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10.2003 - Source: UK Border Agency (Home Office)
History of Sudan - from colonial rule 1820 to 2003 ("Country Report - October 2003") [#17341], [ID 12079]
"1820 - 1956: From Colonial Rule to Independence
4.1 Sudan was a collection of small, independent kingdoms and principalities from the beginning of the Christian era until 1820-1, when Egypt conquered and unified the northern part of the country. Although Egypt claimed all of present Sudan during most of the 19th century, it was unable to establish effective control over southern Sudan, which remained an area of fragmented tribes subject to frequent attacks by slave raiders. In 1881, a religious leader called Muhammad ibn Abdallah proclaimed himself the Mahdi (“the expected one”) and began a religious crusade to unify the tribes in western and central Sudan. His followers took the name “Ansars” (the followers) which they continue to use up to the present day. The Ansars are associated with the single largest political party, the Umma Party, led by one of the Mahdi's descendants, Sadiq al-Mahdi. Taking advantage of conditions resulting from Ottoman-Egyptian exploitation and maladministration, the Mahdi led a nationalist revolt culminating in the fall of Khartoum in 1885. The Mahdi died shortly afterwards but his state survived until overwhelmed by an Anglo-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener in 1898. Sudan was placed under an Anglo-Egyptian administration in 1899 following the defeat of the Mahdist forces[...]
1956 - 1969: From Coalition Governments to the Nimeri Regime
4.3 The Arab-led government reneged on promises to southerners to create a federal system of government, which led to a mutiny by southern army officers that sparked 17 years of civil war (1955 -72). The National Unionist Party, under Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari, dominated the first cabinet, which was soon replaced by a coalition of conservative political forces. In 1958, following a period of economic difficulties and political manoeuvering that paralysed the government administration, Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Ibrahm Abboud overthrew the parliamentary regime in a bloodless coup. Gen. Abboud did not carry out his promises to return Sudan to civilian government, however, and popular resentment against military rule led to a wave of riots and strikes in October 1964 that forced the military to relinquish power [...]
1969 - 1986: The Nimeri Regime
4.5 Nimeri's first two years in power were characterised by the adoption of socialist policies and the forging of an alliance between the new military leadership and the Communist Party. The foundations for a one-party state were laid with the formation of the Sudanese Socialist Union and the country was renamed the Democratic Republic of Sudan. In November 1970, Presidents Nimeri, Qaddafi and Sadat decided to unite Sudan, Libya and Egypt as a single state, which was unacceptable to the Communist Party, which staged a military coup. The coup was led by Major Hashim al-Ata, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of Nimeri in July 1971. With popular support, however, Nimeri was restored to power. A purge of communists followed and 14 people were executed [...]
1988 - 2000: The Al-Bashir Regime
4.8 Peace negotiations between the government and the SPLM began in Ethiopia in April 1988 but by mid-June, they were deadlocked. During 1988, reports of human rights abuses increased, particularly concerning the war zone. In late 1988, there were signs of widespread discontent in the army concerning the government's continuing lack of progress in resolving the civil war. A coup by supporters of ex-president Nimeri was foiled in December 1988. On 30 June 1989, a bloodless coup, led by Brigadier Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (later to become Lt. General) removed al-Mahdi's Government and formed a 15-member Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC). The RCC declared its primary aim was to resolve the civil war. A state of emergency was declared and President al-Bashir proceeded to dismantle the civilian ruling apparatus, the constitution and the National Assembly. All trade unions and political parties were abolished. Civilian newspapers were closed down. Several attempts to negotiate a peace settlement to the civil war failed, mainly over the issue of Shari'a . On 16 October 1993, the RCC was disbanded having appointed al-Bashir as President and head of a new civilian administration [...]
Events of 2001 - 2003 (See paragraphs 4.14-4.22)"
12.2002 - Source: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
Historical and political background ("Sudan annual report 2002") [#11173], [ID 12080]
Please see document for full article (6 pages)
"1.2 HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL BACKGROUND
The area now known as Sudan has existed in various forms throughout the centuries.
Sudan is said to be the area referred to as Cush in the Old Testament. 6 In addition, the
New Testament term for Ethiopia is also thought to refer to Sudan, since the eunuch
converted by the Apostle Philip in Chapter 8 of the book of Acts7 was courtier to a Queen
Candace, and at that time the Nub ian Kingdom of Cush was ruled by a series of Queens
known by the title Kandake.
For 1000 years Christianity predominated in Northern Sudan, and from the sixth century
to the fifteenth century it was the official religion of the three Sudanese kingdoms of
Nubia, Alwa, and Makuria (later Dotawo).
For 900 years the Christian Kingdoms resisted the southward expansion of Muslim
forces, which saw the Kingdoms as gateways to a rich source of slaves in southern
Africa. Eventually the Kingdoms co-existed with Muslim neighbours under an
agreement known as the Baqt, which involved supplying a requisite number of slaves per
year in exchange for peace. However, the end of the Middle Ages saw the decline of the
Christian Kingdoms and the emergence of Islamic Sultanates such as those of Funj and
Sudan continued to be a collection of small independent states until 1821, when a Turco-
Egyptian force conquered and unified the north. Egypt then laid claim to southern Sudan,
but was unable to establish effective control of the south, where the diverse, fragmented
tribes continued to suffer slave raiding.
During the scramble for Africa, the British, French and Belgians competed for southern
Sudan. In 1892, the French occupied Bahr el-Ghazal and Western Upper Nile up to
Fashoda (Kodok), and by 1896 they had established an administration there. France’s
attempt to link southern Sudan to its West African territory of Soudan (Mali, Senegal,
Niger, Chad Cameroon etc.) floundered as a result of the Fashoda Incident. The Belgians
occupied Western Equatoria up to Mongalla and established the "Lado Enclave" but
eventually handed the area over to Britain in 1910.
In 1881 a northern Sudanese religious leader rose up against the Turco-Egyptian rulers,
who had themselves become subject to British rule. Declaring himself Mahdi (the
expected one), Mohammed Ahmed ibn Abdullah led an insurrection that eventually
culminated in the fall of Khartoum to his forces (Al Ansar) and the death of General
Gordon. The Mahdi died 6 months later, but his state survived until it was overrun by an
Anglo-Egyptian force led by General Kitchener in 1899. The following year Sudan was
proclaimed a Condominium under joint Anglo- Egyptian administration.
In 1905 the colonial government divided the country into zones of religions influence.
The area north of the 10th parallel was put under Islamic influence Islam while in the
southern area British Missionary Societies, the "Austrian" Catholic Mission, and the
American Mission were each given a zone of influence.
06.2001 - Source: Minorities at Risk
University of Maryland - Minorities at Risk: Chronology of Sudan ("University of Maryland - Minorities at Risk: Chronology of Sudan") [ID 12081]
Library of Congress: Sudan - A country study ("Library of Congress: Sudan - A country study") [ID 12082]
Library of Congress: Sudan - A country study