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23.07.2008 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
DTP ("Report of Fact Finding Mission; 11-20 February 2008; Turkey") [ID 24410]
"The DTP was set up by the prominent Kurdish human-rights activist Leyla Zana and other Kurdish legislators. [11a] On 9 November 2005, DEHAP members pre-emptively launched the Democratic Society Party (Demokratik Toplum Partisi, DTP) as a result, all DEHAP mayors, members and leaders joined the DTP, and DEHAP was officially dissolved in December 2005. The DTP is led by co-presidents Ahmet Turk and Aysel Tugluk (2006). "
12.03.2008 - Source: Neue Zürcher Zeitung
State prosecutor of the supreme court makes application for ban of Democratic Society Party (DTP) because of alleged ties with Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) ("Verbot gegen Kurdenpartei der Türkei beantragt") [ID 22683]
11.03.2008 - Source: US Department of State
Increased pressure on members of the pro-Kurdish DTP ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2007") [ID 22889]
"Throughout the year, law enforcement and the judiciary increased pressure on members of the pro-Kurdish DTP. The most common tactic used was investigation and prosecution of DTP leaders for speaking in the Kurdish language or for making statements critical of the government.
On February 23, police arrested DTP Diyarbakir provincial chairman Hilmi Aydogdu for "provoking hatred and animosity among people" after he made a statement that his party would consider an attack on Kirkuk to be an attack on Diyarbakir. He later clarified his remarks to mean that he was suggesting the government extend a hand of friendship to Kurds in northern Iraq. On February 28, an appellate court denied Aydogdu's appeal of his incarceration. On April 6, Aydogdu was released during trial, which continued at year's end.
On February 26, an Ankara court sentenced DTP cochairs Ahmet Turk and Aysel Tugluk to 18 months' imprisonment for violating the Political Parties Law by printing and delivering Kurdish-language handouts on the occasion of World Women's Day in March 2006. They were also convicted of violating a law prohibiting praising a crime or a criminal, for using phrases and honorific titles such as "sayin" (esteemed) that praised jailed PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan. Turk and Tugluk appealed the verdict to the Supreme Court. In March Turk was sentenced to six months' imprisonment, along with DTP member Sedat Yurttas, for using "sayin" in reference to Ocalan, and was investigated, along with former Kurdish parliamentarian Leyla Zana, for a third instance of using the title.
On March 8, a Kars court ordered police to seize Nevruz (Kurdish New Year) invitations and posters from DTP's Kars office because they used the letter "w", which occurs in Kurdish but not Turkish.
On March 19, a Van heavy penal court sentenced Hakkari DTP Mayor Metin Tekce to 10 months in prison for "making propaganda on behalf of a terror organization," for his comment in March 2006 after the Semdinli incident that the PKK was not a terrorist organization.
The prosecution continued at year's end against DTP mayor of Batman Huseyin Kalkan for his remarks on the PKK and Kurdish sentiments in the Los Angeles Times in May 2006, after two Turkish citizens filed a crime complaint."
11.03.2008 - Source: US Department of State
Reconstitution of DEHAP as "Democratic Society Party" (DTP) ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2007") [ID 22969]
"DEHAP reconstituted itself as the Democratic Society Party (DTP) in 2006; nonetheless the Constitutional Court deliberations in the legal case seeking DEHAP's closure on charges of separatism were ongoing at year's end. DTP officials speculated that the court was deliberately delaying its decision because the case deals with controversial political issues.
During the year police raided dozens of DTP offices, particularly in the southeast, and detained hundreds of DTP officials and members. During the year prosecutors opened scores of investigations and trials against DTP members. Police raids on DTP offices in Van and Siirt Provinces resulted in the detention of approximately 50 DTP members during the year.
Jandarma and police regularly harassed DTP members through verbal threats, arbitrary detentions at rallies, and detention at checkpoints. Security forces also regularly harassed villagers they believed were sympathetic to DTP. Although security forces released most detainees within a short period, many faced trials, usually for supporting an illegal organization or inciting separatism.
Following October 21 PKK terrorist attacks in Hakkari Province, some Turks attacked DTP offices throughout the country, setting DTP office buildings and furniture on fire, throwing rocks, breaking windows, and shouting obscenities. Some DTP politicians and Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin considered such violence to be inflamed by government policies and alleged that security forces did not take proper measures to prevent such incidents.
There were no developments during the year regarding the appeal of Aydin Budak, the DTP mayor of Cizre. In June 2006 Budak was sentenced to one year and three months in prison for stating in a speech that was aired on Roj TV that the isolation of Abdullah Ocalan was something "provocative."
DTP Erzurum provincial chairman Bedri Firat continued his appeal of a July 2006 conviction. Firat was sentenced to two years in prison for allegedly issuing propaganda supporting the PKK in a speech during Nevruz celebrations in which he stated that Kurds were subject to genocide and praised Abdullah Ocalan.
There were no updates during the year in the 25 open cases against DTP member Tuncer Bekirhan."
31.01.2008 - Source: Human Rights Watch
Prosecutions of DTP officials (2007) ("World Report 2008") [ID 23469]
"Officials of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP)—which stood independent in the election and gained 22 seats—were repeatedly convicted for speech-related offences during the year. Some were detained for several months pending trial. The number of prosecutions was significantly higher than in previous years, lending credence to suggestions that concerted efforts were being made to block their political activity and restrict their freedom of assembly in an election year. In November the closure of the DTP was pending before the Constitutional Court. Officials of the Kurdish party HAK-PAR were also sentenced for using the Kurdish language in their political party activities; a Constitutional Court closure case is still pending against the party"
31.12.2007 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
Democratic Society Movement (DTH) / Democratic Society Party (DTP) ("Country of Origin Information Report; Turkey") [ID 24503]
"19.33 As noted in a Country of Origin Research of the Canada Immigration and Refugee Board, Ottawa dated 7 June 2007 entitled Turkey: Situation and treatment of members, supporters and sympathizers of the Democratic Society Party (DTP):
“On 9 November 2005, DEHAP members pre-emptively launched the Democratic Society Party (Demokratik Toplum Partisi, DTP) out of fear that DEHAP would be banned; as a result, all DEHAP mayors, members and leaders joined the DTP, and DEHAP was officially dissolved in December 2005. The DTP is led by co-presidents Ahmet Turk and Aysel Tugluk. The DTP is a pro-Kurdish party, described by the Turkish Daily News as being on the extreme left (13 June 2006). According to Agence France-Presse (AFP), DTP leaders are often accused of colluding with what is considered a Kurdish separatist group, the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK).
Media, human rights and government sources have reported numerous arrests and convictions of DTP leaders for verbal or written statements. An article published on the Web site EurasiaNet in May 2007 reported that in recent weeks, the Democratic Society Party (DTP) has endured a crackdown, with dozens of its top leaders arrested or jailed and several of its offices raided by the police paralleling the dozens of raids and hundreds of arrests that occurred in 2006.” [7c]
19.34 As further noted by the Canada Immigration and Refugee Board dated 7 June 2007:
“In July 2006, AFP reported that Ankara's public prosecutor accused DTP leaders Ahmet Turk and Aysel Tugluk of distributing Kurdish-language leaflets regarding the imprisonment of PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan. In February 2007, they were found guilty of [translation] ‘praising criminals’ and sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment. On 6 March 2007, Ahmet Turk received an additional six month sentence for using a Turkish term of respect when referring to Abdullah Ocalan, because this was considered a sign of approval of the PKK leader. In February 2007, the Kurdish mayor of Turkey's Karapinar district, Zulkuf Karatekin, was fined 3,000 lira for allowing members of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP) to use a municipal vehicle to plant seedlings to mark the birthday of Abdullah Ocalan, the outlawed leader of the PKK.
“The Ardahan Criminal Court sentenced a DTP representative to 10 months in prison in May 2007, after he was accused of making a speech in which he ‘denigrated and insulted’ Turkey's parliament and general staff. Also in May 2007, Turkey's Appeals Court Prosecutor ordered that the DTP cancel the membership of 116 members, including prominent leader Leyla Zana, because of their criminal records. If it does not comply, the DTP has been told that it may be shut down, in the same way that four pro-Kurdish parties were banned in the past.” [7c]
19.35 As reported on 24 February 2006 by NTV television:
“Democratic Society Party [DTP] members and sympathizers reacted to the police, who searched the party building in Dogubeyazit in Agri this morning. There were skirmishes between the police and the demonstrators. This morning, the police raided the party building after receiving a search warrant from the prosecutor’s office. The police searched the premises for about one hour. Party members and sympathizers gathered in front of the building during that time and tried to enter it. The arguments between the police and the demonstrators turned into skirmishes. The demonstrators threw stones and injured some policemen. Another group of people joined in and the crowd grew. Police fired in the air but they were able to leave the building only after gendarmes who came to the area took security measures.” (Text of report by Turkish commercial NTV television of 24 February 2006, through BBC Monitoring made available to the Home Office by the British Embassy in Ankara) [61a]
19.36 On 7 March 2006 the same NTV television reported that:
“The Democratic Society Party [DTP] has proposed a two-stage solution for disarming the PKK. DTP Co-chairman Ahmet Turk has said: We must succeed in that for the sake of the unity and bright future of the people of Turkey. Turk held a news conference in Istanbul with the participation of DTP mayors. He stressed that as the first step towards a lasting solution, the PKK [Kurdistan Workers’ Party] must put an end to its armed actions in line with a decision it reached last August. The second stage, he added, would be to move the PKK’s armed forces outside the country. In this way, we can augur a new period where the PKK can be disarmed within the framework of a democratic solution plan, he said. [According to Amsterdam Firat News Agency, FNA, which is supportive of the Kurdish cause and the PKK, Ahmet Turk made a ‘three-stage’ proposal, the first stage of which was: ‘The ban on the Kurdish language must be lifted, and Kurdish must gain an official status just like Turkish in areas populated by Kurds. The Political Parties Law and the election threshold must be reorganized and everyone must have the right to political representation. The DTP considers a general amnesty for political prisoners to be essential for the development of social peace and democracy.’ The second and third stages of the solution as reported by FNA are identical to the proposed solution as reported by NTV.]” (Text of report by Turkish commercial NTV television of 7 March 2006, through BBC Monitoring made available to the Home Office by the British Embassy in Ankara) [61b]"
06.11.2007 - Source: European Commission
Several investigations and court cases opened against Democratic Society Party (DTP) ("Turkey 2007 Progress Report [SEC(2007) 1436]") [ID 22425]
"Several investigations and court cases have been opened against officials and executives of the Democratic Society Party (DTP) for alleged infringements of Article 81/c of the Law on Political Parties which forbids the use of languages other than Turkish by political parties.*
[*Other investigations are underway on grounds of illegal demonstrations (Law No 2911), praise of crimes and offenders (Turkish Penal Code (TPC) Article 215), inciting the population to hatred or denigration (TPC Article 216), establishing organisations for the purpose of committing crimes (TPC Article 220), propagating terrorist organisations, being a member of a terrorist organisation or aiding and abetting terrorist organisations (Anti-terror Law No 3713).]"
07.2007 - Source: Human Rights Watch
Harassment and Prosecution of Kurdish Political Party Officials ("Human Rights Concerns in the Lead up to July Parliamentary Elections") [ID 24594]
"Kurdish political party leaders have been a particular target of prosecution for speech-related offenses, as well as of police raids and other harassment, in the lead up to the 2007 election period.
Turkish law requires that all political parties obtain at least 10 percent of the national vote in order to enter the parliament. In previous elections this threshold has resulted in the exclusion of a number of parties, including most notably Kurdish parties. On several occasions Kurdish parties have received a majority of votes in provinces in the mainly Kurdish-populated southeast and east of the country; in the 2002 elections, the Kurdish party DEHAP won the majority of votes in 13 provinces. However, their national vote has not been sufficient to pass the threshold and secure seats in parliament. In an effort to overcome this obstacle, in 2007 for the first time the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP) decided to bypass the 10 percent threshold by running independent candidates—in some areas in cooperation with other parties—in the general election.
During the past year, in the build-up to the general election, DTP officials in cities throughout Turkey, but especially in the southeast, have been repeatedly prosecuted for speech-related crimes such as “making propaganda for an illegal organization” (article 7/1 of the Law to Fight Terrorism and article 220/8 of the Turkish Penal Code) or “publicly praising a crime or criminal” (article 215 of the TPC). Such prosecutions were typically brought for public statements that mentioned the PKK and referred to its imprisoned leader Abdullah Öcalan with the formal and respectful title of “Mr” (sayýn).
Prosecutions of officials from the DTP, as well as another Kurdish party, the Rights and Freedoms Party (HAK-PAR), were also brought repeatedly under the Law on Political Parties for infringements of the prohibition on using languages other than Turkish in material published by the party, on banners, at political meetings, or to address public gatherings, or for using letters such as “w,” “q,” or “x” to indicate a Kurdish spelling and that do not exist in the Turkish alphabet. The following cases are typical:
• On February 14 the Ankara Court of First Instance No. 3 sentenced four former and current HAK-PAR executives to one year’s imprisonment for sending invitation letters and making speeches in Kurdish during a party congress, in violation of the Law on Political Parties (articles 81/c and 117), and eight others to six-month sentences commuted to fines. Former party chair Abdülmelik Fýrat had his one-year prison sentence commuted to a 29,200 Turkish Lira (TL) (US$22,600) fine for reasons of his advanced age. The case is currently under appeal.
• On February 26 the Ankara Heavy Penal Court No. 9 sentenced Ahmet Türk and Ayþe Tuðluk, respectively president and vice-president of the DTP, to 18- month prison sentences for the offense of using Kurdish in a leaflet prepared by the DTP Women’s Wing on March 8, International Women’s Day. They were also punished for “publicly praising a crime or criminal” for statements in the leaflet relating to Abdullah Öcalan. On March 6 Ahmet Türk was again sentenced to a six-month suspended sentence for “publicly praising a crime or criminal” for referring to “Mr” Abdullah Öcalan. The cases are currently under appeal. Both Türk and Tuðluk also face numerous other ongoing prosecutions for similar offenses.
Police raids on the offices of some local branches of the DTP have only added to the pressure on the party. From late February to early March 2007 several DTP premises in a number of provinces were raided by the security forces. Documents and computers were seized, party members and executives were arbitrarily detained, and some were later charged with speech- and language-related offenses such as those mentioned above."
07.2007 - Source: Human Rights Watch
Pesecution of DTP members ("Human Rights Concerns in the Lead up to July Parliamentary Elections") [ID 24595]
"One entire elected DTP municipal administration, in the Sur district of Diyarbakýr, has paid a high price for its efforts begun in October 2006 to provide municipal services in other languages as well as Turkish after having surveyed the languages used by ist residents (which included Kurdish and Suryani). In a June 15 decision of the 8th Chamber of the Council of State (Daniþtay), after an investigation initiated by the Ministry of Interior, the democratically elected municipal council was dissolved and Mayor Abdullah Demirtaþ was removed from office on the grounds that the multilanguage provision policy violated the constitution. Demirtaþ is appealing that decision to a higher board in the Council of State (Danýþtay Ýdari Dava Daireleri Kurulu). Criminal proceedings against Demirtaþ and 20 other defendants were begun on June 2; they face prison sentences of up to three-and-one-half years if found guilty of having violated the constitution and the Law on the Acceptance andApplication of Turkish Letters (No. 1353).
Kurdish political activists charged with speech-related offenses have sometimes been detained pending trial. On February 23 Hilmi Aydoðdu, chair of Diyarbakýr DTP, was arrested and imprisoned in Diyarbakýr D-type prison for 41 days. He had made a statement opposing possible military intervention in northern Iraq by the Turkish Armed Forces and mentioned in particular the symbolic importance of Kirkuk. Released on bail at his first hearing on April 5, he is currently on trial for “inciting hatred and enmity among the population” (article 216/1 of the TPC) and faces a possible prison sentence of between one and three years.
Those charged with “knowingly and willingly aiding and abetting an illegal organization” (article 220/7 of the TPC) face the highest possible sentence for a speech-related offense. If convicted under article 220/7, a person is sentenced pursuant to article 314/2 of the TPC as if he or she were a member of an illegal organization, so the sentence is between five and 10 years. Fifty-six mayors (54 of them from the DTP) are currently standing trial for a letter they sent to Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen on December 27, 2005. The mayors urged the Danish authorities not to approve the Turkish government’s request to close down the Denmark-based satellite television channel Roj TV, arguing that the TV channel is a popular broadcaster of Kurdish language and cultural life. The mayors explicitly avoided commenting on the political line promoted by the television channel and the content of its broadcasts, but rather dwelt on the need for greater freedom of expression in Turkey. The mayors are being prosecuted under TPC articles 220/7, 314/2, and 314/3; they face prison sentences of between seven-and-a-half and 15 years if convicted."
07.06.2007 - Source: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Query response on situation and treatment of members, supporters and sympathisers of the Democratic Society Party (DTP) (2006 - 2007) ("Situation and treatment of members, supporters and sympathisers of the Democratic Society Party (DTP) (2006 - 2007) [TUR102514.E]") [ID 24502]
05.04.2007 - Source: EurasiaNet
With parliamentary elections approaching later in 2007, main pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP) beset by increasing pressure from both within and without; dozens of top leaders arrested and several offices raided in police crackdown ("Kurdish party experiences crackdown, mulls tactical changes ahead of election") [ID 19665]
10.10.2006 - Source: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights
Kurdish political party DEHAP dissolved itself in August 2005; it could also face formal closure for "use of prohibited languages in election activities" ("A Minority Policy of Systematic Negation") [ID 18284]
"DEHAP, foreseeing a closure as in the case of several similar parties in the past, dissolved itself in August 2005, and its members joined the successor Democratic Society Movement. Nevertheless, cases for a formal closure against the DEHAP and HAK-PAR are pending with the Constitutional Court under provisions of the constitution and the Law on Political Parties concerning the targeted parties’ suspected prohibited objectives of “creating minorities,” supporting illegal organizations, and the use of prohibited languages in election activities."
10.2005 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
Report on the status of DEHAP ("Country Report - October 2005") [#40563], [ID 13654]
for more detailed information seek out original document page 129
"6.233 In one news report of November 2002 the BBC noted that Dehap was a pro-Kurdish alliance between the People’s Democracy Party (Hadep), the Toil Party (Emep) and the Socialist Democracy Party (SDP). “It was formed partly to pre-empt moves by the courts to ban Hadep, which has been accused of having links to separatist Kurdish rebels of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). Emep and the SDP were also too weak to run for election independently…Dehap is popular in the mainly Kurdish south-east, and urban centres with many Kurdish migrants.” [66ar]
6.234 As recorded in the document ‘Political Structure of Turkey’ dated August 2005) available in the References section in the website of the Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information (website accessed on 5 September 2005) in the November 2002 elections the AKP and the Republican People’s Party (CHP) were the only two parties out of 18 to attain the 10% threshold required to enter parliament. DEHAP obtained 6.22% of the total votes. [36i]
6.235 The pro-Kurdish newspaper the Kurdistan Observer reported on 27 March 2003 that:
“The closing down of the Peoples Democracy Party (HADEP) by the Constitutional Court last week resulted only in a change of signboard. The banned party’s successor, the Democratic People’s Party (DEHAP) will move into HADEP’s headquarters building, whose signs were taken down a while ago. Some party members have taken seriously a lawsuit filed by the High Court of Appeals Chief Prosecutor Sabih Kanadoglu to close down DEHAP have already started working to form another party to take its place. Thirty-five mayors who belong to HADEP, six of them on the provincial level, transferred their party membership to DEHAP during a ceremony held in Ankara yesterday [26 March 2003].” 
6.236 The USSD 2004 noted that:
“The Government restricted the activities of some political parties and leaders, and sought to close the pro-Kurdish Democratic People’s Party (DEHAP)… Police detained dozens of members of the legal pro-Kurdish party DEHAP on several occasions… In May, SSCs in Van and Erzurum acquitted DEHAP President Tuncer Bakirhan on charges of separatism and spreading terrorist propaganda in public speeches. The courts determined that Bakirhan’s comments did not encourage violence and were within the realm of legally protected speech. In June, police detained and released DEHAP official Nedim Bicer for using the expression ‘sayin’ (‘esteemed’) in reference to Abdullah Ocalan during a May press conference.” [5c] (Introduction; Sections 1d & 2a)
6.237 The USSD 2004 further noted that:
“There were no new developments during the year  in the legal case seeking the closure of the pro-Kurdish DEHAP on charges of separatism… During the year, police raided dozens of DEHAP offices, particularly in the southeast, and detained hundreds of DEHAP officials and members. Jandarma and police regularly harassed DEHAP members, through verbal threats, arbitrary arrests at rallies, and detention at checkpoints. Security forces also regularly harassed villagers they believed were sympathetic to DEHAP.” [5c] (Section 3)
6.238 The USSD 2004 continued:
“Although security forces released most detainees within a short period, many faced trials, usually for supporting an illegal organization, inciting separatism, or for violations of the law. In January , an Erzurum prosecutor opened a case against DEHAP Chairman Tuncer Bakirhan on charges relating to a 2002 speech. A court convicted Bakirhan and sentenced him to 1 year in prison, but postponed the sentence. In February, the High Court of Appeals upheld the conviction of DEHAP Party Assembly member Abdulkerim Bingol on charges relating to a 2003 speech. Bingol began serving his 18-month prison sentence in April. In April, DEHAP official Giyasettin Torun claimed that Istanbul police kidnapped him, blindfolded him, and subjected him to threats and beatings for several hours before releasing him without charge. In June, a prosecutor in Van indicted local DEHAP Chairman Hasan Ozgunes, HRA official Zuleyha Cinarli, and 11 others on terrorism charges stemming from their participation in a press conference on the Kurdish problem and the prison conditions of jailed PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan. A court acquitted them in August. In December, a Bursa prosecutor opened a case against eight DEHAP members, including Murat Avci, head of the party branch in Bursa, in connection with slogans allegedly shouted at a DEHAP event in June.” [5c] (Section 3)"
18.05.2005 - Source: Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe
DEHAP ("Zur aktuellen Situation - Mai 2005 ") [#32420], [ID 13655]
"Mitglieder der pro-kurdischen Partei DEHAP (Demokratische Volkspartei), gegen die ein Verbotsverfahren läuft, werden regelmässig Opfer von Hausdurchsuchungen, verbalen Drohungen und willkürlichen Festnahmen. Es gibt auch Berichte von Entführungen. Betroffen von solchen Repressionen sind auch einfache Mitglieder und Mitglieder der DEHAP-Frauenkommission. Auch wenn auf die Festnahmen meistens eine rasche Freilassung erfolgt, kommt es öfters zu Gerichtsverfahren wegen «Zugehörigkeit zu oder Unterstützung einer illegalen Organisation», «Aufstachelung zu rassistischem, ethnischem oder religiösem Hass» oder der Verletzung des Demonstrationsgesetzes. Wie unter 5.4 ausgeführt, besteht vor allem im Zusammenhang mit Anschuldigungen betreffend der Zugehörigkeit oder Unterstützung einer illegalen Organisation ein erhöhtes Folterrisiko.
Alleine in den ersten beiden Monaten des Jahres 2005 zählte DEHAP die Eröffnung von 177 Ermittlungsverfahren und Prozesse gegen ihre Mitglieder und die Leitung. Die Gerichtsverfahren gegen Vorstandsmitglieder aber auch gegen einfache Mitglieder enden nicht immer mit Freisprüchen, sondern auch mit Verurteilungen zu hohen Bussen oder mehrmonatigen, je nach Delikt, mehrjährigen Haftstrafen.
Mitglieder des Jugendflügels der DEHAP werden wiederholt festgenommen, beispielsweise beim Verteilen von Flugblättern, dem Aufhängen von Plakaten oder der Teilnahme an Demonstrationen. Regelmässig werden sie dabei beschuldigt, «Mitglieder einer illegalen Organisation» zu sein. Auch Personen, die verdächtigt werden, Sympathisanten der DEHAP zu sein, müssen mit Schikanen durch die Sicherheitskräfte rechnen.
Im Gefolge der verstärkten nationalistischen Aufwallungen wurden in verschiedenen Städten die Büros der DEHAP angegriffen. Unabhängig davon werden besonders die DEHAP-Büros im Südosten öfters von der Polizei durchsucht.
Im Berichtszeitraum kam es noch vereinzelt zu Verfahren gegen Führungsmitglieder der im März 2003 verbotenen Vorgängerpartei der DEHAP, der HADEP (Demokratische Partei des Volkes). Die Verfahren fanden wegen Vorfällen statt, die sich vor dem Verbot der Partei ereignet haben. Die verhängten Haftstrafen wurden in Bussen umgewandelt und ausgesetzt."
07.11.2003 - Source: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights
Report focused on torture and inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment in selected Osce states ("Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment") [#17377], [ID 13656]
"• On 7 February 2003 the police detained two members of the youth section of the banned People’s Democracy Party (HADEP) in the Bahcelievler district. According to the testimony of one of the young men, a 17-year old, they were taken to a police station and interrogated about who had been spreading propaganda for the PRO-Kurdish KADEK organization. The police fooled the young man to testify against his friend by promising him that they both would be acquitted for lack of evidence if they testified against each other. Afterwards, he was released because he was under age. His friend was remanded and tortured while in detention, according to his lawyer. The police tried to force him to become an informer, and as he refused, he was stripped naked, subjected to a “Palestinian hanger”, hosed with pressurised water, and sexually assaulted. [...]
• On the morning of 14 June 2003, an executive for DEHAP Women’s Wing in Istanbul Province, Gülbahar Gündüz, was abducted by four persons who identified themselves as police officers. She was forced into a car and taken to an unidentified place where she was brought into a small room where the perpetrators intimidated her, hit her with a hard object, forced their penises into her mouth and extinguished cigarettes in her face. She was released later on the same day. A medical report from Haseki Hospital confirmed wounds on her back, both calves and the left side of her neck and stated that she should be examined by forensic medical specialists to verify the rape. 91 On 20 October, the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey reported that the Istanbul Security Directorate had terminated the investigations into the case on the grounds that “no police officer had been found to take the position of a defendant.”"
06.11.2003 - Source: Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe
Groups at risk (e.g. members of opposition parties, human rights activists, certain groups of women); inadequate implementation of political reforms (German) ("Asylsuchende aus der Türkei - Position der SFH") [#17802], [ID 13657]
"Einer asylrelevanten Verfolgung können insbesondere Personen unterliegen, für die es aufgrund der mangelnden Umsetzung der Reformen im Menschenrechtsbereich, vor allem aber aufgrund des landesweiten Einflusses der unabhängig von der Reformpolitik agierenden Sicherheitsdienste samt deren informellen Netzwerken keine sichere interne Fluchtalternative gibt.
1.1 Mitglieder der Parteien HADEP und DEHAP sowie deren Organisationen
Am 13. März 2003 hat das türkische Verfassungsgericht die HADEP (kurdische Demokratische Volkspartei) verboten. Ein Verbotsverfahren gegen die DEHAP (Demokratischen Volkspartei der Türkei) steht aus. Führende und aktive Mitglieder beider Parteien sowie von deren Frauen- und Jugendorganisationen müssen mit Repressionen (Drohungen, Verhaftungen, Anklagen, Geldstrafen, Berufsverbot) sowie psychischer und zum Teil sogar physischer Folter rechnen. Die einfache Mitgliedschaft bei der HADEP/DEHAP führt in der Regel nur dann zu Verfolgung, wenn sie mit anderen Faktoren wie einer Verurteilung wegen Zugehörigkeit zu einer illegalen Organisation in der Vergangenheit, einer wichtigen sozialen Position, Reflexverfolgung usw. verknüpft ist. [...]
ExilaktivistInnen, die im Ausland von der türkischen Regierung überwacht werden und in die Türkei einreisen, müssen mit Verhaftungen rechnen. Zu prüfen ist, ob ausschliesslich subjektive Nachfluchtgründe vorliegen."
21.06.2003 - Source: Schweizerische Flüchtlingshilfe
Führende und besonders aktive ordentliche HADEP- und DEHAP-Mitglieder sind in den letzten 12 Monaten ständigen Menschenrechtsverletzungen ausgesetzt gewesen ("Zur aktuellen Situation - Juni 2003 ") [#14557], [ID 13658]
"Führende und besonders aktive ordentliche HADEP- und DEHAP-Mitglieder sind auch in den letzten zwölf Monaten ständigen Menschenrechtsverletzungen ausgesetzt gewesen. Ganz besonders gefährdet sind aktive Mitglieder der Jugendorganisationen der HADEP bzw. DEHAP, weil diese seit der Verhaftung von Abdullah Öcalan die grossen Kampagnen der HADEP/DEHAP organisieren und sich dabei sehr engagiert haben. Deshalb sind die "Themenkampagnen" regelmässig von starker Repression gegen die Jugendorganisationen begleitet. Dies war der Fall bei den Kampagnen gegen die Verhaftung von Abdullah Öcalan, zu Gunsten der Einführung von Kurdischunterricht an öffentlichen Schulen und Universitä-ten, zu Gunsten des Friedens usw. Tausende von Personen, darunter zahlreiche Mitglieder der Jugendorganisationen der HADEP, wurden wegen der von ihnen eingereichten Petitio-nen verhaftet. Es konnte beobachtet werden, dass Mitglieder der Jugendorganisationen der HADEP sehr oft gefoltert und angeklagt wurden, eine führende Rolle bei der Durchführung dieser Kampagne gespielt und dies im Namen der KADEK gemacht zu haben.
Den Mitgliedern der Jugendorganisationen wird nicht selten vorgeworfen, direkte Kontakte mit der KADEK zu unterhalten und auf deren Anweisungen hin zu handeln, also gewisser-massen der legale Arm der KADEK zu sein – ein Vorwurf, der auch im Schliessungsverfah-ren gegen die HADEP erhoben worden ist.
Auf der staatlichen Internetseite www.pkkgercegi.net (PKK-Realität) wurde am 28. Mai 2003 gemeldet, dass anlässlich einer Durchsuchung im Gefängnis von Ümraniye in den Effekten eines führenden PKK-Mitglieds ein neunseitiges Schreiben gefunden worden sei, in wel-chem aufgeführt werde, was die HADEP bis anhin gemacht habe und in Zukunft noch ma-chen müsse. Im Schreiben sei erwähnt, dass die Zusammenarbeit zwischen der HADEP und der PKK verstärkt und ihr Beitrag am nationalen Befreiungskampf erhöht werden müsse. Die HADEP sei ein Mittel dieses Befreiungskampfes.
Diese Meldung zeigt, dass der Staat mit allen Mitteln versucht, die HADEP als legalen Flü-gel der PKK zu präsentieren.
Eine weitere Unterorganisation der HADEP, deren Mitglieder ebenfalls erhöhter Repression ausgesetzt sind, ist die Frauenkommission. Dies hängt wohl mit der Tatsache zusammen, dass sie Frauen unterstützt, die Opfer von Menschenrechtsverletzungen geworden sind. Zudem haben sich die Frauen immer sehr aktiv an den landesweiten Kampagnen beteiligt und auch während der Wahlen eine wichtige Rolle gespielt.
Vor den Parlamentswahlen vom November 2003 wurde die HADEP starkem Druck ausge-setzt. Sie wurde mit ihrer Schliessung bedroht. Dies war der Grund dafür, dass sie ihre Wahllisten zurückzog und sich ihre KandidatInnen auf den Listen der DEHAP einschrieben. Murat Bozlak, der damalige Vorsitzende der HADEP, wurde wegen einer Gefängnisstrafe für ein Gewissensdelikt von den Wahlen ausgeschlossen. KandidatInnen der DEHAP konnten ihren Wahlkampf im Vergleich mit den Wahlen von 1999 zwar wesentlich freier durchführen, doch gab es auch dieses Mal vereinzelte Klagen über Kurzinhaftierungen. Es wurden auch Drohungen gegenüber DorfbewohnerInnen durch die Gendarmerie bekannt, für den Fall, dass DEHAP gewählt würde.
Am 13. März 2003 hat das türkische Verfassungsgericht die HADEP verboten. Der Präsi-dent des Verfassungsgerichts erklärte, die HADEP sei zu einem Zentrum von Aktionen zur Unterstützung der verbotenen kurdischen Arbeiterpartei PKK und gegen die Einheit des Landes geworden. Der ehemalige Vorsitzende der HADEP, Murat Bozlak, und 46 weitere führende HADEP-Mitglieder wurden für die kommenden fünf Jahre mit einem Politikverbot belegt, und das Parteivermögen wurde beschlagnahmt.
Sofort nach dem Verbot der HADEP beantragte Staatsanwalt Sabih Kanadoglu auch ein Verbot der DEHAP. Er wirft der Partei vor, bei den letzten Parlamentswahlen falsche Anga-ben gemacht zu haben. Der gleiche Vorwurf war bereits kurz vor den Wahlen erhoben wor-den. Dennoch hat die Wahlkommission den Ausschluss der DEHAP damals abgelehnt. Die DEHAP wurde bereits am 15. Dezember 1999 im Hinblick auf eine eventuelle spätere Schliessung der HADEP gegründet.
Laut dem Jahresbericht der Türkischen Menschenrechtsstiftung (TIHV) wurden im Jahre 2002 3468 führende Parteimitglieder der HADEP verhaftet und 55 HADEP-Büros durch-sucht. Die TIHV stellt in ihrem Bericht fest, dass die Repression der HADEP gegenüber nicht abgenommen habe. Es wurde in dieser Zeit auch immer wieder über Folter an HADEP-AktivistInnen berichtet.
In Ankara wurden 18 führende Mitglieder der HADEP wegen Unterstützung einer illegalen Vereinigung angeklagt, weil am Kongress der Jugendorganisation vom 15. Oktober 2002 Parolen gerufen und eine Botschaft von Abdullah Öcalan verlesen worden ist. In Siirt wur-den der ehemalige Provinzvorsitzende der HADEP sowie fünf führende Mitglieder der Partei zu je 73 Tagen Gefängnis und einer Geldstrafe verurteilt, weil sie am 8. März ohne Erlaub-nis Spruchbänder mit der Aufschrift "Frauen gemeinsam für eine demokratische Gesell-schaft und ein freies Zusammensein" aufgehängt haben.
Abschliessend ist zu sagen, dass die einfache Mitgliedschaft bei der HADEP/DEHAP in der Regel nur dann zu Verfolgung führen kann, wenn sie mit anderen Faktoren wie einer Verur-teilung wegen Zugehörigkeit zu einer illegalen Organisation in der Vergangenheit, einer wichtigen sozialen Position, Reflexverfolgung usw. verknüpft ist. Die aktive Mitgliedschaft bei der Jugendgruppe und bei der Frauengruppe ist aus den oben erwähnten Gründen be-sonders riskant. Die Schliessung der HADEP ist kein zusätzlicher Verfolgungsgrund für or-dentliche Mitglieder.
Am 14. Juni 2003 wurde Frau Gülbahar Gündüz, Vorstandsmitglied der Frauengruppe der DEHAP, in Istanbul morgens um 9.00 Uhr auf offener Strasse von vier sich als Polizisten ausgebenden Männern entführt und an einen unbekannten Ort gebracht, wo sie sexuell missbraucht worden ist. Frau Gündüz hat bereits zuvor Drohungen erhalten, sie solle ihre politische Arbeit zu Gunsten einer Generalamnestie einstellen."