforced in the states with domestic violence laws, but stated that it is "being used in court" in Lagos State, although there are still "problems with enforcement" (16 Oct. 2014).

3. State Protection and Recourse
3.1 Government Gender Sensitization Efforts

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of the CLEEN Foundation indicated that some police stations reportedly have "Family Support Units," as well as human rights officers that deal with complaints including those related to domestic violence (21 Oct. 2014). According to Justice for All, a partnership between the Nigerian government and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) formed to build the capacity, accountability and responsiveness of policing, justice, and anti-corruption institutions in coordination with civil society and oversight institutions (J4A n.d.b), there is a model police station in Lagos, which incorporates a Family Support Unit to "eradicate gender inequality in police services" and that the model is being replicated in four states due to a reported increase in "satisfaction with police response rates" (J4A n.d.a).

According to sources, the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) announced that, as of October 2014, the Nigerian police had "reconstituted" the Force Gender Unit (FGU) (NPF 13 Oct. 2014; CLEEN Foundation 21 Oct. 2014). The NPF announced on 13 October 2014 that the new gender unit will develop the capacity of officers on gender issues and establish Gender Desk officers nationwide (NPF 13 Oct. 2014). Further information on the development of the FGU since the October 2014 announcement could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources report that in 2012, the NPF launched a "gender policy" in an effort to reduce gender discrimination within the force, and enhance the capacity of officers to handle gender-based violence cases (This Day Live 7 Sept. 2012; UN 7 Sept. 2012). Further information on the implementation of this policy could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Lagos State has reportedly held sensitization campaigns regarding the domestic violence law for key stakeholders such as police and officials (CLEEN Foundation 21 Oct. 2014; Lagos State 17 Apr. 2013). In April 2013, Lagos State held a workshop for government officials, magistrates, presidents of customary courts, law enforcement agents, NGOs, and the public (ibid.).

3.2 Reporting and Seeking Assistance

According to the 2013 NDHS, "most Nigerian women who experience physical or sexual violence do not seek help from anyone" and less than one third of women that have experienced violence seek assistance (Nigeria 2013, 20). Of those that sought help, more than 70 percent sought help from their own families, nearly 30 percent from their partner's family, and 2 percent sought help from the police (Nigeria 2013, 20). Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2014 report for Nigeria indicates that reporting rates for domestic violence are low (2014). According to the NHRC Chairman's statement, published in Premium Times, domestic violence is "grossly under-reported" (25 Nov. 2013). A chapter on Nigerian domestic violence law in the 2014 book Family Law in Nigeria, by E.I. Nwogugu, of the Faculty of Law at the University of Nigeria, indicates that women subjected to domestic violence are unwilling to lodge formal complaints with the police against their partners (Nwogugu 2014, 112). Sources report that women experiencing domestic violence do not often approach police with complaints due to a lack of trust in the force (LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014; ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014). Statistics on the number of domestic violence cases reported to police could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3.3 Police Response

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, the National Program Coordinator of the Network on Police Reform in Nigeria (NOPRIN), a network of 46 civil society organizations working on police accountability and human rights in Nigeria (n.d.), indicated that police "characteristically exhibit bias and discriminatory attitudes in their treatment of female victims of violence" which is "informed by cultural beliefs and notions which devalue and subjugate women," and often "blame the victim" (NOPRIN 11 Oct. 2014). Sources report that police often perceive domestic violence as a family issue (Nwogugu 2014, 112; Vanguard 15 June 2013). Sources state that victims of domestic violence are often told to settle the problem themselves (ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014; LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014) or involve other family members (ibid.).

The NHRC Chairman indicated that domestic violence is "poorly documented" and "hardly investigated" (Premium Times 25 Nov. 2013). In an interview with Vanguard, a Nigerian newspaper, a human rights activist involved with the Women's Human Rights Clinic in Lagos, which provides alternative dispute resolution to victims of domestic violence, said that "the Nigerian Police do not respond adequately to complaint[s] from women on domestic violence (Vanguard 15 June 2013). Sources report that police are "reluctant" to intervene in domestic violence (LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014; US 27 Feb. 2014, 35). According to Country Reports 2013, "police did not intervene in domestic disputes," and in rural areas, "police remained reluctant to intervene to protect women who formally accused their husbands of abuse if the level of abuse did not exceed customary norms in the area" (ibid.).

According to the Executive Director of Partnership for Justice, an NGO that launched Nigeria's Lagos Mirabel Sexual Assault Referral Centre (SARC) in 2013, when reports are made to police about crimes dealing with sexual violence, police are reluctant to file charges, especially against a perpetrator who is the victim's family member (Vanguard 23 July 2013). In an interview with Vanguard, the Executive Director of ProjectAlert stated that due to "police insensitivity to and unprofessional handling of sexual violence cases due to poor training and lack of logistics" there are "especially" low reporting rates for sexual violence (ibid. 17 June 2013). She states that that "the greatest challenge" is "the poor response from the criminal justice system (police and courts) and social service providers (hospitals, social welfare) to victims and their families/friends" (ibid.)

According to the Executive Director of Partnership for Justice, "only medical reports from government hospitals are admitted in evidence in the courts" and there is a lack of forensic medical examiners to collect evidence in cases of sexual violence (ibid. 23 July 2013). Furthermore, police will cease their investigation without this evidence (ibid.). According to the same source, the process to obtain a medical report is "not victim friendly" (ibid.). Additional or corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3.4 Judiciary

Freedom House reports that "despite the existence of stiff laws" prosecution rates for domestic violence and gender-based offences are low (2014). Similarly, Premium Times reports that, according to the Chairman of the NHRC, domestic violence perpetrators are "hardly" prosecuted and "few are ever held accountable for it" (25 Nov. 2013). According to Country Reports 2013, the offense of spousal rape was "difficult to prove in court" and no prosecutions were reported during 2013 (US 27 Feb. 2014, 35).

Regarding the increase in cases of rape, domestic violence, and sexual offences in Lagos State, the Chief Judge of Lagos State called for a reassessment of how domestic violence and child abuse cases are prosecuted, questioning whether cases were being "diligently investigated and prosecuted," in an interview with the Nation (The Nation 25 Sept. 2014). According to the representative of LEDAP, in Nigeria, it is "uncommon" for cases of domestic violence to reach the prosecution stage and "it is also uncommon for women to pursue criminal cases because the burden of proof on the victim is very high and it is difficult for them to prove in cases of battery and assault" (16 Oct. 2014). Similarly, Nwogugu states that domestic violence is "difficult to prove" and that victims are "often unwilling to take action in the civil courts," while family members often refuse to testify in court (2013, 111-112). The Executive Director of ProjectAlert stated that the courts are "insensitive to domestic violence victims, with "frequent adjournments and delays" in the judicial process (Vanguard 17 June 2013). Additionally, she stated that victims cannot afford the costs associated with pursuing a case and as a result prosecution often does not occur (ibid.).

3.4.1 Protection Orders in Lagos State

According to the representative of the NHRC, protection orders can be obtained "by applying to a Magistrate Court or High Court of a state," upon commencement of a court case (4 Nov. 2014). However, two NGO sources reported that protection orders for victims of domestic violence can only be obtained in states where there is domestic violence legislation (LEDAP 7 Nov. 2014; ProjectAlert 7 Nov. 2014).

According to Article 7 of the Lagos State of Nigeria's A Law to Provide Protection Against Domestic Violence and for Connected Purposes, which came into force on 18 May 2007, a respondent who is issued a protection order by the court is prohibited from the following:

  1. committing any act or any further act of domestic violence;
  2. enlisting the help of another person to commit any of such act;
  3. entering a residence shared by himself and the complainant(s): provided that the court may impose this application only if it appears to be in the best interest of the complainant;
  4. entering a specific part of such a shared residence;
  5. entering the complainant's residence;
  6. entering the complainant's place of work;
  7. preventing the complainant who ordinarily lives or lived in a shared residence as contemplate [sic] in sub-paragraph (c) from entering or remaining in the shared residence or a specified part of the shared residence; or
  8. committing any other act as specified in the protection order. (Lagos State 2007, Art.7)

Sources report that in Lagos State, there is a lack of awareness of the Lagos law on domestic violence (Vanguard 17 June 2014; The Nigerian Voice 25 Apr. 2012), including among police, lawyers, and magistrates (ibid.). BAOBAB for Women's Rights, a Lagos-based non-profit NGO "committed to the promotion and protection of women's rights," indicated in its 2011 annual report that "police were not aware of the provisions of the Protection Against Domestic Violence Law (PDVL)," and that BAOBAB provided copies of the law to police (2011, 9, 29). According to Vanguard, ProjectAlert has also previously provided copies of the Lagos domestic violence law to police (Vanguard 17 June 2013).

Vanguard also reports that the Executive Director of ProjectAlert, located in the city of Lagos, indicated that the NGO receives on average about 8 cases of domestic violence per week, 50 percent of which are settled with counseling, 25 percent of which are settled by family members, and the remaining 25 percent are situations of "violence and [severe] threat to life" in which the woman does not want to return to her partner due to fear, or wants a separation or divorce (ibid.). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of ProjectAlert stated that since 2009, ProjectAlert lawyers have obtained 15 interim protection orders on behalf of domestic violence survivors (16 Oct. 2014). According to the LEDAP representative, LEDAP offices across the country receive approximately 10 cases of domestic violence per month in total; of which, in approximately 5 of these cases, victims will choose to go to court to obtain an interim protection order; the rest of the cases will either be withdrawn or mediated by LEDAP (16 Oct. 2014).

In 2011, BAOBAB received 46 individual cases of violence against women, 44 of which were for domestic violence (BAOBAB 2011, 29). In one of the domestic violence cases, BAOBAB counselled the woman to seek a protection order at the customary court; the organization had to provide a copy of the Lagos domestic violence law to the customary court in order to sensitize them on the provisions of the law (ibid.).

The representative of LEDAP explained that most victims of domestic violence are not willing to go to court to pursue legal recourse such as obtaining a protection order (LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014). The "fastest action" LEDAP can take is to seek an interim protection order, for which the woman does not have to appear in court (ibid.). Sources report that an interim protection order lasts for 28 days (ibid.; ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014), after which the parties appear in court to report on "progress mediating the situation" (ibid.).

According to Article 15(a) of the Lagos State Law to Provide Protection Against Domestic Violence and for Connected Purposes, the penalty for disobeying an order of the court is a fine of 100,000 Nairas [approximately C$683] or imprisonment for a period "not exceeding five years or to both such fine and imprisonment" (Lagos State 2007, Art. 15(a)).

In the case of the 15 interim protection orders obtained by ProjectAlert since 2009, the Executive Director indicated that they had not received reports of breaches of those 15 orders (ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014). According to the LEDAP representative, the issuance of an interim protection order has a deterrent effect and "sometimes she is relieved of the violence" (ibid.). The representative explained that in the case of a breach of a protection order, LEDAP will approach the court to state that the respondent is in contempt of court and the arrest warrant will be activated; but, "in practice, this process happens rarely" (ibid.). She continued that "most of the time, if someone breaches an interim protection order, the victim will call LEDAP, or the NGO that gave them legal assistance, not the police" (ibid.). The same source noted that "if the woman is not relieved of the violence by the interim protection order, LEDAP will arrange for her to go to a shelter" (ibid.). Police will "usually send the victim back home," according to the LEDAP representative (ibid.). She explained that few victims of domestic violence pursue the case beyond obtaining an interim protection order, even if it is breached (LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014). The LEDAP representative indicated that she has observed two or three cases of breaches, and that in these cases, the perpetrator was given a fine and was not imprisoned (LEDAP 7 Nov. 2014). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

4. Additional Mechanisms for Domestic Violence Recourse
4.1 NHRC

In 2013, the NHRC publicly announced that with regard to domestic violence, it would "spare no efforts in bringing perpetrators to justice" (Daily Independent 15 Aug. 2014; The Guardian n.d.). According to the Chairman of the NHRC, domestic violence complaints are the largest category of complaints received by the NHRC (Premium Times 25 Nov. 2013). Sources report that in 2013, the NHRC received 2,240 cases of domestic violence (The Guardian n.d.; Daily Independent 15 Aug. 2014). The Chairman of the NHRC stated that "our staff often struggle with these [cases]. In the way some of them [the staff] treat these complaints, you see a reflection of our country's acceptance of [violence against women]" (Premium Times 25 Nov. 2013). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a representative of the NHRC indicated that when the NHRC receives a complaint of domestic violence, if the complainant has not approached the police, the NHRC will advise them to go to police and "the commission only comes into the matter to mediate among parties"; however, if they are not satisfied with the mediation process, they "are advised to go to court" (NHRC 4 Nov. 2014). According to the representative, the commission "most times [does] not receive [a] reply with regards to actions the police is able to take in response to domestic violence" which "frustrates" the efforts of the Commission (ibid.). Further information on actions taken by the NHRC in cases of domestic violence could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

4.2 Public Complaints Commission (PCC)

The PCC is the government of Nigeria's ombudsman for receiving and investigating complaints from the public against government agencies and corporate organizations or their officials (Nigeria n.d.). In correspondence with the Research Directorate, the Head of Public Relations of the PCC indicated that whenever a case of domestic violence is brought to the PCC, the PCC refers the case to security agencies such as the police (Nigeria 21 Oct. 2014). He further indicated that the PCC has "directly intervened in mild cases by providing counseling services" but has referred "serious cases" to law enforcement agencies (ibid.). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

5. Legal Aid and NGO Response

In an interview with Nigerian newspaper Daily Trust, the national President of the International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA), which provides legal aid services to poor women in Nigeria, stated that the NGO has 32 state branches in Nigeria (Daily Trust 20 June 2014). According to the PCC, the PCC works in collaboration with the government's Legal Aid Council, as well as with civil society groups such as the Civil Liberties Organization and FIDA to provide legal aid to victims of domestic violence (Nigeria 21 Oct. 2014). BAOBAB states that, in cases reported to the organization, "women have limited access to justice as a result of poor income, inadequate information, and the policy of non-interference by police officers in civil cases, especially where it involves domestic violence in the family" (n.d.). The Executive Director of ProjectAlert stated that victims have to "fund the process of seeking justice" by providing transportation to investigating officers, paying for medical tests" and that "very few victims can afford all these costs" (Vanguard 17 June 2013).

Sources report that NGOs use alternative dispute resolution to settle family conflicts (ibid. 15 June 2013; Daily Trust 20 June 2014). According to the Executive Director of ProjectAlert, interviewed by Vanguard, in cases of domestic violence, "our first response is typically to try mediating" (17 June 2013). The President of FIDA stated that "going to court for us is always the last resort if we are able to resolve such issues using alternative dispute resolution mechanisms" (Daily Trust 20 June 2014). Similarly, the LEDAP representative indicated that victims perceive the court as a "last resort" (16 Oct. 2014).

6. Shelters and Services

Information on shelters for domestic violence in Nigeria was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. According to the representative of LEDAP, in Lagos State, there are three shelters for abused women: a church-run shelter, a Ministry of Women's Affairs shelter and the ProjectAlert shelter (16 Oct. 2014).

The Executive Director of ProjectAlert stated that its shelter, Sophia's Place in Lagos, is the group's only shelter (ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014). The shelter can accommodate up to 20 women and their children, in several rooms large enough for 3 or 4 people (ibid.). Sources report that women can stay at the ProjectAlert shelter for free for several weeks, after which they must pay to stay (ibid.; LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014). The Executive Director of ProjectAlert explained that women can stay up to 6 months and, the cost they must pay to stay is approximately 20,000 Nairas per month [about C$136] (ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014).

There is one government-run shelter in Lagos State (ibid.; LEDAP 16 Oct. 2014). Sources report that to qualify for shelter at the facility the woman's case must be reviewed and accepted by the Ministry of Women's Affairs (ibid.; ProjectAlert 16 Oct. 2014). The LEDAP representative indicated that the Ministry of Women's Affairs has shelters in other parts of the country, but that the shelters in the cities of Lagos and Abuja have "better capacity" than those in "other less advanced parts of the country" (16 Oct. 2014). The Executive Director of ProjectAlert indicated that the Ministry shelter in the city of Lagos has a capacity of approximately 100 beds (16 Oct. 2014).

The Minister of Women's Affairs announced the launch of "full services" at the Kurudu Centre for Women Victims of Domestic Violence in Abuja in June 2013 (Premium Times 26 June 2013). According to the government of Ekiti State website, [in 2013] the government established a "Social Intervention Centre" in Ado for temporary shelter of victims of domestic violence; which has four three-bedroom flats (Ekiti State [2013]). Prior to the establishment of the centre, the governor's wife would rent out apartments for those in need as part of her social welfare program (ibid.). Further information on these two government shelters could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

6.1 Mirabel Sexual Assault Referral Centre (SARC) in Lagos

In July 2013, the Mirabel SARC opened at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital with support from civil society group Partnership for Justice (Newswatch Times 16 Jan. 2014; Partnership for Justice n.d.). According to the Partnership for Justice website, opened the centre with support from St. Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre in Manchester, UK and the Lagos State Ministry of Health (ibid.). Mirabel SARC, the first of its kind in Nigeria, provides a "one-stop service centre for victims of sexual abuse" for emergency medical treatment, forensic medical examinations, and counseling (ibid.). The centre has a manager, administrative assistant, two full-time counselors and two full-time nurses (ibid.). The centre reportedly works with the "Family Support Unit" of Lagos' Model Police Station, which has officers trained on how to respond to domestic violence and sexual violence and who can refer victims for services (ibid.). According to the Executive Director of the NGO that assisted with launching the centre, it sees an average of 25 clients per month (Newswatch Times 16 Jan. 2014).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

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_____. N.d. "Overview/Simplification of the Protection Against Domestic Violence Law 2007 by Baobab for Women's Human Rights." <www.baobabwomen.org/PADVL.doc> [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]

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CLEEN Foundation. 21 October 2014. Correspondence sent from the Executive Director to the Research Directorate.

_____. 2013. "Public Presentation of the Findings of the National Crime Victimization and Safety Survey, 2013 by CLEEN Foundation." <http://www.cleen.org/Text%20Report%20of%202013%20NCVS%20Findings.pdf> [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]

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_____. 16 October 2014. Telephone interview with the Executive Director.

Punch NG. 6 January 2013. Solaade Ayo-Aderele. "Abolish Native Laws that Allow Wife-beating - Ezeilo." <http://www.punchng.com/feature/encounter/abolish-native-laws-that-allow-wife-beating-ezeilo/> [Accessed 28 Oct. 2014]

This Day Live. 7 September 2012. Damilola Oyedele. "Nigeria Police Launches Gender Policy." <http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/nigeria-police-launches-gender-policy/124295/> [Accessed 24 Oct. 2014]

United Nations (UN). 7 September 2012. UN Women. "Nigeria Police Force Among the First in Africa to Have a Gender Policy." <http://unwomenwestafrica.blog.com/2012/09/07/nigeria-police-force-among-the-first-in-africa-to-have-a-gender-policy/> [Accessed 24 Oct. 2014]

United States (US). 27 February 2014. "Nigeria." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013. <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220358.pdf> [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]

Vanguard. 23 July 2013. Chioma Obinna. "As Sexual Violence Centre Opens in Lagos - I Can't Understand why a Man Should Beat His Wife - Anaba [Interview]." (Factiva)

_____. 17 June 2013. Ishola Balogun and Aderonke Adeyeri. "Domestic Violence - It's Assuming Epidemic Proportions - Effah-Chukwuma." (Factiva)

_____. 15 June 2013. Ebun Sessou. "Women are Forced to Respect Tradition to Their Detriment - Odumakin." <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/06/women-are-forced-to-respect-tradition-at-their-detriment-odumakin/> [Accessed 7 Oct. 2014]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Attempts to contact the following were unsuccessful within the time constraints of this Response: BAOBAB for Women's Human Rights; Civil Liberties Organization; Civil Resource Development and Documentation Center; Justice for All; Lagos State – Attorney General, Ministry of Women's Affairs and Poverty Alleviation; Nigeria – Federal Ministry of Women's Affairs, High Commission in Ottawa, Legal Aid Council, National Human Rights Commission, Nigeria Police Force; Partnership for Justice; Professor, University of Kansas; Women Empowerment and Legal Aid; Women's Watch Nigeria.

Internet sites, including: Amnesty International; BAOBAB for Women's Human Rights; BBC; Child Rights Information Network; Civil Liverties Organization; Civil Resource Development and Documentation Center; ecoi.net; Ekiti State; Hot Peaches Pages; Jigawa State; Lagos State; Nigeria – Federal Ministry of Women's Affairs; National Human Rights Commission, Nigeria Police Force; Nigeria Stability and Reconciliation Programme; Nigerian Women's Trust Fund; Women's Consortium of Nigeria; Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Nigeria; Women Living Under Muslim Laws; Women's Rights Advancement and Protection Alternative; United States Institute for Peace; UN – Integrated Regional Information Networks; Office of the High Commisioner for Human Rights, Refworld, ReliefWeb; WomenWatch.

Attachments

Cross-River State. 2005. Cross River State Law No. 6 of 2005 - A Law to Prohibit Domestic Violence Against Women and Maltreatment of Widows. Sent in correspondence from a representative of the Legal Defence Assistance Project (LEDAP), 31 October 2014.

Ebonyi State. 2005. A Law to Provide for Protection Against Domestic Violence and for Related Matters. Sent in correspondence from a representative of the Legal Defence Assistance Project (LEDAP), 31 October 2014.

Jigawa State. 2006. Domestic Violence Law and Other Related Matters. Sent in correspondence from a representative of the Legal Defence Assistance Project (LEDAP), 31 October 2014.

Lagos State. 2007. A Law to Provide Protection Against Domestic Violence and for Connected Purposes. Sent in correspondence from a representative of the Legal Defence Assistance Project (LEDAP), 31 October 2014.