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SUDAN

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08.03.2006 - Source: US Department of State

Political Participation ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005") [#46041][ID 12098]

"The president appointed the governors and senior officials of the 26 states in the country's federal system. These appointees were not necessarily representative of their constituencies.

Women had the right to vote. There were approximately 70 women in the 450-person National Assembly, 3 national women state ministers and 1 woman minister in the GNU.

As provided by the CPA, southerners hold 28 percent of the government seats."

Document(s): Open document

08.03.2006 - Source: US Department of State

Areas, controlled by the government or the National Democratic Alliance ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005") [#46041][ID 12099]

"The government controlled the country's urban areas, although the South was in transition with the major cities reverting to Government of South Sudan control after the 21-year civil war. In the West the government controlled the major towns; however, the rebel forces at times controlled the rural areas. In the East the government controlled the major cities; however, the National Democratic Alliance, an opposition movement, controlled the Hamesh Koreib enclave in the East."

Document(s): Open document

08.03.2006 - Source: US Department of State

Sudan: Short overview ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005") [#46041][ID 12100]

"Sudan, with a population of 40.2 million, has an authoritarian government in which President Omar Hassan al‑Bashir and the National Congress Party (NCP) inner circle hold all effective political power. In 2000 Bashir was reelected, and his political party won 340 out of 360 seats in the parliament in deeply flawed elections boycotted by all major opposition parties. The country experienced serious and violent ethnic and religious conflict, including a rebellion in the South led by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and a rebellion in Darfur led by the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). On January 9, the government and the SPLM signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that gave the SPLM representation in the government. The parties adopted a constitution in July, and in September they installed a government of National Unity (GNU) to serve until elections are held in 2009. The state of emergency was lifted on July 9. The government generally maintained effective control over the security forces."

Document(s): Open document

01.2006 - Source: Human Rights Watch

International policy vacillated between condemnation and appeasement ("World Report 2006") [#42306][ID 15618]

"Throughout 2005, international policy towards Sudan vacillated between condemnation and appeasement. This reflected the varying interests at stake, such as the implementation of the northsouthern peace agreement, ending the atrocities in Darfur, and even regional counterterrorism efforts. The U.S. government was a prime example of this policy schizophrenia. U.S. officials vociferously condemn the continuing attacks, but the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency invited Sudanese security chief Salah Ghosh, a likely indictee before the ICC for war crimes committed in Darfur, to Washington in April 2005 to discuss Sudanese-U.S. counterterrorism interests."

Document(s): Open document

01.2006 - Source: Human Rights Watch

Divided interests regarding the country within the United Nations Security Council ("World Report 2006") [#42306][ID 15619]

"Divided interests regarding Sudan were prevalent not just bilaterally among western governments, but also within the United Nations Security Council. The single most important achievement of the Security Council was the historic referral of Darfur to the ICC on March 31, 2005. In June the ICC announced that it would investigate the crimes in Darfur. In a second March 2005 resolution, the Security Council established a sanctions committee to identify individuals who violated an arms embargo on Darfur and who committed abuses; the sanctions would not apply retroactively. Despite the continuing abuses in Darfur throughout 2005, however, the Security Council was prevented from enacting stiffer sanctions due to resistance from China and Russia, two of its five permanent members. In November Sudanese authorities roughed up two visiting members of the sanctions committees’ panel of experts."

Document(s): Open document

01.2006 - Source: Human Rights Watch

African Union played a prominent role in Darfur despite unsuccessful efforts at mediating peace talks ("World Report 2006") [#42306][ID 15620]

"The African Union played an increasingly prominent role in Darfur. In April 2005 the AU requested, and the Sudanese government agreed, to a further deployment to total 7,700 military and police for AMIS’ expanded mission. Donors pledged U.S. $291 million for the project, including logistical assistance for this deployment from NATO, the E.U., the U.N., the U.K., the U.S., Canada, France and others. AMIS’ peace support efforts in Darfur had mixed results. Although AMIS troops contributed to some measure of improved security and civilian protection in those areas where they were deployed, the mission was plagued by continuing logistical and financial problems. The AU’s efforts at mediating peace talks on Darfur were not as successful; sharp leadership clashes within the SLA, which had the most forces in the field of all the rebel groups, left the group unable to make decisions at the negotiating table."

Document(s): Open document

28.02.2005 - Source: US Department of State

Overview of political system ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2004") [#29477][ID 12101]

"Sudan has an authoritarian government in which all effective political power lies in the hands of President Omar Hassan al Bashir and the National Congress (NC) Party inner circle, who have been in power since a 1989 military coup instigated and supported by the fundamentalist National Islamic Front (NIF). In 1999, Bashir broke with the ideological leader of the NIF, Hassan al Turabi, disbanded Parliament, suspended parts of the Constitution, and declared a state of national emergency that abrogated basic liberties and remained in effect at year's end. In 2000, Bashir was reelected, and his NC/NIF political party won 340 out of 360 seats in the Parliament in deeply flawed elections boycotted by all major opposition parties. NC/NIF members and supporters continued to hold key positions in the Government, security forces, judiciary, academic institutions, trade unions, professional associations, and the media. The judiciary was not independent and was subject to outside influence from the executive and security forces."

Document(s): Open document

10.2004 - Source: UK Home Office

Administrative divisions ("Sudan Country Report - October 2004") [#26961][ID 12103]

"Europa 2004 recorded that the country is administratively divided into 26 states which all have governors appointed by the president. [1] (p1065, 1081)

The names of the 26 states are:

Al-Buhayrat [Lakes] (s)
Bahr al-Jabal (s)
Blue Nile
Eastern Equatoria (s)
Gadarif
Gezira
Jonglei (s)
Kassala
Khartoum
Northern
Northern Bahr al-Ghazal (s)
Northern Darfur
Northern Kordofan
Red Sea
River Nile
Sennar
Southern Darfur
Southern Kordofan
Upper Nile (s)
Wahdah [Unity] (s)
Warab (s)
Western Bahr al-Ghazal (s)
Western Darfur
Western Equatoria (s)
Western Kordofan
White Nile [...]

MEDEA's May 2004 Report recorded that "In the areas under its control, the SPLM/A does not recognize the Government's administrative division into States and has introduced its own administrative structure, based on Regions, Counties, Localities (payams) and Villages (bomas).""

Document(s): Report

03.2003 - Source: US Department of State

Structure of regional administration ("03.2003 - US Department of State Background Note Sudan") [ID 12102]

"From 1983 to 1997, the Sudan was divided into five regions in the north and three in the south, each headed by a military governor. After the 1985 coup, regional assemblies were suspended. The RCC was abolished in 1996, and the ruling National Islamic Front changed its name to the National Congress Party. After 1997, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of 26 states. The executives, cabinets, and senior-level state officials are appointed by the president and their limited budgets are determined by and dispensed from Khartoum. The states, as a result, remain economically dependent upon the central government. Khartoum state, comprising the capital and outlying districts, is administered by a governor."

Document(s): 03.2003 - US Department of State Background Note Sudan