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|Internal flight alternative||Third countries|
|Return/repatriation||Positions on Return|
04.06.2008 - Source: US Department of State
Trafficking in Persons Report 2008 (see p. 248) ("Trafficking in Persons Report 2008") [ID 23431]
"Turkey is a significant destination, and to a lesser extent, transit country for women and children trafficked primarily for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation."
06.11.2007 - Source: European Commission
Fight against organised crime ("Turkey 2007 Progress Report [SEC(2007) 1436]") [ID 22494]
"Progress was registered in the fight against organised crime. A national strategy against organised crime was adopted. A new law on anti-smuggling was adopted. It aims at adapting legislation to the provisions of the new Turkish penal code and code on criminal procedures. A new law puts the Telecommunication Authority in charge of monitoring, supervision and coordination in order to prevent cyber-crime. The law foresees effective fight against offences committed via internet by making reference to criminal provisions in other laws. It aims to protect against illegal broadcasting and is inter alia supposed to fight child pornography.
The national strategy against organised crime should be complemented by a concrete action plan and implemented accordingly. To fight crime more effectively, infrastructure and equipment for forensic analysis need to be improved. Inter-agency cooperation, data protection and forensic capacity in investigations remain issues to be improved.
Progress continued in combating trafficking in human beings. A legislative amendment was made on the offence of human trafficking to allow for effective judicial implementation. The Minister of Interior issued a circular to all personnel working on the cases of human trafficking followed by a handbook on the subject. 422 traffickers were arrested in 2006 and 279more as of end of September 2007. The free emergency helpline for trafficking victims, which rescued 122 individuals as of end of September 2007, was opened to international calls. In 2006, 246 persons were identified as victims and returned voluntarily to their countries of origin. In the first nine months of 2007, 124 were identified as victims. 101 of those returned voluntarily to their countries of origin. Victims of trafficking continued to benefit from two shelters run by civil society organisations. Protocols on cooperation and information exchange for the fight against human trafficking were ratified with Kyrgyzstan and with Moldova. Awareness raising and training activities to enhance the combating of trafficking in human beings need to be conducted."
10.2005 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
Report on human trafficking ("Country Report - October 2005") [#40563], [ID 14470]
for more detailed information seek out the original document page 112
"6.172 The European Commission 2005 report stated:
“Articles 79-80 of the Penal Code, which came into force in June 2005, substantially increase penalties for smuggling and trafficking persons. When the offences are committed by an organisation, the penalties are increased further. The Penal Code also provides for the freezing and confiscation of assets of smugglers and traffickers. The Turkish authorities arrested several members of organised human trafficking gangs in the first nine months of 2005.” [71e] (p112)
6.173 The EC 2005 report continued:
“The National Task Force on Combating Trafficking in persons continued to meet regularly. In February 2005 the Turkish authorities, in co-operation with the International Organisation for Migration, initiated a counter-trafficking programme. Women tourists thought to be at risk from traffickers are provided with information concerning trafficking, including the telephone number of a free emergency helpline. Moreover, an anti-trafficking public information campaign has been launched. The programme also provides assistance to victims of trafficking; within this programme 103 victims have been assisted to return to their country of origin. The programme covers training of officials, which has contributed to an increase in the number of victims identified by the authorities. In 2004, 239 persons were identified as victims of trafficking, while in the first six months of 2005 126 victims were identified. Prosecutions were brought against 227 traffickers in 2004 and against 215 traffickers in the first six months of 2005…Ongoing efforts in the field of trafficking in persons need to be maintained.” [71e] (p112-113)
6.174 The EC 2005 also recorded that “54,810 illegal migrants were apprehended in Turkey in 2004 (compared to 48,055 in 2003). The Turkish authorities apprehended 7,470 illegal migrants in the first quarter of 2005.” [71e] (p111)
6.175 As noted in the US Department of State ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’, released on 3 June 2005:
“Turkey is a transit and destination country for women and children trafficked primarily for sexual exploitation. Some men, women, and children are also trafficked for forced labor. There has been increasing evidence of internal trafficking of Turkish citizens for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Most victims come from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, including Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Belarus. The Government of Turkey does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking: however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Over the last year, the government stepped up its training of law enforcement personnel to increase victim identification and end the automatic deportation and removal of victims. As a result, Turkish officials have improved their screening and identification of victims. However, the government needs to take more preemptive steps to ensure that there is a corresponding increase in convictions and sentences for traffickers. Despite the government’s increased efforts to raise understanding of the trafficking phenomenon, the level of awareness among some members of the judiciary and the general public remains low.” [5e] (Country narratives – Turkey)
6.176 The Trafficking in Persons Report 2005 continued:
“The Government of Turkey has taken substantial measures over the past year to improve its enforcement efforts. In October and December 2004, Turkey made significant revisions to its penal code and code of criminal procedures, including expanding investigative tools in trafficking cases and increasing punishments for traffickers. The government funded domestic and international anti-trafficking operations, specifically for training. In 2004, this covered more than 400 police, 120 Jandarma, and 160 judges. The government reportedly initiated 142 prosecutions for suspected trafficking crimes during 2004, a large increase over 2003 figures. Five cases for which information was provided produced convictions. The government failed to provide detailed follow-up information on the remaining cases.” [5e] (Country narratives – Turkey)"
06.2005 - Source: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
OSCE: Report on hate crimes in OSCE countries - turkey ("Combating Hate Crimes in the OSCE Region: An Overview of Statistics, Legislation and National Initiatives") [#33097], [ID 14471]
15.02.2005 - Source: Council of Europe - European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
ECRE: Report on acceptance and status of non-turkish persons; human trafficking ("Third report on Turkey: Adopted on 25 June 2004 and made public on 15 February 2005 [CRI(2005) 5]") [#30573], [ID 14472]
"Trafficking in human beings
54. In its second report ECRI recommended that the Turkish authorities take steps to counter trafficking in women and girls for the purpose of prostitution and to provide victims of such trafficking with adequate assistance and support.
55. Turkey is a transit country, but also a country of destination, for trafficking in women for the purpose of prostitution. Many of these women come from central and east European countries. ECRI notes with approval that the authorities have recently started to take steps to counter trafficking in human beings. The Criminal Code was amended in August 2002 and a new Criminal Code was adopted in September 2004, which resulted in a strengthening of the provisions which are aimed at fighting human trafficking. The Criminal Code now includes a definition of trafficking in human beings and provides for heavier penalties for traffickers. A task force has been set up to combat trafficking in human beings and has drawn up a national plan of action in this area. Training courses have also been set up for public prosecutors, judges and law enforcement officials, and the authorities have introduced assistance for victims of such trafficking, especially in terms of housing, health care and temporary residence permits for humanitarian reasons. A shelter centre for the victims of trafficking was opened in Istanbul.
56. However, ECRI notes with concern that trafficking in human beings for the purpose of prostitution remains a problem in Turkey. The steps taken are still too recent to have had an impact. ECRI is particularly concerned to learn that officials have been involved in trafficking. It notes, however, that some of them have been duly punished. ECRI also notes that according to some reports, the media sometimes present the issue in a sensationalist manner, reproducing prejudice against the victims of trafficking and thus encouraging such prejudice among some sections of the general public.
57. ECRI recommends the adoption of further measures to counter trafficking in women for the purpose of prostitution, particularly by taking preventive action and building awareness of this serious problem among all sections of the population concerned. In particular, ECRI encourages the Turkish authorities to concentrate on steps to protect and assist the victims of trafficking in human beings."
27.09.2004 - Source: Amnesty International
Number of victims of human trafficking increased dramatically over the last decade ("The Draft European Convention against Trafficking in Human Beings") [#25934], [ID 14473]