- Current Issues
- Country Background, Politics & Law
- Human Rights Issues
- Security, Humanitarian Issues and Protection Related Issues
- Conflict Regions
|Government and Parliament||Political parties|
08.03.2006 - Source: US Department of State
Conditions of work in 2006 ("Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005") [#46041], [ID 19863]
"The minimum wage was $48 (SDD 12,500) per month, which did not provide a worker and family a decent standard of living. The Ministry of Labor, which maintained field offices in most major cities, was responsible for enforcing the minimum wage, which employers generally respected. Workers who were denied the minimum wage could file a grievance with the local labor ministry field office, which then was required to investigate and take appropriate action. There were reports that some workers, including postal and health workers, were not paid their regular wages. Due to a lack of capacity and difficulties in establishing the new government in the south, civil service workers, including teachers, often worked for long periods without getting paid. The only payment many teachers received were informal school fees paid by the parents of the children. Legal foreign workers had the same labor rights as domestic workers. Southern IDPs generally occupied the lowest paying occupations and were subject to economic exploitation in rural and urban industries and activities. The law, which was generally respected, limits the workweek to 48 hours (six eight-hour days), with a day of rest on Friday. Overtime should not exceed 12 hours per week or four hours per day. There was no prohibition on excessive compulsory overtime. Although the laws prescribe health and safety standards, working conditions generally were poor, and enforcement by the Ministry of Labor was minimal. The right of workers to remove themselves from dangerous work situations without loss of employment is not recognized."
25.02.2004 - Source: US Department of State
Country's economy affected by civil war, destruction of infrastructure, economic mismanagement and high number of displaced persons and refugees ("Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2003") [#19848], [ID 12083]
"The country's mostly agricultural economy continued to be crippled by the civil war, destruction of infrastructure, economic mismanagement, and the existence of more than 4 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees in a country of an estimated 30 million persons. The infusion of Islamic banking and financial assets as well as increased revenue from oil production injected new capital into some sectors of the economy; however, corruption, mismanagement, and increasing military expenditures limited the impact. The country continued taking some steps towards transitioning from a socialist to a market-based economy; however, the Government and NC supporters remained heavily involved in the economy. The Government took important steps to reform its finance and foreign exchange systems. Approximately 86 percent of the labor force was engaged in agriculture."
10.2003 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
The economy of Sudan ("Country Report - October 2003") [#17341], [ID 12084]
"3.1 Sudan's primary resources are agricultural but oil production and export have taken on greater importance since October 2000. As a result of oil export earnings of around US$500 million in 2000-1, Sudan's current account entered surplus for the first time since independence. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and gum Arabic remain its major agricultural exports and exports other than oil are largely stagnant. Sudan remains a net importer of food.
3.2 The transport system is underdeveloped and is a serious constraint on economic growth. The country's vast area and the availability of only one major outlet to the sea, Port Sudan, place a heavy burden on limited facilities, especially on the government-owned Sudan Railways and on the road network. The government-owned Sudan Airways airline operates domestic and international services from Sudan's main airport at Khartoum. There are several smaller airports; the most important of which are those at Al-Ubayyid and Port Sudan . An oil pipeline goes from the oil fields in the south via the Nuba Mountains and Khartoum to the oil export terminal in Port Sudan on the Red Sea.
3.3 In 1993, currency controls were imposed, making it illegal to possess foreign exchange without approval. In 1999, liberalisation of foreign exchange markets ameliorated this constraint to a degree. Spending for the civil war continues to pre-empt other social investments and Sudan's inadequate and declining infrastructure inhibits economic growth. The national currency is the dinar (1 dinar = 100 piastres) . According to the World Bank, in 2002 Sudan's gross national income per capita was US$390 although this may not be an accurate reflection of the actual income of the majority of Sudanese."
03.2003 - Source: US Department of State
Background note on Sudan - Economy ("US State Department: Background note on Sudan - Economy") [ID 12085]
"GDP (2000 est.): $11 billion.
GDP annual growth rate (2001 est.): 6%.
Per capita income GDP (2001 est.): $300.
Avg. annual inflation rate (2001 est.): 13%.
Natural resources: modest reserves of oil, natural gas, gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals.
Agriculture (40% of GNP): Products--cotton, peanuts, sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, livestock.
Industry: Types-- motor vehicle assembly, cement, cotton, edible oils and sugar refining.
Trade (2000 est.): Exports--$1.8 billion: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, gold, sorghum, peanuts, gum arabic, sugar, meat, hides, live animals, and sesame seeds.Major markets-- Egypt, Persian Gulf states, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, China, South Korea. Imports--$1.5 billion: oil and petroleum products, oil pipeline, pumping and refining equipment, chemical products and equipment, wheat and wheat flour, transport equipment, food stuffs, tea, agricultural inputs and machinery, industrial inputs and manufactured goods. Major suppliers--European Union, China, Malaysia, Canada, England, Italy, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the Gulf states. Fiscal year: July 1-June 30."
03.04.2002 - Source: International Crisis Group
Gradual deterioration of economy in the North ("Capturing the moment: Sudan`s peace process in the balance") [#6388], [ID 12086]
"B. GRADUAL DETERIORATION IN THE NORTH
Despite maintaining nearly 6 per cent GDP growth in 2001,24 Sudan’s economic and fiscal problems continue to mount. Rural to urban migration is accelerating, clogging Khartoum and other large cities. After huge increases in military spending and deterioration in the agricultural sector, corruption is eating away at the remaining budget, leaving little money for investment. “Corruption is siphoning off the promised benefits of development and reconstruction”, charged one diplomat.25
Unemployment among university graduates is upwards of 70 per cent, loans for small businesses are extremely hard to secure, medicine and medical services are increasingly expensive or scarce, some civil servants and pensioners have not been paid in parts of the country for months, and schools have
been closed in many areas for equally long periods because teachers have also not been paid. Educated people are increasingly emigrating from Sudan, worsening the brain drain.26 Though trade
unions are controlled by the government, they are intensifying agitation on behalf of their hardpressed
Massive external debt (currently $21 billion27) limits the economic growth Sudan can achieve. As long as the civil war persists, Sudan will fall outside the criteria for the World Bank and International Monetary Fund’s Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative and so not benefit from debt relief. Yet, the government may calculate that it can live with this debt problem over the short term because of its oil and improved economic relations with EU countries.28 In 2001, oil production averaged 230,000 barrels/day (b/d). According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, this will increase to almost 300,000 b/d by 2003 and boost export earnings to $1.9 billion, its highest level ever and over 200 per cent greater than in 1998.29 In January 2002, Sudan signed a $200 million agreement with the Russian company, Slavneft, for oil and gas exploration in a 126,000 square kilometre-area in north-central Sudan. If significant oil deposits are found, this could reduce pressure to exploit the southern fields."